Slide 1 Order perissodactyla odd-toed ungulates




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
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Slide 1 Order PERISSODACTYLA

  1. Odd-toed ungulates




  1. Family Equidae (horses, zebras)




  1. Family Tapiridae (tapirs)




  1. Family Rhinocerotidae (rhinos)

Slide 2 Odd-toed and Even-toed Ungulates


Slide 3. Mesaxonic Foot

Slide 4. Family EQUIDAE

A. Equus Horses, Asses, Zebras
Slide 5. Characteristics


  1. Grazers, hypsodont teeth.

  2. Domestic species: worldwide

  3. Wild species: Africa, Asia, Arabia

  4. Polygynous animals that often form “clans”

  5. Occupy large territories

  6. Communication

    1. Changes in ear, mouth, and tail positions

    2. Vocal communication

Slide 6 Equus przewalski



  1. The only surviving species of wild horse

Slide 7. Equus przewalski



  1. Captive breeding



  1. Wild population

Slide 8. Equus is the most cursorial perissodactyl

Slide 9 Unguiligrade limp

Slide 10. Reduction of Digits

A. monodactyl.
Slide 11. Elastic ligament

Slide 12. Family TAPIRIDAE [1, 4]


Slide 13. Tapir distribution

Slide 14. Disjunct Distribution



  1. Central and South America

  2. Malaysia

Slide 15. Tapir Characteristics

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Slide 16. Ecology & Behavior

1.
2.


3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Slide 17. FAMILY RHINOCEROTIDAE


Slide 18. Distribution and Diversity

  1. 4 genera and 5 species

  2. Africa and South and Southeast Asia

Slide 19. African Rhinos



  1. White rhino



  1. Black rhino

Slide 20. Asian Rhinos



  1. Indian rhino




  1. Javan rhino




  1. Sumatran rhino

Slide 21. General Characteristics



  1. Graviportal

    1. Up to 2800 kg (Indian rhino)




  1. 1-2 “horns” of hardened epidermal cells.




  1. Grazers and Browsers




  1. Solitary and territorial




  1. Gestation: 8-16 months

Slide 22. Cranial Appendages


Slide 23. Rhino skull and horns
Slide 24. Endangered

  1. All are in danger of extinction



  1. Horn and other parts have supposed medicinal or magical properties and to make horn-handled daggers in the Yemen.

Slide 25. Adaptations to a Herbivorous Diet



  1. Adaptations of Digestive Tract.

    1. Microorganisms




    1. Fermentation

Slide 26. Adaptations to a Herbivorous Diet



  1. Foregut fermentation

    1. multichambered stomach (digastric)




  1. Hindgut fermentation using an enlarged cecum and large intestine

    1. simple stomach, (monogastric)

Slide 26. Perissodactyls are Hindgut Fermenters

Slide 27. Monogastric Fermenters


  1. Digestion strategy of hindgut fermenters



  1. Colon fermentation

Slide 28. Hindgut Advantages



  1. Process food rapidly

  2. Process large volumes

  3. Survive on low-quality food (straw) if abundant


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