Skeleton to Rarely Branched (mostly acrocarpous) Mosses of the West Coast

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Skeleton to Rarely Branched (mostly acrocarpous) Mosses

of the West Coast
Revised through 12 January 2009
Reminder: a dagger () indicates that not all of the species within the given genus have the character(s) defining that Group.

Group A1 – Shoots flattened or angular, i.e., not round

Group A1

Acaulon Distichium Paludella

Aulacomnium Erpodium Plagiomnium

Bryoxiphium Fissidens Schistostega

Catoscopium Meesia Triquetrella


Group A2 – Shoots julaceous both wet and dry

Group A2

Anomobryum Bryum Plagiobryum

Aongstroemia Conostomum Pleuridium


Group A3 – Stems densely tomentose

Group A3

Anacolia Dicranum Rhizomnium

Aulacomnium Paludella Scopelophila

Cinclidium Polytrichum Zygodon

Group A4 – Stems red

Group A4

Anacolia Cinclidium Pohlia

Anomobryum Epipterygium Rhizomnium

Aongstroemia Mnium Roellia

Bryum Philonotis Trachycystis

Blindia Plagiobryum

Group A5 – Leaves squarrose-recurved

Group A5

BarbulaPaludella Tortula

Dicranella Pleurochaete Trichodon

Geheebia Rhexophyllum Triquetrella


Group A6 – Leaves falcate-secund

Group A6

Andreaeobryum Dicranum Paraleucobryum

Dicranella Kiaeria

Group A7 – Leaves subulate / setaceous

Group A7

Anacolia Dicranodontium Orthodontium

Archidium Dicranoweisia Paraleucobryum

Arctoa Dicranum Pleuridium

Bartramia Ditrichum Pseudoditrichum

Blindia Eccremidium Seligeria

Brachydontium Kiaeria Symblepharis

Bruchia Leptobryum Trematodon

Campylopus Oncophorus Trichodon


Group A8 – Leaves dimorphic

Group A8

Epipterygium Erpodium

Group A9 – Leaves with hair-points or awns

Group A9

Acaulon Erpodium Pyramidula

Aloina Grimmia Schistidium

Brachymenium Jaffueliobryum Splachnum

Bryum Lorentziella Stegonia

Campylopus Orthotrichum Tetraplodon

Coscinodon Phascum Tortula

Crossidium Polytrichum Ulota

Desmatodon Pseudocrossidium Venturiella

Encalypta Pterygoneurum Voitia

Group A10 – Leaves with lamellae, ridges, or filaments

Group A10

Aloina Dicranum Polytrichastrum

Atrichum Dryptodon Polytrichum

Bartramiopsis Lyellia Psilopilum

Campylopus Oligotrichum Pterygoneurum

Crossidium Pogonatum Saelania

Group A11 – Leaves undulate

Group A11

Atrichum Aulacomnium Dicranum

Group A12 – Leaves involute

Group A12

Aloina Indusiella Polytrichum

Astomum Neohyophila Weissia


Group A13 – Leaves all costa

Group A13

Leucobryum Octoblepharum

Group A14 – Leaves with a broad, single costa

Group A14

Amblyodon Campylopus Leptobryum

Brothera Dicranella Meesia

Campylopodiella Dicranodontium Paraleucobryum

Reminder: The costa in Groups A15 through A19 is long and single.

Group A15 – Leaves with expanded, sheathing bases

Group A15

Bartramia Oligotrichum Rhexophyllum

Bartramiopsis Oncophorus Symblepharis

Dicranella Pogonatum Timmia

Ditrichum Polytrichastrum Trematodon

Indusiella Polytrichum Trichodon

Lyellia Pseudoditrichum

Group A16 – Leaves with long decurrencies

Group A16

Bryum Paludella Pohlia

Meesia Plagiomnium Triquetrella


Group A17 – Leaves with a defined group of hyaline cells

Group A17

Bryoerythrophyllum Hedwigia Pottia

Bryum Luisierella Syrrhopodon

Calymperes Oxystegus Tortella

Desmatodon Paraleptodontium Tortula

Encalypta Plagiobryum Trichostomopsis

Eucladium Pleurochaete Trichostomum

Group A18 – Leaves with a distinct border

Group A18

Atrichum Desmatodon Psilopilum

Bartramiopsis Entosthodon Rhizomnium

Brachymenium Epipterygium Rhodobryum

Bryum Leptodontium Roellia

Buxbaumia Mnium Scouleria

Calymperes Oedipodium Splachnobryum

Cinclidium Plagiomnium Syrrhopodon

Crumia Pseudobryum Tortula

Cyrtomnium Pseudocrossidium Trachycystis

Group A19 – Leaves with distinct alar cells

Group A19

Arctoa Dicranodontium Grimmia

Blindia Dicranoweisia Kiaeria

Campylopus Dicranum Paraleucobryum

Group A20 – Leaves with costa extremely reduced to lacking

Group A20

Andreaea Micromitrium Tetrodontium

Ephemerum Schistostega Venturiella

Erpodium Sphagnum

Reminder: Definitions for cell length to breadth ratios are found in the Introduction, the Overview and at the end of this section.

Group A21 – Cells long (>5:1) and smooth

Group A21

Orthodontium Pohlia

Group A22 – Cells intermediate (2-5:1) and distinctly papillose

Group A22

Bartramia Gymnostomiella Philonotis

Group A23 – Cells intermediate and distinctly prorulose

Group A23

Bartramia Bruchia Ephemerum

Bartramidula Conostomum Philonotis

Group A24 – Cells intermediate and smooth (or indistinctly ornamented#)

Group A24

Bruchia Ditrichum Pohlia

Bryobrittonia Entosthodon Seligeria

Bryum Funaria Splachnobryum

Catoscopium Mielichhoferia Tayloria

Dicranella Orthodontium Tetrodontium

Discelium Physcomitrium
# Cells bulging, mammillose (both bulging & papillose) or indistinctly papillose, i.e. low papillae.

Group A25 – Cells short (<2:1) and distinctly papillose

Group A25

Amphidium Didymodon Orthotrichum

Andreaea Encalypta Pseudocrossidium

Anoectangium Geheebia Rhexophyllum

Aulacomnium Gymnostomum Timmia

Barbula Gyroweisia Tuerckheimia

Cynodontium Hymenostylium Ulota

Desmatodon Leptodontium Zygodon

Dichodontium Molendoa

Group A26 – Cells short and smooth (or indistinctly ornamented#)

Group A26

Andreaea Gyroweisia Rhacithecium

Andreaeobryum Hyophila Schistidium

Barbula Meesia Scopelophila

Campylostelium Neohyophila Scouleria

Ceratodon Oncophorus Seligeria

Crumia Oreas Stegonia

Cynodontium Orthotrichum Tetraphis

Desmatodon Plagiopus Timmia

Didymodon Pottia Timmiella

Diphyscium Ptychomitrium Tortula

Globulinella Pyrrhobryum Trichostomopsis

Grimmia Rhabdoweisia Ulota
# Cells bulging, mammillose (both bulging and papillose) or indistinctly papillose, i.e. low papillae.
Bulging: Diphyscium, Hyophila, Neohyophila, Ptychomitrium, Timmia & Timmiella

Cuticular ridges: Amphidium, Grimmia & Plagiopus

Cells = medial, laminal cells; cells ~2/3 of the way from insertion to apex, midway between the costa and the margin.
Length to breadth ratios of medial, laminal cells:

Long cells: >5:1; commonly termed linear.

Intermediate cells: 2-5:1; commonly termed elongated, rectangular, hexagonal, or rhomboidal.

Short cells: <2:1; commonly termed isodiametric, quadrate, rounded-quadrate, or


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