Social Studies 10 European History

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Social Studies 10-

European History

Ancient Greece

Chapter 5- Ancient Greece

I. Greek Culture Grew Up Around the Aegean Sea

A. Geography Shaped Greek Culture

1. Greece has a rugged terrain

2. There are no navigable rivers, but there are coastlines w/ inlets and bays

3. The Sea

a. the Aegean Sea, along with the Black and Ionian Seas, were the link that united the Greek people

b. they were also a link to other societies

c. sea travel and trade was vital b/c of the Greek lack of resources

4. The Land

a. about ¾ of Greece is mountain

b. the terrain caused the people to start independent communities

c. small, but fertile valleys; couldn’t feed a high population

d. meat was rare; the main diet was grapes, olives, and grain

5. The Climate

a. Greece has a Mediterranean Climate

i. moderate temperatures

ii. rain only in winter

b. Greek men spent their leisure time at the agora (marketplace), gymnasium, political meetings, and civic + religious celebrations

c. b/c of open gatherings and small settlements, everyone knew each other

B. Rich Cultures Arose in the Bronze Age

1. in the island of Crete, the Minoan civilization flourished

2. Cretan civilization

a. the Minoans were a sea-faring people w/ great power

b. thrived on trade- they were safe on their island (no fortification)

c. quality of life was high; alarming equality for the era

d. had plumbing and other advanced technology

e. they disappeared between 1400 and 1200 BC for unknown reasons

3. mainland Greece in the Bronze Age

a. around 2000 BC Greek-speaking people moved to the mainland

b. they are often called Mycenaeans b/c of their leading city, Mycenae

c. Mycenae was built on a ridge, and well defended

d. Similar forts dotted the southern part of Greece

4. Bronze Age Society

a. the nobles lived in great splendor

b. this wealth was made by plundering villages

c. only the warrior-kings had weapons of bronze, the rest had only stone or wood

5. The Trojan War

a. wars thrived in the Bronze Age

b. the most famous was the Trojan War

c. the Mycenaeans seized the great city of Troy

C. Dark Ages Interrupted Civilization

1. Mycenaean civilization ended shortly after the Trojan War; they were destroyed by the mysterious “Peoples of the Sea”

2. The Dorian migration (1150-750 BC)

a. the Dorians spoke Greek; movement very advanced

b. moved into the war-torn Greek southlands

c. the art of writing was lost

3. The poems of Homer

a. Dark Ages relied on spoken word

i. Bards- (wandering poets) told stories that glorified old heroes of Mycenae + Troy

ii. Epics- the poems the bards wrote

b. Homer was great bard who wrote the Iliad + the Odyssey

4. The heroic ideal

a. arete- the ideal of striving for excellence, showing courage, and winning fame and honor

5. The Olympic games

a. the Greeks met at a field called Olympia to compete in many athletic competitions

b. the games lasted five days; the prize was an olive wreath

D. Greeks Worshipped Humanlike Gods

1. the major Greek gods lived in Mount Olympus

2. there were also minor and household gods and spirits

3. there was no powerful priest class in Greece

II. Greek City-States Competed for Power

A. The Polis

1. polis- the Greek name for a city-state

a. included a city and the surrounding countryside

b. acropolis- the meetingplace on a fortified hilltop

2. the polis was the central force in Greek life

a. citizenship was based on the ideal of free and rational individuals

b. there were no kings or emperors

B. Power Passed from Kings to Citizens

1. the Greece of the warrior-kings greatly differed w/ the city- states

2. the use of iron weapons made the citizens warriors too; people besides the rich could buy weapons and armor

a. hoplites- Greek citizens/soldiers

b. phalanx- a Greek military formation with eight ranks of soldiers who made a front wall with their spears

3. The rise of tyrants

a. the people could now rise against the kings b/c they could afford weapons

b. these rebels were often lead by a man from the nobility who had lost a feud with another noble

c. these nobles who led the rebellions were called tyrants

d. the tyrants were great builders and very popular with the people

e. many city-states gained colonies during the time of the tyrants

f. two very powerful city-states emerged, Athens & Sparta

C. Sparta Built an Army State

1. Sparta was located in the southern part of Greece, in Peloponnesus

2. The Spartans, instead of looking for colonies, invaded neighboring Messenia; the Messenians became slaves called helots

3. The Code of Lycurgus

a. Lycurgus was a leader of Sparta who gave it its laws

b. It stressed self-discipline and endurance

4. after age seven, all males became part of the military

5. even girls led active lifestyles

6. for many years, they had the strongest military, but as a result, they created very little art, literature or architecture

D. Athens turned to Democracy

1. Athens took the opposite route of Sparta

a. they acted as free people, and created a democracy

b. democracy- a government in which the people have the final say

2. Solon’s reforms

a. Solon avoided a civil war by introducing economic and political reforms

b. he canceled all debts, made farming profitable, and encouraged industry by requiring every father to teach his son a trade

c. he also allowed every male citizen to attend the assembly, and began a new legal system in which any citizen could bring charges against anyone who committed a wrong

3. Cleisthenes’s reforms

a. introduced further reforms; enacted a series of laws that made Athens a full democracy

b. he increased the power of the Athenian assembly, and he created the Council of 500 to propose laws & advise the assembly

c. Athens became a democracy, but women, slaves, and foreigners were not allowed to participate in it

E. The Greeks Turned Back the Powerful Persians

1. the first historian, Herodotus, gave us the story of the Persian War

2. The first invasion

a. the Greeks settled in Ionia, which was conquered by Persia; when the Greeks of Ionia rebelled against the Persians, the Persian King Darius invaded Greece

b. the Persians met the small Athenian army at Marathon, and were defeated

c. then, a runner ran 26 miles back to Athens to tell of the victory

3. The second invasion

a. Darius’s son, Xerxes, invaded Greece with an army and navy

b. The large Persian army met no resistance as it marched toward Athens until it came to a narrow mountain pass at Thermopylae, where many Greeks, including Spartans blocked the way

c. The Persians found it difficult to defeat the Greeks, and eventually the Spartans told the rest of the army to retreat; the Spartans attempted to hold the pass themselves, and were all killed

d. Then, Themistocles told the Athenians to pin their hopes on a sea victory; the small Athenian navy defeated the Persian navy at Salamis

e. Then, the Persian’s army was defeated by the Spartans at Plataea

4. Consequences of the Persian War

a. Athens basked in the glory of the Persian defeat

b. The city suffered the most damage, and their pride soared

c. After the war, Athens led an alliance of city-states called the Delian League; soon Athens controlled all of the other members

III. Athens Led Greece in its Golden Age

A. Pericles Sought Glory for Athens

1. Pericles led Athens during its golden age

2. He tried to strengthen Athenian democracy, build a commercial empire, and to glorify Athens

3. He used the Delian League to enlarge the wealth and power of Athens

a. He used the money to build a strong navy, beautify Athens, buy gold, ivory, and marble, and build architectural masterpieces such as the Parthenon

B. Art Flourished in Athens

1. Phidias was a great sculptor who worked on the Parthenon and statue of Athens

2. Classical art- as artstyle which valued the values of order balance, and proportion

C. The Greeks Invented Drama

1. During the golden age, 2 playwrights, Aeschylus and Sophocles competed for the ivory wreath

a. Sophocles wrote the most famous Greek drama, Oedipus

b. They both wrote tragedies

2. tragedy- a type of drama where the play portrayed men and women of strong character whose very strong characteristics led to their downfall

3. drama was a form of entertainment and public education

D. Athens Prospered in the Golden Age

1. the city of Athens itself was crowded + loud, smelly

2. most citizens owned slaves

3. women had few rights; were isolated from world + men

4. most Athenians lived in plain, mud-brick homes

5. their beautiful vases were their biggest export

Ancient Rome

Chapter 6- The Roman Republic (1000 -27 B.C.)

I. The Romans Built a Great City

A. The Myth of Romulus and Remus

1. Mars- god of war for Romans

2. Mars fathers Romulus and Remus

3. Each takes one hill south of the Tiber River

4. Romulus kills Remus in a dispute; the name Rome comes from Romulus

B. Geography

1. Italy is well-situated in the Mediterranean; Rome was the midpoint of Italy

2. Tiber, Po, and Rubicon rivers

3. Alps and Apennines

a. Alps- located in Northern Italy

b. Apennines- run north and south, separating Italy’s east and west

C. The Latins (1000 B.C.) were predominately farmers and shepherds at first; they were greatly influenced by the Greeks (750-600 B.C.)

D. The Greek gods and goddesses were adopted by the Latins (Jupiter=Zeus)

E. Etruscan Influence (950-509 B.C.)

1. Intro: Rome was several Latin villages lying on the south of the Tiber River. Shortly after 600 B.C. the Roman villages were seized by an Etruscan warlord who imposed political unity among the villages.

2. Single government under a king was established (c. 600 B.C.)

a. King had the most power

b. King was advised by the Senate, which was composed of 300 rich men who represented their families.

c. Free men- bulk of the citizens were given voice in 2 assemblies

i. curiae- units of 30 members based on warrior clans

ii. centuries- assignment to a century was based on wealth; made up of all citizens eligible for military service

d. real power was w/ the senate and king

3. Classes

a. patricians- wealthy landowners, founders of Rome, predominant influence over society

b. plebians- merchants, artisans, and farmers; little wealth or power, could not marry patricians

c. The “Struggle of the Orders” referred to the struggle for power b/w the 2 groups

d. Clients- an institution under which a noble patron (patrician) provided legal protection and material assistance to his client (plebian), and the client in return performed various services, including following political directions

F. Revolution Against the Etruscans

1. Intro: The Etruscans were losing dominance over their regions to the Carthaginians and Greeks shortly before 500 B.C. They could not keep up economically.

2. Revolution

a. the Patricians took the lead in the revolution and replaced the king w/ 2 consuls

b. consul- elected annually from the Patrician ranks to wield the imperium, that is the highest executive authority of the state

3. The Roman Republic (509 B.C.): The revolution marked the beginning of the Roman Republic

a. Republic- a govt. in which the citizens who had the right to vote choose their leaders

b. Romans were forced to struggle for their survival

i. allied w/ other Latin cities they formed the Latin League

c. struggled against the following:

i. Etruscans

ii. Gauls- who in 390 B.C. captured and sacked Rome

iii. Samnites- mountain people from southeast of Rome

G. The Forum

1. Intro: the center of Roman political life; it was built on Palatine Hill

2. Forum- the political, social, and religious center of Rome (the temples of Jupiter + Juno were on top of capitalism; imperial palace on Palatine; forum in b/w

H. The Family

1. Pater Familias- “father of the family”; oldest male; had absolute control of family and slaves

2. Gravitas- seriousness, the Romans were practical; stressed loyalty, obedience, and discipline

I. Rome Built a Mighty Army

1. Intro: Rome success was due to its military organization, enlightened treatment of the peoples it conquered, and Rome’s ability to adjust its internal political system to retain and deepen the loyalty of its citizen body

2. The legion

a. Rome developed a citizen army

b. Legion- the basic military formation; essentially a massed formation of well-armed infantry soldiers; not unlike the Greek phalanx

c. It will use 4,000 troops during the Republic era; up to 6,000 under Marius and the professional army (107 B.C.)

d. Organized into 3 lines:

i. hastati- first line made up of the youngest (1,200)

ii. princepes- second line more experienced veterans (1,200)

iii. triari- third line consists of the oldest troops (600)

e. the remaining 1,200 soldiers were from the poorest citizens, who served as light infantry (velites)

f. in addition, there were usually a few hundred fabri, skilled artisans who repaired arms, armor, and supervised construction, were available for combat if needed

g. could be broken down into centuries (60), and cohorts (6 centuries); better than phalanx b/c it was more flexible

II. The Roman Republic Spread its Power

A. Plebians slowly won more power

1. SPQR- Senatus Populusque Romanus; “Senate and the Roman people”

2. Plebians’ gains were won gradually, often due to the ability of the plebian leaders to create an internal crisis; sometimes they seceded from the state, or led strikes until they won concessions

3. Patricians greatest fear was the possibility of plebian soldiers refusing to fight

4. Each crisis usually resulted in practical concessions

B. Rome’s Balanced Government

1. senate

a. 300 men who served for life

b. only an advisory body; its decisions were almost always accepted b/c of the senate’s wealth and prestige

2. consul

a. 2 at a time; commanded army; directed the govt.; had a one year term, and could veto each other

3. assembly

a. tribal assembly- legislative body; part of which was the plebian assembly

b. assembly of centuries- function was to elect consuls, declare war, a court for capital charges

4. dictator

a. in times of crisis, a dictator was elected, chosen for 6 months; he was given absolute power

b. ex: Cincinatus- a farmer chosen as dictator twice; an ideal dictator

5. important happenings and dates of the republic

a. 509 B.C.- the Republic is formed

b. 494 B.C.- the Plebians gain the right to elect special officials called Tribunes and the creation of a new assembly; the Assembly of Tribes

c. 450 B.C.- the 12 tribes, a written law that codified ancient legal customs and protected ordinary citizens from arbitrary decisions of Patrician justice

i. protected debtors

ii. permit intermarriage b/w Patricians and Plebians

iii. limit Patrician control over public lands

iv. colonizing ventures land grants to poor plebians

v. “Non sub homine sed sub Deo et Lege” ( “Not under men, but under God and the law (we are governed)”

d. 367 B.C.- one consul to be a plebian, therefore he was automatically qualified for the senate

e. 287 B.C.- the “Plebiscita”- laws passed by Plebian assembly are bound on all citizens

C. Rome Won Control of Italy

1. neighbors

a. Gauls sack Rome in 390 B.C.

b. Etruscans and the Samnites (control of Campania)

c. By 265 B.C., Rome had established mastery over all of Italy south of the Po River

2. Greek

a. King Pyhrrus of Epirus, a kinsman of Alexander the Great, arrived in Italy in 280 B.C.

b. Won all the major battles, but lost the war b/c his 20,000 troops were diminished by the Romans after 5 years of fighting

c. Even today, a war in which all the major battles are won, but the war is lost is called a pyhrric victory

3. Citizenship

a. freemen of Rome and Latium and any others who were granted it, enabled a person to vote and be protected under the law codes

b. partial or half-citizens: not allowed to vote, but allowed to trade and intermarry w/ Roman citizens

c. allies- (socii) signed a formal treaty that left considerable local independence except for foreign affairs; obligation to provide military contingents and money for Rome’s wars

d. 2 and 3 were promised eventual Roman citizenship

e. in 212 A.D.: Emperor Carcala makes everyone citizens

D. Rome Fought Carthage (264 B.C. - 146 B.C.)

1. Intro: by 265 B.C., Rome had become a major power in the region. Rome would now become involved in “world” affairs around the Mediterranean

2. The First Punic War (264 B.C. - 241 B.C.)


a. Carthage, originally a Phoenician colony became independent c. 800 B.C.

b. Greek city-states and their colonies were Carthage’s main rivals in the Med. (Romans were farmers and shepherds)

c. Sicily:

i. Carthage controlled western Sicily

ii. 2 major Greek City-States

- Messesenia ( allies w/ Carthage

- Syracuse ( asks Rome for help

iii. initially, Rome refuses (friends w/ Carthage), then changes its mind b/c Carthage could be a threat to southern Italy


d. Rome needed a navy to attack the Carthaginian seaports

i. Rome copies a Carthaginian wreck to make their own ships

ii. 3 previous methods of fighting at sea: Ramming, Fire, Boarding

iii. the Romans used a raven to board; a long plank that would be dropped on to an enemy ship; at the end was a long “spike” that would drive into the deck; to would keep the enemy ship stationary while the Romans would cross and board the ship

e. Carthage sues for peace in 241 B.C.

i. paid Rome money

ii. Sicily goes to Rome, becoming its first overseas tribute-paying province

3. The Second Punic War


a. after losing Sicily, Carthage, under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca and his son Hannibal enlarge their colonies in Spain as their new base of power

b. Hannibal was raised at a very young age to hate the Romans, and grow up wanting to conquer them

c. Hannibal’s strategy:

i. bring a major military force to Italy; gain allies w/ conquered groups in Italy and they defeat Rome

ii. Hannibal brings his army over the Pyrennees and the Alps (included elephants which were used as tanks)

iii. Hannibal gains support of the Gauls, but surprisingly most of the allies of Rome stay w/ Rome

d. Rome challenged Hannibal, but was defeated 3 times; Battles:

i. Trebia River (218 B.C.)

ii. Lake Trasimene (217 B.C.)

iii. Cannae (216 B.C.) 70,000 Romans die


e. Hannibal ranged up and down the Italian peninsula for 15 years, but was unable to attack Rome (no siege works)

f. The Roman Marcellus lays siege to Syracuse (who had betrayed them and allied w/ Carthage) in 213 BC, the famous Archimedes defended the city unsuccessfully

g. Scipio attacked Carthage in 203 BC; defeats Hannibal at Zama, 202 BC; named “Scipio Africanus”

h. Carthage surrenders; Spain to Rome; navy destroyed; Numidia created; Carthage becomes a minor power

i. Marcellus’s invasion of Syracuse leads to the Roman’s copying Greek art

E. Rome Conquests in the East

1. Intro: With its success in the west, Rome now turns its attention to the East. At first, the Romans just wanted to consolidate, but they were tempted to the Greek civilization

2. Philip V of Macedon

a. Philip invaded the Greek peninsula and was threatening Rhodes and Pergentum

b. Rome comes to the Greek city-states’ aid and defeats Philip in a war from 200-197 BC

c. Rome gives Rhodes and Pergentum greater territory, frees the Greek city-states and then leaves

3. Antiodus III of the Seleucid Kingdom

a. 192 BC invades Greek peninsula w/ the help of Hannibal

b. Again, Rome comes to the rescue and defeats Antiodus in 192 BC

c. Rome again withdraws w/o annexing any lands

d. Rome continually tries to help Greece ( Greece doesn’t seem to notice

4. Roman rule in the east

a. Rome had continually tried to give the east its independence and continually was betrayed

b. Finally, in 146 BC, the Romans destroy the city of Corinth (part of the Achaean League) as an example to all Greek city-states (Greeks were iconoclastic)

c. Greece and later the whole East would become a Roman province

F. Rome Destroys Carthage

1. Third Punic War (149-146 BC)

2. Cato “Carthage Delenda Est” (Carthage must be destroyed)

3. Scipio Aemilius’s siege of Carthage prevails

4. 133 BC, King of Pergentum gives western Asia Minor to Rome

III. Republican Government Collapsed

Intro: Rome’s wars leading to domination in the Mediterranean area generated profound problems that would inevitably have to be faced. Prior to 133 BC, these problems had been neglected by a populace that was intoxicated w/ military success, power, and wealth; the century that followed was dominated by crises emerging from the neglect. Before the end of the century, the Republic was in ruin. Four things will cause the fall of the Republic: 1) Rome’s economic changes 2) Social Changes 3) Rome’s allies felt ill-rewarded 4) Rome’s military success left a large border w/ a variety of people to rule

A. Gap b/w Rich and Poor

1. traditional independent farms could not compete w/ cheap imported grains which were tributes paid by conquered lands

a. also, many small farms in Italy were devastated by Hannibal

b. many of the men had to go to war, and were away from their farms for extended periods of time

2. Latifundia- enterprising Romans who had capital bought up many of the small impoverished farms and controlled public lands; they made them into large estates

a. produced cash crops

b. cheap labor was supplied by gangs of slaves taken from the conquered lands

c. Spartacus (73-71 B.C.)- led a slave revolt; put down

3. Social Changes

a. economic changes dislocated many small farming citizens; many became tenant farmers and had to compete w/ slave labor; others flocked tot he cities for jobs

i. Proletariat- a class of urban, landless, jobless citizens

b. new social class emerged called the Equitas who were wealthy but not of noble origin. They wanted but not of noble origin. They wanted increased political power.

4. Cultural Changes

a. the wealthy became interested in art, architecture, literature, and science; while the poor people became interested in new religions which offered individualism

5. Civil War

a. during the first century, the relative power of the senate and the assembly varied, depending on whether the conservative and Patrician Optimates, or the liberal Populares, held governmental power

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