Sister Species




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Supplementary Table 2. The 30 sister-species pairs included along with their distribution types, estimated divergence times (in millions of years before present), and temperature and elevational overlaps.

Sister Species

Distribution

Divergence Time

(Myr)


Temp.

Overlap


Elev.

Overlap

Temperate













Plethodon amplus, P. meridianus 1-3


Allopatric

1.87

11.43

1

Plethodon cheoah, P. shermani 1,2,4

Allopatric

3.45

11.88

1

Plethodon hubrichti, P. nettingi 1,5

Allopatric

4.97

9.19

0.42

Plethodon montanus-3, P. montanus-4 2


Allopatric

0.018

11.70

0.99

Plethodon montanus-1, P. montanus-2 2

Allopatric

0.018

11.43

0.98

Plethodon punctatus, P. wehrlei 1,6

Allopatric

4.38

10.39

1

Desmognathus ochropaheus, D. orestes 7-10

Allopatric

3.81

11.27

0.62

Desmognathus wrighti-North, D. wrighti-South 7,11

Allopatric

6.8

11.67

0.98

Plethodon chlorobryonis, P. variolatus 1,12

Parapatric

0.84

8.85

1

Plethodon cylindraceus, P. teyahalee 1,12

Parapatric

1.85

11.36

0.89

Plethodon dorsalis, P. ventralis 1,13

Parapatric

5.18

11.15

0.95

Plethodon electromorphus, P. richmondi 1,5

Parapatric

5.12

11.19

0.97

Plethodon fourchensis, P. ouachitae 1,14

Parapatric

5.58

11.75

1

Plethodon grobmani, P. ocmulgee 1,12

Parapatric

2.04

11.10

1

Plethdodon hoffmani, P. virginia 1,5

Parapatric

3.05

11.25

1

Plethodon jordani, P. metcalfi 1-3

Parapatric

5.74

10.83

1

Tropical













Pseudoeurycea boneti, P. maxima 15,16


Allopatric

5.82

6.11

0

Pseudoeurycea papenfussi, P. smithi 15,19

Allopatric

5.32

8.75

0.69

Bolitoglossa celaque, B. synoria 15,17

Allopatric

2.82

6.11

0

Pseudoeurycea exspecta, P. rex 15

Allopatric

3.45

10.73

1

Bolitoglossa hermosa, B. riletti 20

Allopatric

4.73

10.46

0.31

Bolitoglossa macrinii, B. oaxacensis 20

Allopatric

8.97

9.20

1

Ixalotriton niger, I. parva 15,18

Allopatric

8.97

10.54

1

Oedipina pacificensis, O. uniformis 15,21

Parapatric

2.75

4.15

0

Pseudoeurycea anitae, P. cochranae 15,21

Parapatric

2.28

11.61

1

Pseudoeurycea gigantea, P. naucampatepetl 15,16

Parapatric

4.63

10.07

1

Pseudoeurycea juarezi, P. saltator 15,17,18

Parapatric

0.61

8.10

0.89

Bolitoglossa flavimembris, B. morio 15,17

Parapatric

2.28

8.20

1

Bolitoglossa franklini, B. lincolni 15,22

Parapatric

5.80

9.92

0.43

Bolitoglossa occidentalis, B. rufescens 15,22

Parapatric

11.13

10.83

0.99

Supplementary Literature Cited

  1. Kozak, K. H., Weisrock, D. W. & Larson, A. 2006 Rapid lineage accumulation in a non-adaptive radiation: phylogenetic analysis of diversification rates in eastern North American woodland salamanders (Plethodontidae: Plethodon). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 273, 539-546.

  2. Weisrock, D. W. & Larson, A. 2006 Testing hypotheses of speciation in the Plethodon jordani species complex with allozymes and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 89, 29-51.

  3. Highton, R. & Peabody, R. B. 2000 Geographic protein variation and speciation in salamanders of the Plethodon jordani and Plethodon glutinosus complexes in the southern Appalachian Mountains with the description of four new species. In The biology of plethodontid salamanders (ed. R. C. Bruce, R. G. Jaeger, & L. D. Houck), pp. 31-94. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publisher, NY.

  4. Weisrock, D. W., Kozak, K. H. & Larson, A. 2005 Phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial gene flow and introgression in the salamander, Plethodon shermani. Mol. Ecol. 14, 1457-1472.

  5. Highton, R. 1999 Geographic protein variation and speciation in the P. cinereus group with the description of two new species. Herpetologica 55, 43-90.

  6. Highton, R. & Larson, A. 1979 The genetic relationships of the salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Syst. Zool. 28, 579-599.

  7. Kozak, K. H., Larson, A., Bonett, R. M. & Harmon, L. J. 2005 Phylogenetic analysis of ecomorphological divergence, community structure, and diversification rates in dusky salamanders (Plethodontidae: Desmognathus). Evolution 59, 2000-2016.

  8. Anderson, J. A. & Tilley, S. G. 2003 Systematics of the Desmognathus ochrophaeus complex in the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee. Herpetol. Monogr. 17, 750110.

  9. Mead, L. S., Tilley, S. G. & Katz, L. A. 2001 Genetic structure of the Blue Ridge dusky salamander (Desmognathus orestes): inferences from allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and behavior. Evolution 55, 22870-2302.

  10. Rissler, L. J. & Taylor, D. R. 2003 The phylogenetics of desmognathine salamander populations across the southern Appalachians. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 27, 197-211.

  11. Crespi, E. J., Rissler, L. J. & Browne, R. A. 2003 Testing Pleistocene refugia theory: phylogeographic analysis of Desmognathus wrighti, a high-elevation salamander in the southern Appalachians. Mol. Ecol. 12, 969-984.

  12. Highton, R., Maha, G. C. & Maxson, L. R. 1989 Biochemical evolution in the slimy salamanders of the Plethodon glutinosus complex in the eastern United States. Ill. Biol. Monogr. 57, 1-78.

  13. Highton, R. 1997 Geographic protein variation and speciation in the Plethodon dorsalis complex. Herpetologica 53, 345-356.

  14. Duncan, R. & Highton, R. 1979 Genetic relationships of the eastern large Plethodon of the Ouachita Mountains. Copeia 1979, 95-110.

  15. Wiens, J. J., Parra-Olea, G., García-París, M. & Wake, D. B. 2007 Phylogenetic history underlies elevational biodiversity patterns in tropical salamanders. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 274, 919-928.

  16. Parra-Olea, G., García-París, M., Papenfuss, T. J. & Wake, D. B. 2002 Systematics of the Pseudoeurycea belli (Caudata:Plethodontidae) species complex. Herpetologica 61, 145-158.

  17. Parra-Olea, G., García-París, M. & Wake, D. B. 2004 Molecular diversification of salamanders of the tropical American genus Bolitoglossa (Caudata: Plethodontidae) and its evolutionary and biogeographical implications. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 81, 325-346.

  18. Parra-Olea, G. 2002 Molecular phylogenetic relationships of neotropical salamanders of the genus Pseudoeurycea. Mol. Phylogent. Evol. 22, 234-246.

  19. Parra-Olea, G. & Wake, D. B. 2001 Extreme morphological and ecological homoplasy in tropical salamanders. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 7888-7891.

  20. Parra-Olea, G., García-París, M. & Wake, D. B 2002 Phylogenetic relationships among the salamanders of the Bolitoglossa macrinii species group (Amphibia: Plethodontidae), with descriptions of two new species from Oaxaca (Mexico). J. Herpetol. 36, 356-366.

  21. García-París, M. & Wake, D. B. 2000 Molecular phylogenetic analysis of relationships of the tropical salamander genera Oedipina and Nototriton, with descriptions of a new genus and three new species. Copeia 2000, 42-70.

  22. Wake, D. B. & Lynch, J. F. 1982 Evolutionary relationships among central American salamanders of the Bolitoglossa franklini group, with a description of a new species from Guatemala. Herpetologica 38, 257-272.


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