Social Studies 10 European History

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Chapter 10- The High Middle Ages
I. Farming Improved and Trade Revived

A. Heavier plow that cut deep into the dirt

1. crops could be planted into deeper soil…creating larger harvests

B. Horse Power

1. Oxen were cheaper and easier to maintain, but slow

2. Team of horses could plow twice as much land in a day as oxen (oxen wore yokes to plow)

3. The Harness enabled farmers to use horses (yokes couldn’t be used; choked the horses)

4. W/ horses farmers could plow more land; leading farmers to cut away more of the forest and allowing farmers to farm more land, increasing production

C. Three-Field System

II. Towns

A. Due to the development in agriculture (heavy plow, horse harness, horse shoe, and 3 field system), greater amounts of food were available; allowing the population to increase; from 1000-1150, there was a 40% increase

B. Townspeople formed a new social class in Medieval Europe that was not directly part of the of the Feudal or Manor System; a new social and economic class

C. Fairs- religious festival that would bring pilgrims and others to the town; merchants would appear to sell their wears; 2 types of fairs:

1. local fair- neighboring manors would meet and trade

2. great fair- held certain times of the year; merchants from different nations would attend

III. Guilds

A. Guilds- a guild is an association of people who worked at the same occupation; 2 types

B. Merchant Guild- these were the first guilds to appear; they would meet to make rules and details for business. Members controlled all trade in their towns; a merchant could not sell goods, unless he was a member of the guild. Highly successful merchants usually became town leaders. (evolved into Chambers of Commerce)

C. Craft Guild- these were skilled artisans (i.e. shoemakers, wheelwrights, blacksmiths, glass blowers, wine makers, tailors, etc.) who would meet to make rules and details for their particular craft.

D. Guild Functions

1. enforced standards of quality

2. fixed prices based on cost of labor, materials, and a reasonable profit

3. dues paid funeral costs and aid to families in need

4. training new members ( you were only admitted to the guild of you are a master of the trade

a. apprentice- was a child whose parents paid a fee to a master to train the child in a particular craft; could take 3 to 12 years

b. journeyman- after your apprenticeship and before becoming a master; when you made an article well enough to qualify as a “master piece”, then you are considered a master

IV. Town Dwellers Won New Liberties

A. Towns provided an alternative to living on the manor for free peasants and even serfs

B. Serfs who lived a year and a day in a town were considered free men and were no longer bound to the land

C. Charters- documents signed and given by the king, giving the town independence from the rule of lords and the feudal system; see pg. 214

D. Life on a Manor was Harsh

1. Housing was often wet and cold w/ dirt floors and no heat

2. Many people, especially the peasants, suffered from constant hunger and sickness

3. Peasants (serfs) had to work 2 to 3 days a week on the Manor Lord’s land in addition to working their own fields

4. Peasants paid the brunt of the taxes

a. 6/10 sacks of grain went to pay taxes to the Church, Lord, etc.

b. 1/10 pigs would also go to the manor lord

E. Feudal Justice and Trial Decisions (much different from Roman Law and Justice system whish used trial by jury etc.)

1. Trial By Battle - the accused and the accuser, or men representing them, fought a duel. The outcome determined guilt or innocence (winner innocent, loser guilty)

2. Compurgation - or “oath-taking.” The accused and the accuser each gathered a group of people who swore that “their” man was telling the truth. The more people or more convincing people (especially people of high status) who effect the outcome.

a. NOTE: Compurgators are similar to character witnesses in today’s trials

3. Ordeals - the innocent man would be less hurt than another in a painful contest. Accused and/or accuser is put through an ordeal, usually involving a physical test of pain and survival, which would determine your guilt or innocence. Examples of ordeals were: carrying a piece of hot iron in hand, walk through fire, sticking hand in boiling water and grabbing a stone at the bottom of the container. After the ordeal (if you survived) the wounds or injuries would be judged of guilt or innocence, i.e. if wound heals quickly (innocent); if you are maimed or die (guilty).

V. Royal Governments Grew Stronger

A. Norman Conquerors Ruled England

1. A Norman Conquest

a. Intro: Anglo-Saxon king, Edward the Confessor (1042- 1065) died w/o an heir; Godwin of Essex’s son, Harold Godwinson, elected king by the nobles

b. Investiture of 1066:

i. Harold of Hardrode, King of Norway, coveted the English throne

ii. William, Duke of Normandy will also attempt to conquer England

iii. Harold and William chose the same time to invade. King Harold crushed the Scandinavians only to meet disaster in October 1066, at the Battle of Hastings ( where William’s Norman knights overpowered the Anglo-Saxons; Bayaeux Tapestry

c. William I (1066-1087)- Becomes king of England

i. all rights belonging to the Anglo-Saxon kings

ii. introduced feudalism to England

iii. kept 1/6 of all lands as the royal domain and gave the other fiefs to his Norman followers

iv. all sub-vassals owed first allegiance to the king (to tighten king’s control over everyone in his kingdom)

2. Henry I (1100-1135) and Henry II (1164-1189)

a. Formation of an Effective Central Administration

i. Intro: they replaced Trial by Ordeal w/ the concept of juries and federal judges

b. Henry I

i. Circuit Court System- sending itinerant judges at set intervals to shines throughout to shires throughout England to try cases

c. Henry II

i. common law- comparing notes of itinerant; judges were able to enact a common set of principles for judging cases

ii. jury systems- summoning groups of people to tell under oath what they knew about some matter of public interest

-by the 13th century, comparable groups of men known as Petit juries

began to be used to decide, on the basis of evidence presented before

them, the guilt or innocence of those accused of violating the law

iii. curia regis- (court of the king) feudal meetings of the kings’ lay and ecclesiastical vassals; they were expected to judge cases, and advise the ruler

iv. Henry II established the first of England’s great central courts, at Westminster, to handle many cases previously heard in the Curia Regis

v. As royal judicial activity increased, the king and his agents began to challenge the jurisdiction of the feudal, manorial, ecclesiastical, and town courts

vi. Constitution of Clarendom (1164)

-ordered clergymen accused of crimes to be tried in royal instead of ecclesiastical courts

-Thomas a Becket- resisted the attack on what he considered the Church’s liberty

-agents of the king murdered Thomas a Becket by a ‘misunderstanding’

B. Capetian Dynasty Ruled France

1. France’s noble want to maintain their feudal power and choose a weak king who poses little threat to their power

2. Hugh Capet (987-996) elected king in 987 by the French nobles

3. The Capetians only advantage was the location of their kingdom on the Seine River w/ Paris as a center of trade

4. Capetian Power will grow slowly outward from Paris over a 200 year period

VI. Germany

A. German kings failed to unite their Lands

1. Otto the Great (936-973)

a. attempted to revive Charlemagne’s empire: Holy Roman Empire ( title given by Pope John XIII

b. future German kings lost power to the nobles

2. Frederick Barbarosa

a. Frederick I

b. A strong German king who ruled the Holy Roman Empire

c. His attack on Italy led to the formation of the Lombard League

d. Defeated by the Lombard League at the Battle of Legnano (1st time heavy cavalry is defeated by footsoldiers; 1176)

3. Germany failed to unite in the Middle Ages

a. a system of electing kings kept the king weak and the nobles strong

b. German kings had few royal lands to use as a power base (i.e. Capetians had Paris and the surrounding area)

c. Trying to revive Charlemagne’s empire led to continual war w/ Italian cities and the Pope

VII. The First Crusade Won Jerusalem (1096-1099)

A. Most successful of all of the crusades

4 Christian Armies Gathered at Constantinople

Bohemond- Norman kingdom of Sicily

Godfrey- Vienna (Holy Roman Empire)

Raymond of Toulouse- Lyon (HRE)

Robert of Normandy- Normandy
B. 1099- Christians under leadership of Godfrey capture Jerusalem and created 4 feudal states

1. County of Edessa

2. Principality of Antioch

3. County of Tripoli

4. Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

C. Later Crusades Accomplished Little

1. Second Crusade (1147-1149)

2. Third Crusade, “King’s Crusade” (1189-1192)- Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Empire; King Philip Augustus, France; King Richard the Lionheart, England

a. 1192- Richard and Saladin agree to a truce; Christian pilgrims have free access to the holy city of Jerusalem

D. Summary: The crusades generated on interaction b/w the East and the West, which educated the Europeans to new ideas, products, and styles of life. The crusades extended European commercial power. In the end, no land was gained, and a bitter image of Westerners would remain in the east

VIII. Learning Revived and Spread

A. Learning Revived

1. Scholars Gathered at Universities

a. University of Paris and Oxford- Theology; University of Bologna- Law; University of Salerno- medicine

b. Scholars spoke Latin, allowed to attend at any age; off June to September for the Harvest and Planting season

2. Scholars Rediscovered writings

a. exposed to the lost western writings (Roman and Greek) through the Crusades

3. St. Thomas Aquinas (Born 1225, Italy)

a. Aquinas was a theologian and a philosopher who used Aristotle’s logic and reason to answer philosophical questions

b. His book Summa Theologiae (1267-1273)

c. Consisted of 21 volumes answering 631 Philosophical Questions

4. Poems praised knightly heroes , Chansons de Geste, “Song of Deeds” ( of the epic genre

a. “Song of Roland”, king Arthur and knights; Tristan and Isolde; ill-fated love

B. Knights Lived By a Code of Chivalry

1. Knight was expected to serve:

a. his feudal lord

b. his heavenly lord (God)

c. his Lord’s lady and any noble lady’s honor

d. the poor and the weak

2. Church legislation tried to limit warfare

a. “Peace of God”- Cluny monastery, you would be excommunicated if you waged a war that endangered churches, monasteries, clerics, pilgrims, merchants, peasants and women

b. “Truce of God”- 50 or 60 years later; no war from Sat. noon to Monday morning and on Holy Days

3. Knight’s Education

a. page

b. squire

c. knight

4. Tournaments: mock battles to test skills

C. The Idea of Romantic Love Started

1. Troubadors- wandering minstrels who poetically sang about kings and their noble ladies “The Lyric”

2. Eleanor of Aquitaine was the most celebrated woman of her time

3. Women’s roles changed; they became less powerful and subject to men’s adoration and care

Chapter 11- The Origin of the European Nations

I. England and France Develop as Nations

A. England’s king lost the French lands

1. Intro: Henry II (1154-1189) inherited more than half of France from his great-grandfather, William of Normandy. He added lands on southern France by marrying Eleanor of Aquitane; finally, Henry II defeated King Louis VII of France, acquiring more lands

2. Richard I (Lionheart)- (1189-1199)

a. he ruled for only 10 years, he led the 3rd crusade (king’s crusade ( along w/ Barborossa of Germany & Philip II of France) and was able to hold on to his French lands

3. John (1199-1216)

a. politically able but was a complete failure as a military leader

b. Philip II- Philip Augustus of France

i. for years watched as Henry II defeated his father Louis VII and he vowed he would avenge his father

ii. became king in 1180 at age of 15

4. Philip regains control of French lands

a. 1204 ( Philip regains control of Normandy, and by the end of reign he restored almost all of English held land in France to French control

B. The Barons Rebelled Against King John

1. Intro: “John’s losses were England’s gains”

2. John vs. Pope Innocent III

a. Innocent III excommunicated John and put England under interdict (excluding a person or area from participation in the sacraments)

b. John gives in ( becomes a vassal of the pope

3. Inordinate fiscal demands on his subjects; “high taxes”

4. As a result of John’s tyrannical actions, the great nobles and the clergy of England came together to organize a rebellion in 1214

C. The Magna Carta Limited Royal Power

1. Intro: John meets nobles at Runnymeade; 4 days later, on June 15, 1215, John signed the Magna Carta

2. Guarantee of Basic Rights

a. contained 63 clauses meant to protect the Barons from unjust taxes and to safeguard their Feudal rights and privileges

b. Clause 12 ( can’t demand taxes “No taxation w/o representation”

c. Clause 39 ( “due process”; had right to jury, fair trial

d. Summary: The Magna Carta limited the king’s trading power, taxes could be levied only w/ the consent of the Great Councils of nobles, established free trade for merchants throughout England, provided trial by jury of equals for all freemen, prohibited the buying and selling of justice

3. The idea of Limited Monarchy

a. principle established that the king was not above the law, but had to obey it just like his subjects

D. Parliament Became Part of English Government

1. King Edward I (1272-1317); grandson of John

a. Edward regains power and control of England from the nobles. He recognized that he could use the growing middle class, burghers, to raise taxes and therefore could not be dependant on the nobles for revenue

b. Edward I was the first king to see advantages of including townspeople in the meeting of the kings’ “Great Councils”

2. Model Parliament

a. 1295 Edward I needed additional taxes for a war w/ France; he needed support of all influential people (barons, knights, bishops, and for the first time, commoners)

b. Edward calls 2 burgesses from every borough, and 2 knights from every country

c. November, 1296, Model Parliament met; Knights, Burgesses, Bishops and lords all met at Westminster eventually become:

i. Knights + Burgesses ( House of Commoners

ii. Nobles + Bishops ( House of Lords

3. The Strength of Parliament

a. a national assembly that generally put their loyalty to England ahead of local ties

E. Philip Augustus (1180-1223)

1. Philip seized the English-held lands in France while Richard I was on Crusade. When the last Capetian king dies in 1328; the only lands held by the English in France were Aquitaine and Gascony in the Southeast

2. Philip Augustus used trained officials in govt.; not feudal lords

a. Sent out inspectors form middle-class who reported to the King’s Council; which conducted govt. affairs (called bailiffs)

b. Chamber of Accounts collected and supervised taxes

i. Capetians encouraged growth of taxes and the Royal Domain, which increased tax revenue

ii. They supported growth of the middle-class for revenues and support against nobles

c. Parlement of Paris- served as the Supreme Court

i. created by Louis IX

3. By 1300s, the power of the Capetians kings was supreme. However, the 3 sons of Philip IV died w/o heirs and the dynasty ended in 1328

4. French kings expanded their power greatly

a. bailiffs- royal officials in France (middle-class)

b. Louis IX (1226-1270)- established a supreme court weakened feudal ties

c. Philip IV and the Estates General (1302- first met)

i. unlike English Parliament, there are no limits on the king

ii. Three Branches: (1) 1st Estate- church leaders; (2) 2nd Estate- great lords; (3) 3rd Estate- middle-class

F. Nation-States Began to Arise

1. Nation-State- a group of people who occupy a definite territory and are united under 1 govt. and culture

2. Nationalism- feelings of devotion toward one’s nation

II. The Church Faced a Crisis in the 1300s

A. Boniface VIII overreached himself

1. papal bulls (official statements) ignored by French king Philip IV who tried to kidnap the pope (failed, but pope died from shock)

B. The papacy moves to Avignon, France

1. Clement V moved in 1309

2. Papal home for 67 years “Babylonian Captivity”

C. The Great Schism

1. Urban VI chosen pope- 1378

2. 13 French cardinals choose a new pope

3. both popes excommunicated each other

4. The Schism (or 2 pope system) lasted from 1378 to 1417

5. Council of Constance (1414-1417)- forced all 3 popes to resign and it chose a new pope- Martin V( end of Schism

D. The Scholars Challenged the Church

1. John Wycliffe in England (1300s)

a. viewed the church as a community, not hierarchy (1378)

b. on the Eucharist ( doctrine transubstantiation)

c. anti-pope

d. bible is only guide, not Church ( translated the bible to English )

e. no conviction of heresy ( b/c England didn’t like French pope)

2. John Huss of Bohemia (1400s)

a. bible more important than pope

b. preached in Czech, not Latin (inspired Czech national figures)

c. excommunicated (1411) and burned at the stake (1415)

III. The 1300s Brought Plague and War

A. The Black Death struck in 1347- Genoase ships from Sicily w/ cargo from Asia

1. black swellings and high fever- many died w/i 24 hours of contagion

2. due to flees infected by rats; poor sanitary conditions

3. b/w 1347 and 1353, 25 million people or 1/3 of Europe’s population died from the plague

4. new outbreaks of the plague appeared sporadically for the next 3 centuries

B. Peasants Rose in Revolt

1. decline in population enabled serfs to demand wages and doomed the manorial system, feudal system; weakened church

2. 1381- English peasants revolted

a. although the lords put down the revolt, the economies and the societies of the Middle Ages was disappearing fast

C. Hundred Years’ War b/w England and France

1. 1337-1453- on and off (116 years)

2. was fought over English kings’ claim to land in France

3. four stages:

a. 1337-60: England’s Edward III captured French king and gained much French land

b. 1361-91: French reconquered their lost lands (Charles V the wise)

c. 1397-1420: English conquer northern half of France; Battle of Agincourt; Henry V forces French king (Charles VI) to sign the humiliating Treaty of Troyes (Henry V marries Charles VI’s daughter + Henry will assume Charles’ throne after death, but Henry dies first); now Henry ‘s son is an heir, but so is Charles VI’s son, Charles the Dauphin

d. 1421-53: In 1429, Joan of Arc gradually pushed the English out of all of France except Calliers; Charles is crowned Charles VII

D. New Weapons Changed Warfare

1. longbow- range of 300 yards

a. French knights lost to mere foot soldiers in the 100 Years’ War at the Battles of Crecy, Puntes, and Agincourt (50,000 vs. 5,800)

2. the cannon made castles obsolete (Crecy)

E. National Feelings Increased in Europe

1. in the 1300s, faith in Europe and the Church was replaced by nationalism (loyalty to one’s own land and people)

a. Joan of Arc broke the siege of Orleans and persuaded Charles the Dauphin to be crowned Charles VII (1429)

IV. New Monarchs Ruled in Western Europe

A. “New Monarchs” replaced feudal kings

1. had 3 important sources of power that feudal kings lacked

a. broad taxing powers

b. professional army

c. professional officials ( townspeople)

B. France

1. Charles VII won back almost of France from England

a. known as “Charles the well-served” due to good advisors

b. set up royal council; 1st permanent royal army, and had 2 main taxes

i. Taille (land tax)

ii. Gabelle (salt tax)

2. Louis XI (1461-83)

a. the “Spider King” ( used trickery, bribery, and espionage)

b. acquired Burgundy w/ the death of Duke Charles the Bald (who favored the English) in 1477

c. called Estates General only once; didn’t need subject’s consent to collect taxes

C. England

1. War of the Roses 91455-1485)

a. Dukes of York (white rose) vs. Duke of Lancaster (red rose)

b. 1485- Battle of Bosworth Field- Henry Tudor beat Richard III and started the Tudor Dynasty

Henry Tudor (claimed both blood lines)

2. Henry VII made peace in England

a. taxed imported goods- tonnage and poundage

b. avoid costly wars, kept no standing army

c. had parliament outlaw lord’s private armies

d. The Court of Star Chamber- met in secret

i. questionable evidence

ii. used by Henry to destroy threats to his power; people tortured

D. Spain

1. Reconquista (1061-1400s)- Christian attempt to reconquer Spain from the Muslims (Moors)

2. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille married in 1469 and set out to conquer the last Muslim kingdom, Granada, in 1482; Granada fell to the Christians in 1492

3. The Spanish Inquisition

a. Isabella revived the Medieval Church’s Inquisition in Spain

b. Tried to root out heresy ( 1 king, 1 law, 1 faith

c. Tortures, burnings at the stake

4. Expulsion of the Jews

a. 1492- convert or leave

b. 150,000 Jews left (mostly middle-class)

5. 1504- Ferdinand seized Naverre

V. A New Empire Arose in Russia

A. Geography

1. Ural Mts. Divide Europe and Asia

a. Northern Asia- Siberia

2. European nation is mostly flat

3. Dependant on rivers for transport and trade

B. Scandinavians migrated southward to lands occupied by Slavs; the Scandinavians and the Russian prince Rurik founded Russia in 862 w/ the capital at Novgorod

C. The Capital was soon to be moved to Kiev to increase trade along the Dneiper River

D. 987- Vladimar adopts Byzantine Christianity

E. 1240-41- Mongols conquer Russia

1. ruled Russia from 1240-1480

2. the “Mongol Yoke”

F. Moscow’s Princes United Russia

1. Moscow- 1st settled in 1100s

2. Located near the Vulga, the Dneiper, the Don Rivers

3. Ivan I- prince of Moscow and the tax collector for the Mongols from 1328-41

4. 1328- Russian Orthodox Church moved to Moscow

5. By 1400s, Moscow had become one of the strongest of the Russian States under the Mongols

G. The Prince of Moscow becomes czar

1. Ivan III (1462-1505)- began calling himself czar (Russian for caesar of emperor)

2. 1480- Ivan III refused to pay tribute to the Mongols; freed Moscow from the “Mongol Yoke”

3. built up the walled fortress area in Moscow called the Kremlin

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