Skyglobe 5 a shareware Product of Klassm softWare Copyright (c) 1992 Mark a haney Congratulations! You now have an evaluation copy of SkyGlobe 5, the fast, fun, and easy to use educational astronomy program
S K Y G L O B E 3.5 A Shareware Product of KlassM SoftWare Copyright (c) 1992 Mark A Haney Congratulations! You now have an evaluation copy of SkyGlobe 3.5, the fast, fun, and easy to use educational astronomy program. SkyGlobe is distributed as Shareware to reach the widest possible audience, so let's take care of the legalities first. SkyGlobe is copyrighted material. You are granted permission to try SkyGlobe, and to make as many backup copies for your own purposes as you want. If you decide to keep and use SkyGlobe, your copy should be registered. You are encouraged to distribute copies of SkyGlobe, subject to the following conditions: 1) All files, except for the file SKYGLOBE.REG, are distributed together and unaltered. 2) No charge is made for the software. (A small fee for media and handling is permissible with authorization from KlassM SoftWare.) Anyone who receives a copy of SkyGlobe from you should register their copy if they decide to keep it and use it. As I am now a member of the Association of Shareware Professionals, I have included a copy of their standard Shareware and license wording, as well as the Ombudsman statement and my support policy, at the end of this documentation file. SkyGlobe was originally developed with registered Shareware. Thank you for supporting the Shareware concept by registering your copy of . . . . . S K Y G L O B E ! ! ! _______ ____|__ | (R) --| | |------------------- | ____|__ | Association of | | |_| Shareware |__| o | Professionals -----| | |--------------------- |___|___| MEMBER SKYGLOBE 3.5 ORDER FORM September 15, 1992 Please use this form to register your copy of SkyGlobe 3.5! Registration provides you with the following benefits: 1) A copy of the newest version of SkyGlobe, customized with your Home Town as the default city. 2) A professionally printed SkyGlobe manual. 3) A Handy one page Reference Card. 4) A SkyGlobe-like Windows screensaver. 5) A SkyGlobe-like display of our nearest 3800 neighbor stars. 6) Automatic notification of new releases and other products, with discounts on updated versions. Shipping Address: Name:................................................ Street:.............................................. City, ST, ZIP........................................ Country.............................................. Home Town(s): (Up to three supported) ............................................... Circle Disk Type: 3.5DD 5.25DD 5 25HD (720K) (360K) (1.2M) Circle Default Video Mode: VGA or EGA or CGA or Hercules We also have a 2MB selection of SVGA planetary and DSO .PCX images available for $10.00 on EITHER >> 1.2M 5.25HD << OR >> 720K 3.5DD << disks. USA/Direct Registration $20.00 Mail to: EMail: International S&H ($5) ...... KlassM SoftWare CompuServe 284 142nd AVE 75020,1431 SVGA Images ($10) ...... Caledonia MI 49316 In USA or Canada, No support MI, USA add 4% ...... Call 1 800 968-4994 calls to for orders only. 800# please! Total ...... Please make direct order checks payable to KlassM SoftWare. INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMERS: See page two for the names of our overseas agents. For your convenience, I now accept VISA/MasterCard: Card #__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Signature:_______________________________________________ Date of Authorization:___________ Amount:__________ Expiration:______ Thanks, and I hope you enjoy SkyGlobe! International customers may order directly from KlassM SoftWare by using the preceding page of the order form. Please pay $20.00, plus $5.00 for airmail shipping. Payment can be in the form of a VISA/MasterCard authorization, or a US$ dollar check from a US bank. For your convenience, you may prefer to order from one of our agents in either Europe or Australia. For European registrations, please contact: The Thompson Partnership Church Croft, Bramshall, UTTOXTER, Staffs ST14 5DE England Fully inclusive price for registration is 15.99 pounds. Telephone +44 (0)889 564601 Fax +44 (0)889 563219 CompuServe 70007,5560 Payment by Visa, Mastercard, American Express, Diners Club Credit Cards, Cheque, Money Order or EuroCheck (with card number on reverse) To order through Australia, please contact: International | | Budgetware Phone (02) 519-4233 +61 2 5194233 PO BOX 496 Fax (02) 516-4236 +61 2 5164236 Newtown NSW 2042 AUSTRALIA Fully inclusive price for registration is $35.00 Australian dollars. Payment may be made by check, money order, or VISA/MasterCard. Just as a reminder, here are the benefits of registration: 1) A copy of the newest version of SkyGlobe, customized with your Home Town as the default city. 2) A professionally printed SkyGlobe manual. 3) A Handy one page Reference Card. 4) A SkyGlobe-like Windows screensaver. 5) A SkyGlobe-like display of our nearest 3800 neighbor stars. 6) Automatic notification of new releases and other products, with discounts on updated versions. Thank you for supporting Shareware and SkyGlobe! Peace and Clear Skies! -4- Table of Contents Welcome Page...................................................1 Order Form.....................................................2 Table of Contents..............................................4 SkyGlobe 3.5 Files.............................................4 Quick Starting Instructions....................................5 Time and Date Commands.........................................6 Where are We Looking? (SkyGlobe Directions)....................7 Moving Around (Cursor Keys and More)...........................7 What Do We See? (Stars and Zooms)..............................7 The Planets....................................................8 Precession.....................................................9 Finding Planets, Stars, and Constellations....................10 Printing......................................................10 Lines and Labels..............................................11 Keeping Track (Screen Displays)...............................12 Mousing Around................................................12 Enter and Shift-Enter.........................................13 Changing Viewing Locations....................................14 Display SVGA .PCX Images......................................14 Special Command Modes (SPACE, Home, and End)..................16 Changing Your Environment.....................................17 Program Requirements..........................................18 Using SkyGlobe with Windows...................................18 The SkyGlobe Projection.......................................18 Saying Goodbye................................................18 Thanks for Your Support!......................................18 SkyGlobe Background...........................................19 SkyGlobe Background continued.................................20 Questions & Answers...........................................21 Questions & Answers continued.................................22 Questions & Answers III.......................................23 SkyGlobe Command List.........................................24 Definition of Shareware.......................................25 Support Policy................................................25 Disclaimer....................................................26 Ombudsman Statement (Help from the ASP).......................26 SkyGlobe 3.5 Files SKYGLOBE.EXE Standalone executable file, containing data for 7000 stars. SKYEXTRA.DAT Data for additional 18000 stars (7001-25000). SKYGLOBE.DOC This file. ORDER.DOC Here's how to get your own customized copy! Plus Goodies! README Program description and late news. SKYGLOBE.ICO A Windows 3.1 icon for SkyGlobe. FILE_ID.DIZ A description file for BBSs and catalogs. VENDOR.DOC A complete program description for vendors. -5- Quick Starting Instructions These instructions will enable you to get SkyGlobe up and running as quickly as possible. Then you can return to the manual to learn about some of SkyGlobe's advanced features. SKYGLOBE.EXE is the only file that is absolutely necessary in order to run SkyGlobe. If you wish to see more than 7000 stars, you will need to ensure that the SKYEXTRA.DAT file is in the active directory as well. All you have to do to start the program is type SKYGLOBE and press Enter. SkyGlobe will determine your video adapter, but you can over-ride this choice with command-line switches, such as SKYGLOBE E to run in EGA mode. SkyGlobe will attempt to properly display SVGA images when called on to do so, but to run the sky display in SVGA you need to try SKYGLOBE S. If this doesn't work, try SKYGLOBE S2, or S3, up to 7. When you type SKYGLOBE and press Enter, you will be quickly pre- sented with a view of the southern sky for the current time and date. In the middle of the top of the screen will be a welcome and copyright message, which will disappear when you press your first command key. Most of the commands in SkyGlobe require only a single keypress or mouse click. Let's try a few of commands. First press 'A' to start the automatic increment of time. The time, shown in the upper left corner of the screen, will begin to change by five minutes. Press 'Shift-A' to reverse direction, then press 'A' again to stop the movement. Press 'B' for Brightness a few times and watch more stars appear. Most actions in SkyGlobe are reversed by using the Shift key or Right mouse click. Press 'Shift-B', and watch the dimmest stars vanish. Try 'Z' and 'Shift-Z' to Zoom in and out. Want to set a specific time or date? Try 'M', 'H', 'D' and 'T' for Month, Hour, Day and Time (in minutes). Change the number of Constellation Lines displayed with 'C'. Use the cursor keys to change the Viewing Direction and Elevation. And if you ever need to use your computer for something besides SkyGlobe, press 'Q' to return to DOS. You can use the mouse for almost all program operation. Clicking on the first letter of a command in the Help menu is the same as pressing the letter on the keyboard. In general the left mouse clicks correspond to the normal key commands, and the right mouse clicks correspond to Shift key commands. (For simplicity, left clicks will be referred to as clicks, and right clicks will be noted as such.) I hope this quick introduction has gotten you well started with SkyGlobe. More detailed descriptions of the commands appear through- out the following pages. Have fun! -6- Time and Date Commands SkyGlobe provides many ways to change the Time or Date of the displayed sky view. You can change the Time forward or backward by a minute or an hour. The Date can be changed forward or backward by a day, a month, a year, a century, or a millenium. Except for tiny changes which are corrected for by leap years, only the planets generally change from year to year. Over great time spans, preces- sion, the wobbling of the Earth's axis, becomes evident. Use the table below to help you remember: Forward Backward 1 Minute Press 'T' Press 'Shift-T' 1 Hour 'H' 'Shift-H' 1 Day 'D' 'Shift-D' 1 Month (30 days) 'M' 'Shift-M' 1 Year 'Y' 'Shift-Y' 1 Century 'J' 'Shift-J' 1 MilleniUm 'U' 'Shift-U' One of SkyGlobe's most useful features is the Auto-Increment or Animation mode. This gives you the ability to simulate the pas- sage of time on your computer. To enter or exit this mode, press 'A'. The sky view will begin to change in a manner that depends on the Auto-Increment parameters. Use 'Alt-A' to change the increment type from Time to Date and back. Use 'Shift-A' to change the direction of increment from Forward to Backward and back. You can also change the speed of increment. Press '>' to increase the speed, and '<' to slow back down. Only the active increment type, either Time or Date, is affected by the '>' and '<' keys. There are two ways to quickly activate some special Auto- Increment modes. Use 'R' to enter (or disable) Real-Time mode. This will synchronize the Time and Date to the system clock. You still have control over all commands except those related to Time and Date. Press 'Shift-R', and the Increment speed will be set to one Sidereal day, or about 1436 minutes. This has the effect of seeming to freeze the star and constellation display, while allowing the planets to continue their progress along the ecliptic. This is useful for learning about retrograde motion, as well as teaching something about the relative speeds of motions of the planets. If you would like to see what the sky will look like in the far future, or are more interested in the ancient past, the 'J', 'Shift-J', 'U', and 'Shift-U' keys will Jump the Date by a century or change it by a milleniUm. This will give you the chance to learn about the wobbling of the Earth's axis called precession, which is described in greater detail later. -7- Where Are We Looking? Now let's learn about how SkyGlobe interprets directions. The program assumes you are standing outside and that your eyes are facing the same direction your feet are pointing. This is the View Direction. The display shows this direction in degrees, ranging from 0 for due north, through 180 degrees for due south, to 350 degrees for 10 degrees west of north. The View Direction is also indicated by abbreviations in the parameter display, as well as along the Horizon line by initials. The View Elevation ranges from 0 degrees to 90. The Horizon ap- pears as a straight line at the 0 degree setting. It might help to imagine that you are extremely short for this one, so that the ground covers the lower half of your eyes, but is transparent. The 90 degree setting is like looking straight overhead at the Zenith. Moving Around SkyGlobe provides many convenient methods for rapidly changing the sky view. The up and down arrow keys change the View Elevation by 5 degrees. The right and left arrow keys work with the View Direction. When the View Elevation is near the Horizon these keys work about as you expect, but nearer to the Zenith they rotate the view more than they move it. This is correct when you remember that the View Direction stands for where your feet are pointing. PgUp and PgDn change Elevation in multiple jumps. Use Alt or Ctrl with the arrow keys to change the direction in smaller amounts. Finally, you can change the View Direction instantly to compass points by pressing 'N', 'S', 'E', or 'W', or by clicking the mouse on these letters in the Help menu. What Do We See? Lots and lots of stars! You can change the number of stars displayed by pressing 'B' for Brightness to increase the number, or 'Shift-B' to decrease it. The number of stars added or deleted from the display depends on the number currently displayed. After the number of stars currently displayed is an indication of the limiting magnitude this number represents. This is the magnitude of the dimmest star displayed. SkyGlobe allows you to adjust the magnification of your sky view. At a nominal magnification of 1, with the Inflated projection chosen, (this is the program default) half of the celestial sphere is visible. Since the eye can focus on far less area than this, a certain amount of distortion is evident at low magnifications. Still, you can use these views to quickly find areas of interest. The center of the screen is always the most accurate portion. Use 'Z' to increase the magnification and 'Shift-Z' or right mouse click in Help to decrease it. In common with many SkyGlobe commands, as described below, you can use 'Alt-Z' and 'Ctrl-Z' for smaller increments, and 'Home-Z' and 'End-Z' to quickly maximize or minimize the Zoom index. -8- The Planets You can use SkyGlobe to learn something about the way the planets move around the Sun. The very word 'Planet' is derived from the Greek word for wanderer. The ancients, who spent more time out- of-doors than we do, noticed that a few bright 'stars' seemed to move against the 'fixed' background of the rest of the heavens. (Here I mean fixed with respect to each other; they were acquainted with the slow progression from one season to the next of the whole 'sphere'.) They soon worked out the repetitive patterns the diff- erent 'stars' followed. We will learn how to simulate this motion shortly, but first we need to talk about some SkyGlobe features that are relevant. Although the stars don't really change much from one year to the next, the planets do. Notice the year displayed on the Date display in the upper left-hand corner. If this Time and Date are not displayed, press F2 to turn this display on. Use 'Y' or 'Sh-Y' to increase or decrease the year. You can use F3 to turn on the planet display, and to turn on planet labels. EGA/VGA color users see the planets in more or less appropriate colors. You may need to change the Time or Date to see your favorite planet. Now that we have seen the planets, let's see how they move. Change the Viewing Direction to South and the Time to 12:00 p.m. (noon) Turn off Daylight Time by pressing 'V'. Set Auto-Increment Type to Date by pressing 'Alt-A' if needed. Now press 'A' and watch the show. If you want to see how the planets stick near the ecliptic, make sure its display is turned on, (F6 does this). Since your location may not fall exactly on the Standard Time meridian, the Sun may not be due South for you at Civil noon. Also notice how it wanders from side to side throughout the year, as the Earth speeds and slows down along its slightly elliptical orbit. Notice how Mercury and Venus stay close to the Sun. Mars has positively weird behavior, since it is outside the Earth's orbit, but relatively close by. It also has an eccentric orbit. The other outside planets drift more slowly against the background of the stars. You may see more clearly how the moon goes through its phases, being al- ways in New Moon phase when near the Sun. Move to Midnight, and the Moon will be in Full phase when it shows up in the South. Since the orbit of the Moon is inclined at about 5 degrees to the ecliptic, it wanders above and below it each month. This motion, which rotates through an 18 year cycle, accounts for the periodicity of eclipses. SkyGlobe 3.5 uses calculated planetary positions to allow for planet display without the need for data tables. For instance, take a look at the solar eclipse of July 11, 1991. Slowly step through the hours, and watch how the moon gradually overtakes the Sun. Another interesting way to watch the motion of the planets is with the Sidereal Time mode of the Auto-Increment/Animation feature. Find a direction and a time and date that contain some planets, and press 'Shift-R'. The time will begin incrementing by 23 hours 56 minutes, or one sidereal day. The planets, especially the Sun, Moon, and inner planets, will begin to drift against the unmoving background of the stars. -9- Precession One pattern that is difficult to explain with words and books, but which lends itself perfectly to the animation features of SkyGlobe, is the 25,800 year wobble of the Earth's axis called precession. We think of the North Star as constant and unchanging--there's even a Shakespeare quote to that effect!--but in fact it is a lucky accident for us that Polaris, a 2nd magnitude star, is so close to the north celestial pole. (SkyGlobe trivia: Polaris used to be the defining star of the magnitude scale until it was discovered to be slightly variable. It was set equal to magnitude 2.0 exactly, and all other brightnesses were compared to it using a logarithmic scale.) Our North Star will gradually come even closer than its current three-quarters of degree to the actual pole until about 2100, when it will start to draw away. Stargazers of the future will use stars such as Errai, Alderamin, Deneb, Delta Cygni, Vega, Thuban, and Kochab as their North Stars, as well as some lesser-known lights. Some of these are better fits than others. The pattern will then begin to repeat in about 27900AD, when Polaris will again be very close to the pole. The same sequence extends into the past. But enough of this exposition; a SkyGlobe view is worth a thousand words! First we need to find a view where the celestial north pole is easy to see. Press 'N' to instantly choose a viewing direction of North, and use the Zoom features and up or down arrows to select a view which comfortably displays the coming together of the RA-Dec lines at the pole. You could also try 'F' and use the menus to find Polaris. You may find it helpful to change your latitude with 'Alt-N' or 'Alt-S' to an even number, so the pole falls on top of a hash mark. One nice option is to change your location to the North Pole and look toward the Zenith. So far, so good, we can look at the north celestial pole. Big Deal, you say? Press the Space bar to enter Turbo mode, and then select 'U' to continually increment the Date by one milleniUm. (Note: you can select Turbo with the mouse but once in this mode you will need to make your selections on the keyboard.) The algorithm that precesses the view gets a little slow for faraway dates and times, especially without a math coprocessor, so we want the biggest changes we can get. Polaris and the RA-Dec lines for the current epoch will start to spin off to the side, and the new North Stars will come in from the other side. If you start this with the mouse on top of the old pole it will help to show us the changes happening. The RA-Dec coords displayed will stay fairly near to 90 degrees Declination, with some error creeping in, while Polaris gets further and further away. If you move the mouse cursor on top of Polaris again--you may want to turn off Turbo for this--you will notice it is no longer near the new celestial pole. You can also use 'J' to Jump by a century instead of a milleniUm, and use the Shift keys to go backwards. We are limited to about one cycle in each direction, mostly since it gets pretty slow going toward the endpoints. The planets are still displayed throughout this range, but I wouldn't plan a trip to them based on these coordinates. They are approximately correct for as far back and forward as I have data. I have followed the astronomical con- vention of using the Julian calendar backward indefinitely, even though no one was using our month names tens of thousands years ago. -10- Finding Planets, Stars, And Constellations Let's say you wish to find a planet, or perhaps your favorite constellation. 'F' will access the Find menu. You can use either the cursor keys or the mouse to navigate the menus. Choose types of ob- jects from the lower right menu, using PgUp/PgDn, or use the mouse. A click or Enter at a chosen object will re-center the display at that object, if it is visible from your latitude. If necessary, the time will be incremented until the object is above the horizon. The next time you use the menus, the last chosen object will be under the menu cursor. Rather than going through the menus, you can quickly identify many stars by placing the mouse cursor over them. If they are among the brightest 300 stars, their name will appear in the lower left-hand corner, if the mouse is on. If you press the left mouse button while on the object and it has a .PCX file, the image will be displayed on the screen. If there is no .PCX file, or you aren't exactly on the object, (check lower left of screen), the screen will re-center to where the cursor is. To return to your previous RA-Dec setting, right click, making sure the cursor is in black sky, not on an object. I would like to say a few words here about nomenclature. names of the constellations are well standardized. Many of the strange names in the southern sky are Latinized names of scientific implements, since these constellations were named, (by the Western world, that is), in the beginning of the Industrial Age. Most of the northern constellation names go back much further. We use the genitive, or possessive, form of the constellation name to denote star names. For example, Alpha Centauri means the first star of Centaurus. The stars were generally enumerated in order of brightness. Since star brightnesses change with time, this correlation is not always exact. Many stars also have popular names, which are not standardized nearly as well as constellations. You may want to take my lists with a grain of salt. Fifty-seven stars, four planets, the sun, and the moon, have been chosen for celestial navigation purposes by various authorities. Ctrl-N acts as a filter for this group. Labels for the Nav stars appear in a different color in EGA and VGA color modes. Printing A snapshot of the screen may be printed with the use of the 'P' command. You will be prompted to choose a printer type, and the output will be directed to either LPT1 or LPT2, depending on the setting chosen with Alt-F7. No matter your video type, a display will be created in VGA resolution for dot-matrix printing, or SVGA resolution for HP-compatible laser printing. -11- Lines And Labels One of the most useful features of SkyGlobe is its ability to quickly and easily change the lines and labels that help our eyes and minds make sense of the vastness of the sky. This can be very helpful to the someone just learning the stars. Use 'C' to increase the number of Constellation Lines displayed. As always, use Shift or Right click to reduce the number of lines. The Constellation Lines have been grouped by importance, with some constellations having several classes of lines, such as the extra lines that change the Big Dipper into Ursa Major, the Great Bear. F10 instantly turns these lines on or off, which is a good way to learn the star patterns underneath the constellations. There are also several choices for labelling the constellations. Use F9 to roll through No labels- abbreviations-Small font full names-Large font full names-No labels again. The 1000 brightest stars can be labelled with numbers that repre- sent their brightness standing, and the three hundred brightest stars can be labelled with their names. Use F8 to roll through No Labels- Numbers-Small font names-Large font names-No Labels again. To change the number of stars to label, use F12, either on the keyboard or in the Help menu. The F5 command rolls through the Horizon Line, Zenith cross, and Hash-Mark displays, and the F6 command toggles the Ecliptic Line Display. Two levels of display are supported for RA-Dec grid lines, controlled with F7. These lines act somewhat like latitude and longitude lines on the globe of the Earth. Try looking due North in Auto mode with the lines on, and watch the celestial sphere rotate. This helps show how the Pole Star appears almost motionless. The Messier Objects--a list of 110 Deep Sky Objects compiled by Charles Messier--as well as 100 selected NGC objects, can be labelled with descriptive icons or the letter plus the appropriate number. The different types of objects are: open clusters, globular clusters, nebulas, spiral galaxies, and elliptical galaxies, which should be self-explanatory when you see them. F4 turns these objects on (icons only), gradually adding to the number each time it is pressed. To display labels for these objects, use Shift-F4. A beautiful representation of the Milky Way can be controlled with the 'K' key. This key will roll through: No display-Outlines only-Gray shaded regions-Blue shaded regions. You can adjust the brightness of the shaded regions (VGA and SVGA only) with 'Alt-K' for the inner region and 'Ctrl-K' for the outer. You can place a frame around the rectangular screen display or the round SkyGlobe with 'O'. The choices roll through No Display- Rectangular frame-Round frame-Rectangular and Round frames-Off. Colors for these lines can be altered with 'Shift-O'. 'G' toggles Guidelines for constellation areas. Shift-G scrolls through line colors for these. Alt-O produces a field-of-view circle with a 1 degree radius (2 degree diameter), to simulate a telescope eyepiece. -12- Keeping Track SkyGlobe has two handy on-screen displays to help the user. The left-hand display will help you keep track of settings such as the Zoom Index, and will remind you of the Viewing Location. By pressing F2 you can see the Auto-Increment parameters, the Print parameters and other miscellaneous information. This display can be blanked by pressing F2 yet again, or use Shift-F2 to peel off one screen at a time. A Help screen appears on the right-hand side of the screen. This display will remind you of the single-key commands of SkyGlobe. Press F1, and the function key assignments appear (on non-CGA machines). One more F1, and the list of alternate function keys shows up. Press F1 again to turn off the Help display. Once F1 appears on the screen you can use the mouse to bring up the rest of the options by clicking on F1. Mousing Around SkyGlobe displays some handy information about the position of the mouse cursor. The RA-Dec coordinates of the mouse cursor, along with the name of any object underneath it, will be displayed in the lower left- hand corner of the screen. If the object is a star, its magnitude is displayed. The height and direction of the cursor, which are called the Altitude and Azimuth, are also displayed. You can run a great deal of the program using the mouse. Clicking on the first letter of a command in the Help menu is like pressing the corresponding key. A left click chooses the command, a right click chooses the reverse of the command. In the case of L, it acts as Alt-L, choosing the location one step down the Location Menu without entering the menu itself. You can select the Turbo mode with the mouse, but, once in this mode, must make your selections on the keyboard. In the Location and Find menus, the mouse works as follows: You can use the mouse to navigate the menu, clicking on your choice of object or location. This will incorporate that choice into the settings, and, in the case of objects, centers them on the screen. Page types can be chosen in the lower right of the Find menu by clicking on the highlighted bar, or by using the cursor or PgUp/PgDn to select. A Right click will return you to the program with the object centered and locked in place. This allows the object to stay centered while the other parameters are changed. Try this with the sun or moon and Auto-Increment/Animation, ('A'), set to hours. Remember, you can't see through Earth. To unlock this mode, click the right button again. In general, left mouse clicks correspond to the Enter key in menus, and the right clicks correspond to the Shift-Enter commands. In the Find Menu Alt-click will display an image of an object if the correct .PCX file is present, while Alt-Enter will perform the same function. See page 14 for more on images. -13- Mousing continued On the screen the mouse can be used to manipulate the view and to display images. Clicking will center the screen wherever the cursor is located, unless it is on an object with a .PCX file, in which case an image of the object will be displayed. If you accidentally click for image display, simply click again or hit any key to terminate the display process. If you wish to place a particular object near the center but aren't fussy about precise location, and don't want to take a chance on an unwanted image display, click near but not on the object. Right click will do one of two things, depending on whether the cursor is on an object or not. If it is on an object it will center and lock that object as it does from the Find menu. If it is not on an object it will act as an undo and return the cursor to the RA-Dec position it held before the last click that moved it. An alternative way to get an object's image to come up is to select the object from the Find menu with the mouse, which will center the object, and then click on the object again. This makes it a two click process, (one for centering, one for image display), easier than trying to move the cursor precisely onto some objects. You can control the mouse display with F11. Enter/Shift Enter If you don't have a mouse or prefer to use the keyboard, the features controlled by right and left mouse clicks generally mimic Enter and Shift-Enter, respectively. Within the Find menu, for instance, selecting an object with Enter will center it on the screen. Selecting it with Shift-Enter will center and lock it, just as the right click does, allowing the object to remain centered while other parameters change. Pressing ESC will unlock the object. Use Alt-Enter in the Find Menu to display a chosen image, if present. When not being used to select an object or location, and when not in the lock mode, Enter acts as a repeat for the most recent command. This can change a two key function, for example, Shift-Z, into a one key (Enter) command. Shift-Enter acts as an undo for the most recent command. -14- Changing Viewing Locations One of the most popular pastimes for new astronomers is seeing what the sky looks like from other places. Perhaps you're thinking of moving, and want to make sure the stars will still be interesting to view from your prospective new home. (They will be!) Press 'L' to pull up a menu of locations from which to choose. Your current view will be left untouched at the bottom of the screen. Use the cursor keys or mouse to select a location. Once you make your new choice you will return to the program with all your other parameters just the way you left them. Since SkyGlobe 3.5 now has over 230 locations, there are two pages of locations to choose from. Use the 'End' key to quickly go to the spot that changes between pages. To choose locations from the supplied list, without actually going through the menu, you can use 'Home-L' (first location on menu, usually Caledonia MI), 'End-L' (Equator), 'Alt-L' or right click on L, (one position down the list), or 'Ctrl-L (one up menu). If you wish to move a small amount in a compass direction, try 'Alt-N', 'Alt-S', 'Alt-E' or 'Alt-W'. Then you can change locations without ever taking your eyes off the current display. The east and west moves simply have the effect of changing the local observed time by 1 minute. The north-south changes are 1/4 degree, about 17 miles. Displaying .PCX Images Perhaps the most exciting new feature in this version of SkyGlobe is its new facility to display SVGA .PCX images with a simple mouse click. Imagine the thrill, and the look of wonder in your child's eyes, when you click on Jupiter and are then presented with a beautiful 256- color full-screen picture of the Red Giant. Unfortunately, the size of such images precludes their inclusion in a tidy download package. Our motto here at KlassM SoftWare is: "Biggest bang for the byte!" Your evaluation copy of SkyGlobe is all set up to display properly named standard 256-color .PCX images, as long as you have VGA or better. All you need is to obtain your own images and name them properly. Planetary images should be named PLANET.PCX, where PLANET is a name such as JUPITER or SATURN. Messier Objects should be of the form M31.PCX, and the 100 hundred best NGC objects can be displayed as N7662.PCX, or some- thing similar. Note that it isn't strictly necessary for the image to reflect the object, the name is all that matters when you click. To display (or try to display) an image for an object, left-click while the mouse cursor is centered on the planet, Messier, or NGC. If the file is there, you should see it. SkyGlobe does its level best to display the image in 640x480x256 color mode if it can identify your video card. The program has been tested with Tseng, ATI, and Video 7 cards. The best way to ensure proper operation is to hunt up the disk that came with your system, and find the VESA driver. SkyGlobe will work with in VESA mode if at all possible. -15- Images continued If you can't get good results, you can start with SKYGLOBE V, which will force image display in 320x200x256 mode. I will continue to refine my SVGA handling in the months to come. So, where can you get nice pictures, and how can you make sure they are in the proper format? One way is to order the $10 2MB package when you register, but we won't restrict you to that! CompuServe has several forums, such as SPACE and ASTROFORUM, which have extensive libraries, and from which you are welcome to download for personal use. I only wish I was allowed to use some of those files to present to you! Anyhow, since most image files are in .GIF format, you will want a program such as VPIC to convert to .PCX. VPIC is a Shareware program which I highly recommend, and most of the files in my selection were converted with it. You can find the program anywhere you look for Shareware. Some of the files in my selection came from a highly respected graphics image guru named Bill Harris, who has hundreds of files, and who has uploaded many a megabyte to CompuServe and other boards. He is going to develop a SkyGlobe image list, and you can reach him at: Bill Harris Images Unlimited P.O. Box 512 Jasper, AL 35502 His CIS id=[70674,364] Please use an SASE if you write for his catalog/file list. Remember, there are plenty of sources for wonderful pictures. NASA photographs are not copyrighted, so many catalogs and BBSs have a few. Even Windows Paintbrush can create .PCX files, so you can experience the thrill of clicking on Saturn and seeing your own rendition of the Rings appear. I'm sure I will learn more about good sources as this version of the program starts making the rounds. I plan to add support for .GIF and JPEG images before too long, which will help the storage requirements. You can also display images if you don't have a mouse, by using find menu. Press 'F' to enter the Find Menu, then use the PgDn, PgUp, and other assorted cursor keys to select the object of your desire. If you press Enter at this point, you will re-center the display on top of that object, as we have discussed before. If you press Shift-Enter, you will Lock the display on the chosen object, and it will stay locked until you press Esc. (This is kind of fun to watch with various animation modes.) To display the image, if one is present, press Alt-Enter. There is currently no support of NGC objects through the use of this method. I'm excited to see how this feature of SkyGlobe 3.5 is received, and I hope you're excited to try it. Other than encouraging you to get your own images, to use your VESA driver, and to try a few extra modes if you have trouble, I can't think of anything else to say. SVGA is a bit of a black art, but the results are well worth it. -16- Special Command Modes The SPACE bar, Home and End keys, and Alt and Ctrl keys, have special meaning in V3.5. These special command modes can be very useful to make using SkyGlobe even easier. Try them, you'll like them! The SPACE bar activates Turbo mode, which takes the next keypress and continually feeds it into the program, until the SPACE bar is pressed again. This feature is particularly useful with Zoom, direction, and Time and Date commands. Try it with 'J' or 'U' while facing North to see a great demonstration of precession. The Home and End keys, for many commands, take the next keypress, and either minimize or maximize the program parameter altered by that key. These are helpful for Zoom and Brightness, and are convenient ways to set the Time and Date to even numbers, such as midnight or Jan 1. The Alt and Ctrl keys often work as smaller positive and negative increments for the command with which they are used. Once again, Zoom and direction commands work well with these keys. Let's try an example that illustrates these features. First, press Home, followed by 'Z', to reset the Zoom Index to 1. You will have noticed that you were prompted to enter the command to be used with the Home feature. Now, press the SPACE bar. You will be prompted to enter the Turbo key. Let's use the Alt feature here. Hold down the Alt key, and press 'Z'. The display will slowly begin to expand, and a message on the bottom of the screen will remind you to press the SPACE bar when you wish to exit Turbo mode. Now try it for yourself! Turbo- Alt-arrow is a good choice, although you might want to try Ctrl-arrow if you have trouble with the Alt-key combinations. Using the Alt-key in conjunction with the function keys can be used to control some of the more obscure parameters in SkyGlobe 3.5. Alt-F1 reduces the display to stars and constellation lines only. Alt-F2 reduces the display to stars only. Alt-F3 gradually changes the background color from black to blue. Alt-F4 enables Twilight Mode, which artificially brightens the background when the Sun or Moon is above the horizon. Alt-F5 turns off the mouse position display, independently of the F2 Parameter Index. This makes mouse centering impossible. Alt-F6 toggles the Precession flag. With the current range of only 200 years, this is not all that valuable, but it does work. Alt-F7 toggles the printer port between LPT1 and LPT2. Alt-F8 controls whether line feeds are added to carriage returns while printing. Alt-F10 controls the Aspect Ratio, useful for laptops and SVGAs. The TAB key is used for an interesting SkyGlobe feature. It will find the next sunrise or sunset, depending on the current situation. This feature occasionally stutters if used continually, but please don't tempt fate by using it too close to the poles, or the results may be a bit confusing. -17- Changing Your Environment SkyGlobe 3.5 has the capability to customize many program settings. In VGA and SVGA color modes, you can brighten or dim the RA-Dec line and text colors with '+' and '-', and this bias can be saved in the .CF0 file (explained below). The text color can be changed with '/', and you can toggle between normal and reversed text with '.'. The Background color can be changed from black through several shades of blue with Alt-F3. You can select a twilight mode with Alt-F4. This will artificially brighten the background color when either the Sun or the Moon is visible. The type of Time display, either AM/PM or 24-hour, can be toggled with '='. Use of the number keys allows for the saving of current program settings. Up to 10 different settings may be saved, one of which will be used as the new program default. These keys will create the file SKYGLOBE.CF#, where # is a digit 0 through 9. When SkyGlobe is started, it looks for the .CF0 file to get its initial settings. If you would rather use the default settings, delete or REName this file. If you want to use one of the other files, just use SKYGLOBE #, such as SKYGLOBE 4 to use SKYGLOBE.CF4. This scheme allows for the use of batch files, such as ECLIPSE.BAT=SKYGLOBE 1, where SKYGLOBE.CF1 has been set up for July 11, 1991. These parameters can be mixed with video choices, as long as you separate the parameters with spaces. You can load these .CF# files from directly within the program with the Shifted number keys. When you exit the program with either Q or ESC, the settings at that time will be saved in SKYGLOBE.CFU, which you can access either by typing SKYGLOBE U to start it up with the last exit settings. While in the program you can access these old settings at any time with Alt-U. If you are a registered user, the file SKYGLOBE.REG specifies up to three custom locations. (For unregistered users, you can use con- figuration files to use a nearby location as a default, without the need to go through the Location menu.) These custom locations will occupy the top three spots in the Location menu. When your order was filled, your Home Town was placed in the top spot, while Caledonia and Roscommon occupy the next two. If you move, or you wish to change the second and third cities, you may use any text editor to do so. But PLEASE BE CAREFUL! Before you make any changes, you should make a copy of the file. Then make certain you don't change the lengths of any field or the whole file. The location name, latitude, and longitude fields should be self-explanatory. The first three characters refer to North-South, West-East, and Daylight Time, respectively. Use 'N' or 'S', 'W' or 'E', and 'Y' or 'N' to specify the hemispheres, and whether Daylight Time is used. The next two characters refer to the time zone used. This number refers to the number of half-hours around from the Greenwich meridian the standard meridian for the time zone is. Use 10 for Eastern Time, 12 for Central, 14 for Mountain, and 16 for Pacific. European continental time is 46, not -2 or anything. You can also use this method to specify a location if you are traveling, such as an ocean voyage. -18- Memory Requirements This version of SkyGlobe will run perfectly with about 470K of free memory. Below that figure, compromises between the number of available stars and full-color vs monochrome have to be made. When in monochrome mode the memory requirements are greatly reduced. Using SkyGlobe with Windows SkyGlobe will work just fine under Windows in full-screen mode. I have included a SKYGLOBE.ICO Windows icon. To install SkyGlobe and use this icon, follow this procedure: Choose which Group you would to install SkyGlobe in, and make it the active Group. Choose New from the File menu and click OK to add a Program Item. Use the Browse feature to find the directory which contains the SKYGLOBE.EXE file. To use the icon, select Properties, then Change Icon. You will have to type in the name SKYGLOBE.ICO, then click on OK. The SkyGlobe Projection SkyGlobe 3.5 offers two projections for displaying the sky. The original SkyGlobe projection is a simple orthographic one. The newer projection, which is the program default, is a modified version of an orthographic view, which stretches (or Inflates) the display to preserve realistic shapes near the edges. Use 'I' to toggle between the two. Saying Goodbye Finally, press 'Q' or ESC to return to DOS. Thanks For Your Support! I hope you enjoy SkyGlobe! Since SkyGlobe is Shareware, you are encouraged to please pass it on to anyone who may find it interesting. Registered Users will automatically hear about future updates. Any suggestions you may have will be greatly appreciated. I can be reached on CompuServe as 76207,3377, or in care of the address on the order form. Thanks, and have fun learning about the stars! -19- SkyGlobe and the Stars - Some Background Information Why do we see different stars at different times? The Earth makes one complete rotation every day. If there were no Sun we could see that the stars appear to make one complete revolution at the same time. The North Star, Polaris (#51), is almost directly above the North Pole on the Earth's axis of rotation. So the stars near the North Star (about halfway up the northern sky in mid-northern latitudes) make tiny little circles every day. Farther away from the North Star the stars and the constellations they form wheel across the sky in huge arcs before they disappear below the horizon. Why do we see different stars at different dates? Imagine midnight in April. The Sun is behind the Earth, and you are facing away from it if you face due south. Now imagine midnight in October, six months later. You are still facing away from the Sun. But because the Earth has moved halfway around the Sun in its yearly orbit, you are looking in exactly the opposite direction to the one you were in April. So different stars are visible at midnight, and the ones near the North Star have made half a revolution. If there were no Sun, you could see that at noon the October sky is the same as the midnight sky in April. Before Standard Time Zones were instituted, the Sun was due south at noon everywhere. That was what noon meant. Now that is true only if you happen to live near the center of the time zone. If you live in Michigan, the Sun is due south around 12:30 or so. In New York City, which near the center line for the same time zone, the Sun reaches due south a few minutes before noon, over a half hour earlier than in Michigan. The Sun reaches due south somewhat later in Chicago than in Michigan, but because Chicago is in the Central time zone this occurs before 12:00PM. This has to be allowed for to make the display correct, and is unique to each location. Daylight Saving Time is handled in a similar manner, and is indicated on the Time Display by the letter D before the time if Daylight Time is in use. The sky can be viewed as a sphere with the Earth at the center, and the stars as fixed points on the sphere. Any attempt to represent this 3-dimensional space on a 2-dimensional surface inevitably introduces some distortion. SkyGlobe uses a unique projection that can be calculated very rapidly and provides quite accurate rendering of shapes as they appear in the sky, even near the edge of the display. The old ortho- graphic projection used in earlier versions of SkyGlobe (and still available through the use of the 'I' command) had fairly severe dis- tortions near the edges, and was only slightly faster. -20- Background Continued Another issue that must be dealt with is double stars. Perhaps as many as half of all stars are actually multiple star systems. The naked eye frequently interprets two dim stars close together as one brighter star. Many 'stars' that serve as end-points on constellation lines fit into this category. If these stars were left dim and separate they would appear 'invisible' at low brightnesses and make constellation shapes unrecognizable. At higher brightnesses and low magnifications these stars would be plotted on top of one another as points, still artificially dim. The solution is to combine magnitudes for these stars. The ordering of stars in SkyGlobe reflects this combination, so at medium brightnesses and magnifications the display is as realistic as possible. The dimmer star is retained at its actual brightness, so at very high magnifications and brightnesses you will see one artificially bright star and one correct dim star. SkyGlobe contains coordinates for 7000 stars in the file SKYGLOBE.EXE. This represents all the stars visible to the naked eye. These coordinates were obtained from Sky Catalogue 2000.0 with permission from the publisher, Sky Publishing Corp. This permission is gratefully appreciated. The file SKYEXTRA.DAT contains another 18000 stars. Steve Coe of the Saguaro Astronomy Club in Arizona was kind enough to provide me with several lists of interesting Deep Sky Objects, one of which formed the basis for the recent addition of 111 NGC objects. Any mistakes in transcription, are, of course, entirely my responsibility. If you don't already know, the SAC has a fabulous database full of interesting information about a huge array of objects. If you are a Deep Sky Fan, or thinking of becoming one, you need to have a copy. The constellation boundary lines (Guidelines) were adapted from a NASA CD which sells for a ridiculously low price. You get more data than you could ever use for a pittance, all in a fraction of an ounce. Their address is (or was): NASA National Space Science Data Center Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt MD 20771 SkyGlobe was programmed mostly in assembly language for maximum speed. Since there is necessarily a tradeoff between speed and accuracy, the precision of the star coordinates was carefully matched to the resolution of the graphics display and the projection algorithm chosen. Of course, no program is perfect. Any suggestions or bug reports would be greatly appreciated, and if you have any problems getting this version of SkyGlobe up and running on your system, don't hesitate to contact me. I can be reached at the address on the order form, or on CompuServe at 76207,3377. -21- Questions and Answers Why won't SkyGlobe run in color on my system? There are two different answers to this question. Many people who have color CGA systems expect SkyGlobe to run in color on their systems. Unfortunately, the resolution of CGA color mode is only 320x200, which is insufficient to produce the high quality display necessary for SkyGlobe. Those of you with EGA or better displays may be equally dismayed if SkyGlobe comes up in monochrome mode on your system. This is due to a lack of available memory, and you should notice a message to that effect when SkyGlobe is started. (You can force monochrome mode with SKYGLOBE M.) One other possibility is that SkyGlobe may be using the value in your SKYGLOBE.REG file to start up in CGA mode, even though you now have a better display available. To change this, either change your SKYGLOBE.REG file, or start SkyGlobe with SKYGLOBE V. How can I speed up SkyGlobe? There are really several answers to this question. SkyGlobe always does what you ask it to do as fast as it can. (We think it's pretty fast!) The trick is to ask it to do things in a way that seems faster. The first method involves asking SkyGlobe to do less work. Try turning off everything you can do without, especially the Milky Way, planets, and horizon line. Other possibilities: ecliptic, right ascension and declination lines, extra constellation lines, and dim stars. In addition, determining the location of the mouse cursor tends to be a slow operation, so you may want to turn it off by using F11 or Alt-F5. The second method applies only to Auto-Increment mode. SkyGlobe starts off changing the view five minutes at a time. You can increase this rate by pressing '>'. Another way is to change the increment type to Date mode by pressing 'Alt-A'. Then increase the Date increment rate by pressing '>'. Finally, you can use several of the helpful keyboard shortcuts available in SkyGlobe to create just the view you desire. My personal favorite is Turbo mode, which is entered by pressing the SPACE bar. When you enter Turbo mode, the next key you press becomes the Turbo command. This means it will be continually fed into the program, just as if you were pressing it yourself. You can use this to zoom in with Z or Alt-Z, and you can sit back and watch it happen, instead of deciding how many Zs to hit. When you are satisfied, just press the SPACE bar again. Try this with Alt-arrow keys, or Ctrl-arrows, since not all keyboards are the same. It's also convenient for Turbo-H or Turbo-M, if you really want to get to a Time or Date in a hurry. The Home and End keys can save a lot of time as well. They generally go immediately to the minimum or maximum values of a command or feature. With Time or Date commands, this is the quickest way to go to midnight or noon, or the first or 15th of the month, or January or July. End-B is by far the quickest way to turn on all the stars. Home-Z is the quickest way to return to the minimum Zoom, and you can follow it with SPACE-Z to get to some moderate value. -22- Q & A continued For changing direction quickly, you can't beat the N, S, E, and W direction commands. PgUp and PgDn can change the View Elevation faster than single arrow commands. Use the mouse button to quickly re-center the display at the position of the mouse cursor. And you can use Find to center the display at a particular object, instead of figuring out how to get there with the right combination of arrow keys. Why can't I get the new SkyGlobe to run from my hard drive? If you have both the old SKYGLOBE.COM and the new SKYGLOBE.EXE in the same sub-directory, you will not be able to run the new program. You either need to DELete SKYGLOBE.COM, or REName SKYGLOBE.COM SKY25.COM. Why does the screen go blank when I try to start SkyGlobe? If you attempt to start SkyGlobe in a video mode that is not supported by your system, the usual result is a blank screen, perhaps with the DOS prompt changing color. You will usually be able to get back to DOS by pressing 'Q'. If you are attempting to use SVGA, you may want to try SKYGLOBE S2, S3, S4, or S5 instead of SKYGLOBE S. The normal mode used for SVGA is the VESA standard, and you may need to load the VESA driver that came with your video card before starting SkyGlobe. The S2 is an older commonly used mode (6Ah), S3=Tseng chips, S4=Trident, S5=Paradise, S6=ATI, S7=Video 7, S8=Oak, and S9=the S3 accelerator chip. The last two will only attempt the 800x600x16 mode to run SkyGlobe, and not the image mode. Not all of them have been tested. If you know you have SVGA capability, but none of these will work for you, please contact KlassM SoftWare for further assistance. Otherwise, try working your way up from CGA to EGA to VGA mode, to see if the program will work in one of these modes, with SKYGLOBE C, SKYGLOBE E, and SKYGLOBE V. For a Hercules monochrome system, try SKYGLOBE H. Why does the display jump sometimes? This is usually due to Daylight Time becoming active or inactive. SkyGlobe currently uses US average US dates for Daylight Time (Summer Time) in Northern Hemisphere locations, and common Australian dates for the Southern Hemisphere. Policies vary from year to year and place to place. Although it was Benjamin Franklin who first proposed Daylight Time, it wasn't widely used in the US until WWI in 1918. Therefore, even for locations that customarily use Daylight Time today, I normally deactivate it before that date. At any time, you can force Daylight Time with Shift-V. If it is active when you don't want it, press V to de- activate it. One other time the display jumps is during the changeover from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. This took place at many different times in different countries, but SkyGlobe assumes that Oct 4, 1582, was followed by Oct 15, 1582. -23- Questions & Answers III Is there a version of SkyGlobe for the Macintosh? Since so much of SkyGlobe depends on assembly language programming, porting the program to the Macintosh would be a major undertaking. Now that V3.1 has some of the front end programmed in C, one small step for SkyGlobe has been taken in the portable code direction, but there are no immediate plans at the moment to work on a Macintosh version. There are still too many improvements to be made in the DOS world! Why does SkyGlobe always start with the same date, instead of today? You probably have a Configuration file setup for a particular time and date. Many people wish to save their own default settings for zoom, brightness, etc., but still wish to have SkyGlobe come up with the system time and date. To do this, press '0' to create a new default configuration, but make sure to press '1' when asked whether to use current or system time. If you wish to save a setup for an eclipse or a birthday, use 1-9 as the Configuration file number, press '0' to use Current as the time, and use SKYGLOBE 1 (or whatever) to start up with the appropriate settings. What about Caps Lock? SkyGlobe attempts to ignore Caps Lock, so the Shift Commands will operate properly. If for some reason you find some commands behaving backwards, perhaps SkyGlobe is having trouble identifying the Caps Lock state, so you may want to turn it off. Why does the time change sometimes when I Find an object? If the desired object is not currently above the horizon, but it will be sometime during the next 24 hours, the time will be incremented until the object just clears the horizon. It is possible that you are more interested in the date that an object will appear over the horizon for a given time. You might be able to use Sidereal Time mode to your advan- tage here, but there is currently no way to select for date instead of time, or to defeat the time increment feature. Why won't SkyGlobe print properly on my system? When you press 'P', you will be prompted to choose between 9-pin dot matrix, 24-pin dot matrix, and laser printers. The printout will be directed to the printer port you have chosen, LPT1 if you didn't change it, and will insert line feeds for the dot matrix printers. You can change the port with Alt-F7, and the line feed state with Alt-F8. The aspect ratio of the printout should be correct, but the current printout may not quite fill the page. Printing will continue to be improved in future releases of SkyGlobe. -24- SkyGlobe Command List A-Auto-Increment Mode Use Shift with most commands B-Brightness to reverse operation of the C-Constellation Lines command. D-Date E-East Use Home with many commands F-Find Object to minimize the associated G-Guidelines (Con Boundary Lines) feature of the command. H-Hour I-Inflate Use End with many commands J-Jump Year to maximize the associated K-MilKy Way feature of the command. L-Location M-Month N-North Use Alt with many commands O-Outline to increment the associated P-Print feature a small positive Q-Quit amount. R-Real-Time S-South Use Ctrl with many commands T-Time (Minute) to increment the associated U-MilleniUm feature a small negative V-Daylight Time amount. W-West X-Mirror Image Y-Year Z-Zoom Space->Turbo mode Continually feeds the next keypress to SkyGlobe. Left Mouse Button ReCenter Display at Mouse Cursor position. Right Mouse Button ReCenter Display at old Mouse Cursor position. F1-Help Alt-F1 Reduce display to Stars & Lines F2-Parameter Display Alt-F2 Reduce display to Stars only F3-Planets Alt-F3 Background F4-Messier Objects Alt-F4 Twilight Mode F5-Horizon Alt-F5 Mouse Display F6-Ecliptic Alt-F6 Precession Toggle F7-RA-Dec Lines Alt-F7 Printer Port F8-Star Labels (type) Alt-F8 Add Line Feeds? F9-Constellation Labels F10-Constellation Lines Alt-F10 Aspect Ratio F11-Mouse Display F12-Star Labels (number) 0-9 Save Configuration (0=New Program Default) Shift 0-9 Load Configuration TAB Find next sunset or sunrise Alt-U Reload exit state + Brighten Gray Colors Alt-F Flip Hemisphere - Dim Gray Colors Ctrl-N Nav object filter = Toggle AM-PM/24 hour Time Display Alt-O FOV 2 deg circle / Text Color Enter Repeat last key . Reverse Text Toggle Sh-Enter Undo last command -25- DEFINITION OF SHAREWARE Shareware distribution gives users a chance to try software before buying it. If you try a Shareware program and continue using it, you are expected to register. Individual programs differ on details -- some request registration while others require it, some specify a maximum trial period. With registration, you get anything from the simple right to continue using the software to an updated program with printed manual. Copyright laws apply to both Shareware and commercial software, and the copyright holder retains all rights, with a few specific exceptions as stated below. Shareware authors are accomplished programmers, just like commercial authors, and the programs are of comparable quality. (In both cases, there are good programs and bad ones!) The main difference is in the method of distribution. The author specifically grants the right to copy and distribute the software, either to all and sundry or to a specific group. For example, some authors require written permission before a commercial disk vendor may copy their Shareware. Shareware is a distribution method, not a type of software. You should find software that suits your needs and pocketbook, whether it's commercial or Shareware. The Shareware system makes fitting your needs easier, because you can try before you buy. And because the overhead is low, prices are low also. Shareware has the ultimate money-back guarantee -- if you don't use the product, you don't pay for it. Support Policy We at KlassM SoftWare are totally committed to offering the most bang for the byte in astronomy software. We are proud of SkyGlobe, and we want to make sure it works for you. If you have any problems, please contact us at the address on the order form, or leave me a note on CompuServe at 76207,3377. Since registered users have had the opportunity to try SkyGlobe before they pay for it, we shouldn't have too many problems. If some version change has made it impossible to run SkyGlobe on your system, I will either do what I can to make it work for you, or refund your money. -26- DISCLAIMER - AGREEMENT Users of SkyGlobe 3.5 must accept this disclaimer of warranty: "SkyGlobe 3.5 is supplied as is. The author disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, including, without limitation, the warranties of merchantability and of fitness for any purpose. The author assumes no liability for damages, direct or consequential, which may result from the use of SkyGlobe 3.5." SkyGlobe 3.5 is a "shareware program" and is provided at no charge to the user for evaluation. Feel free to share it with your friends, but please do not give it away altered or as part of another system. The essence of "user-supported" software is to provide personal computer users with quality software without high prices, and yet to provide incentive for programmers to continue to develop new products. If you find this program useful and find that you are using SkyGlobe 3.5 and continue to use SkyGlobe 3.5 after a reasonable trial period, you must make a registration payment of $20 to KlassM SoftWare. The $20 registration fee will license one copy for use on any one computer at any one time. You must treat this software just like a book. An example is that this software may be used by any number of people and may be freely moved from one computer location to another, so long as there is no possibility of it being used at one location while it's being used at another. Just as a book cannot be read by two different persons at the same time. Commercial users of SkyGlobe 3.5 must register and pay for their copies of SkyGlobe 3.5 within 30 days of first use or their license is withdrawn. Site-License arrangements may be made by contacting Klassm Software. Anyone distributing SkyGlobe 3.5 for any kind of remuneration must first contact KlassM SoftWare at the address below for authorization. This authorization will be automatically granted to distributors recognized by the (ASP) as adhering to its guidelines for shareware distributors, and such distributors may begin offering SkyGlobe 3.5 immediately (However KlassM SoftWare must still be advised so that the distributor can be kept up-to-date with the latest version of SkyGlobe 3.5.). You are encouraged to pass a copy of SkyGlobe 3.5 along to your friends for evaluation. Please encourage them to register their copy if they find that they can use it. All registered users will receive a copy of the latest version of the SkyGlobe 3.5 system. Ombudsman Statement "This program is produced by a member of the Association of Shareware Professionals (ASP). ASP wants to make sure that the shareware principle works for you. If you are unable to resolve a shareware-related problem with an ASP member by contacting the member directly, ASP may be able to help. The ASP Ombudsman can help you resolve a dispute or problem with an ASP member, but does not provide technical support for members' products. Please write to the ASP Ombudsman at 545 Grover Road, Muskegon, MI 49442 or send a CompuServe message via CompuServe Mail to ASP Ombudsman 70007,3536."