Social Studies 10 European History

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B. The Gracchi Brothers Tried Reforms (133-121 B.C.)

1. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (grandsons of Scipio Africanus) were the champions of the populares

a. Intro: The Gracchi were deeply troubled by the threat posed to Rome’s military resources by the declining number of citizen farmers and by the economic and social conditions of the proletariat

b. Tiberius Gracchus: elected tribune in 133 B.C.

i. calls for land reforms- can’t use more than 600 acres of public land (successful)

ii. he used unconventional tactics to get the law passed (wanted to run for tribune again)

iii. gets killed by the senate as a result

c. Gaius Gracchus- elected tribune in 123 B.C.; calls for reforms

i. pass new land laws

ii. provide cheap grain for the masses

iii. colonies for resettlement of impoverished citizens

iv. he and 3,000 of his followers were assassinated in 121 B.C.

C. Army Leaders Took Political Control

1. Intro: soldiers became indebted to their commanders instead of the state; consuls now had armies to back their political ideas

2. Marius- supported populares

a. elected consul in 107 B.C.; he raises a “volunteer” army which was his own personal army w/ no ties to the senate to fight in Numidia; Marius had the burden of taking care of the landless soldiers in his command

b. Marius’s army was converted from his volunteers into a professional army

c. He was elected consul from 104-101 B.C.

3. Sulla- commander under Marius; will support Optimates; old problems surface

a. allies fight for citizenship: Sulla commanded an army that ended an uprising by the Italian allies

b. discontent in the conquered provinces: Marius and Sulla compete for the opportunity to send their armies to crush a rebellion in Asia Minor; Sulla marches his army (68 B.C.)

c. Marius seizes power while Sulla is away (Marius dies in 86 B.C.)

d. Sulla routes the Marians when he returns and secures mastery over all of Italy

e. Sulla as dictator: Ends 6 month term and rules as long as he likes

i. restores the power of the senate

ii. kills many of the supporters of Marius and his family; Julius Caesar (a relative) escapes death

iii. power of tribunes and assembly of Tribes was severely limited

iv. reorganized provincial governments

f. Sulla retired and restored democracy in 79 B.C.

D. Power of the Senate is Weakening

1. Although the senate was in power in 79 B.C., it was due to a strong military leader. It was clear that bold individuals, properly armed, might topple it as easily as Sulla restored it

E. Julius Caesar Rose to Power (100- 44 B.C.)

1. Intro: Caesar’s aunt Julia was the wife of Marius. Sulla spared Caesar and he was exiled in Asia for 3 years until Sulla’s death; returned to Rome in 70 B.C.

2. His Early Career

a. 74 B.C., junior officer in Third Mithviatic War

b. military tribune of Rome

c. 73-69 B.C.- Quaestor

d. 69 B.C.- worked on staff of Praetor in Spain

e. 65 B.C.- Aedile (Crassus was consul)

f. 60 B.C.- Praetor of Spain

g. Marries granddaughter of Sulla, Pompeia. Marriage was for political convenience

3. First Triumvirate (60-52 B.C.)

a. Pompey- military leader who achieved great success and equaled Sulla’s triumphs and power

b. Crassus- a wealthy capitalist who successfully defeated the slave revolt of Spartacus

c. Caesar- a man of patrician origins but w/ family connections that tied him to Marius and the populares

d. Initially the triumvirate was a success

e. Divide power:

i. Caesar becomes proconsul of Gaul (59-49 B.C.)

ii. Pompey- proconsul of Spain (stays in Rome)

iii. Crassus- conquest of Parthia (dies in 53 B.C.)

4. Conquest of Gaul

a. Intro: Caesar, using his superior military skill, succeeds in bringing Gaul under Roman control through a series of campaigns over the course of almost 10 years. In the end, he gains the support of many of the people of Gaul and w/ them and his legions becomes a powerful military threat to Pompey and Rome

b. Caesar’s Siege

i. ramps + towers were also used to penetrate defensive walls

ii. tunneling was also a means to breach a wall; sappers would dig tunnels to get the wall to collapse

c. Caesar’s campaigns in Gaul

i. arrives in Gaul in 59 B.C., as proconsul

ii. siege of Alesia (52 B.C.); Caesar defeats Varcingetoux

iii. Avarcium (52 B.C.)

F. Pompey- was a good general, but not a skillful politician

1. Caesar gains military power

2. Pompey afraid he was going to lose power

3. Pompey’s wife, Caesar’s daughter (Julia) dies

4. Cato and Cicero: convinces Pompey to join optimates against Caesar

5. He must make sure Caesar doesn’t return

6. In 1st triumvirate, Crassus was the money, Caesar was the politician, and Pompey was the military hero

7. Caesar is eventually the only member of the Populares left:
Optimates Populares

Cicero Caesar

Cato Crassus; dies in battle

Brutus Pompey; switches sides

Milo (thug) Clodius (thug); killed by Milo
G. Caesar Made Himself Ruler of Rome

1. “Crossing the Rubicon” (January 10, 49 B.C.)

a. Caesar disobeys the Senate and marches his army into Italy. The Rubicon river was the border b/w Italy and Cisalpine Gaul à which means civil war

b. Victoriousà takes Italy and Rome (Cato, Pompey, and Brutus flee to Macedonia to rally Pompey’s legions there)

2. Pompey abandoned Rome and went to Macedonia to rally his legions

a. The Illerda Campaign (49 B.C.)

i. Caesar’s 7 legions (5 from Gaul, 2 from Rome) defeat Pompey’s and gains control of Spain

b. the Pharsulus Campaign (48 B.C.)

i. wins there; Cato commits suicide; Brutus is captured; Pompey flees to Egypt

3. Caesar in Egypt (48-47 B.C.)

a. Pompey asked for asylum in Egypt which was ruled at the time by Ptolemy XIII and his half-sister Cleopatra VII. On September 28, 48 B.C., Pompey was murdered by Ptolemy, who thought Caesar would be grateful to him

b. Caesar, angered, supports Cleopatra’s claim to the throne; she needs a husband to rule; she marries Caesar and had a son, Caesarian; then Caesar continues to settle the civil war

4. Battle of Zella

a. “Veni, Vidi, Vici”

5. Final Campaigns in Africa and Spain

a. Battle of Thapsus (46 B.C.)

b. Battle of Munda (45 B.C.); defeats Pompey’s son

H. Caesar Returns to Rome (Pater Patrae) Father of the Country

1. 44 B.C.- Senate appointed him dictator for a decade

2. Caesar’s Reforms

a. granted Roman citizenship to many people in the provinces outside of Italy

b. expanded Senate to 900 members, to include reps from outside of Italy

c. landowners: 1/3 of their workforce had to be free men (not slaves)

d. public works projects to provide jobs

e. created 20 colonies in Spain, Gaul, and Africa for Rome’s landless poor, reducing the number of people who needed govt. grain handouts

3. His actions angered the Patricians b/c they were losing control of the Senate

4. The Calendar

a. with assistance from Sesigenes, an Egyptian astronomer, Caesar set the length of the year, and set leap year

5. The Ides of March

a. March 15 on the Roman Calendar was called the Ides of March

b. Cassius, Brutus, and a small group of conspirators who Caesar trusted, killed him on March 15, 44 B.C.

I. Civil War Followed Caesar’s Death

1. Second Triumvirate (43-33 B.C.)

a. Members:

i. Octavian was Caesar’s grand nephew and adopted son. He was 18 at Caesar’s death, and was weak and not ready to assume command.

ii. Marc Antony was Caesar’s trusted advisor and military commander. He was a proven general and politician. Marc Antony married Octavian’s sister, Octavia, as a political gesture

iii. Lepidus- a powerful politician and friend of Caesar’s; wanted revenge on the assassins of Caesar

b. 100 senators and 3,000 businessmen were killed as a backlash to Caesar’s killing

i. Cicero was killed; he was an opponent of Caesar, but did not plot to kill him

ii. Brutus + Cassius à commit suicide after defeat in a battle

2. War b/w Octavian and Marc Antony

a. Marc Antony gains control of the eastern empire; while there he falls in love w/ Cleopatra and divorces Octavia. Tries to have Caesarian and his children from Cleopatra made citizens of Rome.

b. Octavian grows strong by using propaganda campaign against Antony, gains support of the Senate

c. Octavian w/ the help of Admiral Agrippa defeats Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium (31 B.C.)

d. Cleopatra and Marc commit suicide

J. Octavian Becomes Sole Ruler of Rome (Returns 29 B.C.)

1. Octavian was now as powerful as Caesar, but remembered his uncle’s fate; was careful not to upset the Senate

a. he is elected consul several times, but realizes this must change

b. as an act of humility, he declines the consulship; this gesture is rewarded w/ the title ‘princeps’ (‘first citizen’) and also ‘Augustus’ (‘exalted one’)

2. Through Careful political maneuvering, and proper use of his power, Augustus rises to emperor while keeping the senate around but w/ limited power

Chapter 7: The Roman Empire

(29 B.C.-A.D. 476)

I. Augustus’ Rule Began the Pax Romana

A. Intro: For 207 years (27 BC-AD 180), the Roman empire (10,000 sq. miles) was relatively peaceful. This period of peace and prosperity is known as the Pax Romana.

B. Augustus Set up a Sound Government

1. Augustus’ challenge was to reconcile tradition (republic) w/ need (one-man rule)

2. The Civil Service

a. set up by Augustus, salaried, experienced workers were hired to take care of Rome’s grain supply, roads, and postal service. Claudius (another emperor) declared à any class could work in civil service and promotions were often given according to performance, not class

3. A Public Building Program (instilled a sense of pride)

a. created concrete à cheap, reliable, and strong

4. Military Affairs

a. professional army, under direct command of the princeps w/ regular pay and a pension

b. Praetorian Guard, only soldiers stationed near Rome à 9,000 personal body guards of the princeps

5. Augustus wanted 31 days in his month à takes one away from February

C. Peace Continued After Augustus Died

1. Intro: A problem for Augustus was the matter of succession. Only the Senate or people could legally transmit his power.

2. Tiberius (Augustus’ second wife Liva’s son) was forced to marry Julia, became Augustus’ adopted son and succeeded him in 14 A.D.

3. Julian Emperors (14-68)- These 4 emperors were all descendants of Caesar and Augustus

a. Tiberius (14-37)- administrates well; paranoid

b. Caligula (37-41)- nut

c. Claudius (41-54)- physically deformed; competent ruler; conquered Britain; killed by wife

d. Nero (54-68)- cruel, vain ruler; eventually ousted; burns Rome down

4. The Problem of Succession

a. there was no rule, law, or precedent to go by

b. who should choose? (senate, emperor, or military)

c. 68-69- 4 emperors appointed by military

5. Flavian Emperors- used hereditary succession

a. Vespecian (69-79)- erected Coliseum; first non-Patrician

b. Titus (79-81)- opened Coliseum; Pompeii destroyed

c. Domitian (81-96)- had considerable power, but no support from Senate

6. The Good Emperors (Adoptive Emperors) 96-180, empire at its peak; the emperor adopted his heir before death

a. Nerva (96-98)- began custom of adoption

b. Trajan (98-117)- Spanish-born; empire at its greatest extent

c. Hadrian (117-138)- worked to consolidate, not conquer; lands retained

d. Antonius (138-161)- uneventful; public works, education programs

e. Marcus Aurelius (161-180)- faced widespread barbarian invasions; wrote the philosophical work The Meditations

f. Pax Romana ends after Aurelius’s rule

II. Romans Extended Greek Culture (They 2 blend to form ‘Greco-Roman’)

A. New Schools of Philosophy Arose

1. Epicurianism- founded by Epicurus (342-270 B.C.)

a. pursuit of pleasures as the most important thing

2. Stoicism: Founded by Zeno (336-264 B.C.); 3 important ideas

a. Duty, reason, and courage are virtues

b. Pain and pleasure are meaningless

c. Advocated justification for a single human community (Rome) governed by a system of law that conformed to the laws of nature

B. Latin Literature Took Many Forms

1. Augustus wanted to encourage patriotism (Virgil, Horace, Livy)

a. Livy’s History

i. The History of the Roman Republic (753 BC- 9 AD)

b. Virgil’s epic poems

i. modeled after Homer’s Iliad- he wrote the Aeneid

c. the Silver Age of Literature (approx: 14-138 AD)

i. the patriotism of Augustus was replaced by the satire (writing that mocked society) of Juvenal and the criticism of all the emperors after Augustus by Tacitus in his work, the Annals

2. Majestic Buildings Adorned the Cities

a. their roads are a lasting legacy (still used today)

b. the arch is an architectural device used by the Romans

c. another was the dome; the Pantheon was a famous building

III. Some stuff about Jesus that’s obvious

IV. Rome’s Empire Declined and Fell

A. Intro: Pax Romana ends at the death of Marcus Aurelius and the decline of the empire begins. 3 Stages of Decline: “Crisis of the 3rd Century”- economic, military, and political ? empire was divided in 2; East and West (strengthens East, hurts West) ? Western half will be victim of savage barbarian attacks

B. Crisis Weakened the Empire

1. Economic Decay

a. success during the Pax Romana was due to:

i. trade flourished

ii. plunder from conquests

iii. Roman farms supplied grain

b. Problems

i. barbarian raids and pirates upset trade in the West

ii. Rome’s industry manufactured goods not in demand

iii. Farmed lands in Italy and Western Europe became less productive b/c of overworked soil

2. Military Decay

a. the Danube, Syrian, and Asia Minor à constant threats

b. Roman armies made up of barbarian mercenaries (little loyalty)

3. Political Decay

a. citizens of Rome and the empire had become indifferent

b. the most skilled people were no longer holding office à inefficient leaders

C. Diocletian Reformed the Empire (Reign: 284-305)

1. Divides the empire into 12 dioceses, 4 tetrarchs, and 2 empires (2 different emperors)

2. Diocletian’s Reforms

a. increased the army to secure the frontiers

b. laws passed that son had to follow father’s occupation

c. Edict of Prices- Price and Wages controlled by govt. (to stop inflation)

d. Persecution of Christians to restore traditional religion

e. Diocletian drops the term of princeps (first citizen); gives himself title of Lord and god

D. Constantine Accepted Christianity and Founded a New Capital

1. Battle of Milvian Bridge- Constantine won, took control of empire

a. Edict of Milan- granted to Christians and all free men the freedom of religion

2. He moved the capital to Byzantium in 330 A.D. (names it Constantinople)

a. the new capital is in the Eastern empire

b. led to the downfall of the West and the flourish of the East

Chapter 8- Byzantine Empire

-Old eastern Roman Empire

-Constantinople (Byzantium) was the capital ( now Istanbul

-Rome- Latin Language ( Byztantine- Greek

West: Petrine Doctrine (pope = leader)

East: Patriarch is head of the church

-Art forms: tapestries, mosaics, and iconography

-Dome: Hagia Sofia


-Seljuks c. 1000

-start crusades

-Ottoman Turks

-1453: conquer Constantinople (end of Byzantine Empire)

Middle Ages

Chapter 9- The Early Middle Ages (450-1000)

I. Roman Civilization Collapsed

A. Collapse of Trade and Towns

1. population become increasingly rural

B. Loss of Literacy and Common Language

1. learning declined

2. around the 800s- French, Spanish, and Italian evolve from Latin

C. Personal Ties Replace Citizenship- pledges of loyalty to warrior lords

1. 400-600: Germanic Kingdom replaced Roman provinces

2. Family ties and personal loyalty (not public law) bound Germanic society together

D. Unifying Factors:

1. classical heritage of Rome

2. beliefs of Roman Catholic Church

3. customs of warriors Germanic Tribes

II. Christianity- the glue of Western European society in the Middle Ages

A. Missionaries- during 300s and 400s, missionaries traveled to Germanic and Celtic groups on the border of the Roman Empire

1. Patrick of Ireland, missionary in Ireland c. 432

B. Monasteries

1. grew in importance w/ the decline of cities; follow the migration of people to rural areas

2. wealthy, educated communities which operated schools and libraries, and copied books; served as centers for art + learning

3. St. Benedict- established a set of rules for monks c. 540. Benedict’s Rule becomes the model for western monasteries

C. Gregory I expanded Papal Power

1. 590- he negotiated treaties, raised armies, repaired roads, serviced the poor, and acted as mayor of Rome

2. expanded church influence through missionaries

3. wrote Dialogues (on saint’s lives) and Pastoral Care (a guidebook for Bishops_

4. Gregory’s vision of Christendom- a churchly kingdom spanning all of Western Europe and ruled by the Pope in Rome ( was soon to be realized

III. The Merovingians

A. In 481 at age 15, Clovis, a descendant of Merovag, became King of the Franks. An excellent military leader, Clovis was cruel + ruthless. He vowed to become a Christian if he won a battle in 496. He kept his vow and forced 3,000 other Franks to be baptized. Until his death, the Franks conquered most of Northern Gaul and helped spread Christianity.

B. Clovis’s descendants, the Merovingians, lost power

1. sons of a Merovingian king divided the kingdom b/w themselves

2. the mayor of the palace had gained the power (c. 700)

3. The mayor of the palace, Charles (the Hammer) Martel defeated Muslims at Battle of Tours (732); died on 741

4. Pepin III (the Short)- he wrote to the pope and asked to be king (already had the power). In 751, the Merovingians were disposed and Pepin was crowned king in 754 by the Pope. Pepin defeats Lombards, and gives Pope the Papal States in 756. Pepin dies in 768.

Pepin Pope Stephen II

Problem: wanted to be king Problem: needs protection

Solution: pope anoints Pepin king by the grace of God Solution: Pepin will protect Stephen from the Lombards; gives pope the papal states

IV. Charlemagne and the Carolingian Dynasty extended Frankish power (768-814)

A. Pepin’s son Charlemagne became king in 768 (Carlus Magnus- Charles the Great)

B. Charlemagne defeated the Lombards in Italy, Saxons in Germany, the Muslims in the Pyrenees, and the Avars in the Danube. Often forced people to be baptized; called “baptized by the sword”

C. Pope Leo III made Charlemagne “Holy Roman Emperor”- 800 A.D. (equal to Byzantine emperor)

1. this increased the split b/w the Roman Church and the Greek Orthodox Church

2. in theory, the Holy Roman Emperor equals the protector of all Christendom

D. Charlemagne divides kingdom into counties which were administered by a Count

1. Missi Dominici- the king’s emissaries; Pairs ( lay person and religious leader

2. They checked that the counties were ruled fairly

E. Charlemagne established his court at Aachen. He promoted education and learning in his court. He also encouraged the copying of ancient Latin manuscripts by monks. He invited the Jews into his kingdom b/c they were literate and could help administer the Kingdom

V. Fall of the Carolingians

A. Louis the Pious (814-840) ( religious, but ineffective ruler; Charlemagne’s son and heir

B. Louis died in 840, civil war broke out b/w his 3 sons

C. 3 sons divided empire in 843; Treaty of Verdan

1. Charles the Bald- (west) France

2. Louis the German (east)- Germany

3. Lothair- received title “Emperor”. Ruled territory from North Sea down to Northern Italy. By 870, the kingdom was divided b/w Charles and Louis

D. New Invasions

1. Muslims- attacked N. Africa and conquered Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and the Mediterranean Coast

2. Magyars- occupied Hungary

3. Slavs- occupied Central Europe

4. Vikings attacked Northern Europe

VI. Vikings (Northmen, Norsemen) Terrorized Europe (800-1000)

A. Skilled Seafarers

1. from Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark)

2. swift, vicious raids via sleek warships

B. Settled far and wide b/c need for farmland

C. Viking Age Ended About 1000

1. gradually adopted Christianity

2. warming trend increased farming

3. invention of feudalism aid defense

VII. Feudalism Became the Basis for Govt. in Western Europe

A. Feudalism- was an agreement b/w legal equals (both parties being noblemen) whereby a lord (landowner) granted land to his Vassals, who swore his loyalty and support to his lord; a political and military system based on the holding of land

1. emphasized local govt., local protection, and self-sufficiency

B. Lords and Vassals

1. vassal (lord’s servant) gave legal service and protection in exchange for a fief (piece of land granted by the lord) in a compurgation ceremony

2. investiture- symbolic gesture by which the fief was granted (ex: soil)

Feudal Contract 2 Cultures this Derives From:

homage 1) Germanic Tribes (loyalty)

fielty (oath-taking) 2) Rome (land ownership/ latifundia)


3. Feudal Pyramid in Theory

a. a vassal could be a lord by granting fiefs to lesser nobleman beneath him

b. each vassal’s loyalty was only to the lord immediately above him

4. Feudalism developed when weak kings could not protect their landowners who had to make arrangements to protect themselves

4 Obligations of a Vassal to a Lord

-military service


-aid (financial)

C. Vassals Served in War and Peace

1. Knights (specialists in war w/ expensive equipment)

2. Usually served their lord in battle for about 40 days each year

3. Peacetime jobs- Duties of Justice, bridge tolls, tax collectors ( under feudalism, public power had become private

D. 3 Main Social Groups in Middle Ages

1. Nobles (fought)

2. Church (prayed)

3. Peasants (worked)

a. serfs- not slaves, but bound to the land

b. free peasants- could leave the land and move to other manors

E. Manorialism- economic system of the Middle Ages

1. manor- small estate by which a lord’s family gained its livelihood; basic economic unit of medieval times

2. self-sufficiency

a. peasants provided grain and farm animals for lord’s table

b. village priest received a tithe (church tax); 1/10 of peasant’s income

c. waterwheel at mill turned grain into flour; lords owned mills and ovens

d. blacksmith; leathermaker would live on the manor

e. “Three Field System”- each year, 2 fields are plowed and 1 field is left to fallow

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