Shorea robusta Family: Dipterocarpaceae Nepali Name

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Silviculture of indigenous species

Shorea robusta

Family: Dipterocarpaceae

Nepali Name: Sal, Agrath, Sakhuwa

Natural Occurrence:

Shorea robusta is the most predominant species of the Terai and Bhabar, except in areas of very high rainfall, where it is replaced by mixed forest, and along streams. It also covers most of the Siwalik Hills, and the dunes between them. Its maximum altitude is about 1500m, but it is not common above 1000 m. Stainton (1972) distinguished two types of Sal forests. One is the Bhaber Terai and Terai Sal forests and other is the Hill Sal forests. In the former, the trees are much larger and the species composition richer, while in the latter the trees rarely exceed 15m in height. At its upper limits it is replaced by Pinus roxburghii or Schima-Castanopsis forests.
Silvicultural Characteristics:

    • Large tree, exceptionally reaching a height of 45m.

    • It is deciduous but only for a short time in the year.

    • It is light-demander and grows on a wide range of soil types, except in the very sandy and gravelly soils.

    • It grows badly on stiff clays.

    • Seedlings tolerate some frost.

    • Seedlings exposed to drought, fire and frost, die back, but roots remain alive and continue to send up new shoots each year.

    • Eventually a very strong rootstock develops which produces a shoot which continues to grow and eventually forms a tree. This process may take 3-10 years.

    • But, under good conditions the seedlings will produce a shoot which will continue to grow without dieback

    • Fire resistance

    • Coppices well in most localities, but not if the stems are more than 20-30 cm in diameter.

    • It is not usually severely affected by disease.

Field Identification:

      • Leaves glabrous, ovate-oblong, 10-20cm by 6-12cm. 12-14 pairs of lateral veins, Stalks 2-2.5cm long.

      • Flowers yellow, about 2cm across

      • Fruit ovoid, about 8mm diameter with five wings, three long and two short, the longer up to 7.5cm long.

      • Bark-blackish brown with few longitudinal cracks

Flowering: The flower buds become visible in February

Fruiting: The fruits ripen in June

No of Fruits per kg: 575-1000

Germination: Hypogeous

Method of propagation:
Natural regeneration:

  • Fruits ripen in June and fruits fly like propeller up to 100m from the tree. After the seeds fall germination begins, provided if there is rain otherwise seed may die.

  • The good seed year is once in 3 or 4 years

  • Germination in bare soil is better, so the control burning before seed falls is beneficial

  • Sufficient light is required for germination

Artificial regeneration:
Direct Sowing

  • Seeds sown in moist soil

  • Seed are sown in lines of 6ft apart and the seedlings in lines are 6 inches apart.

  • In India for direct sowing under taungia, strips are hoed about 30 cm wide, separated from the taungia crop by uncultivated strips also 30 cm wide.

  • Seeds are covered with thin layer of soil.

  • Seeds are kept 2 inches below the soil surface

  • Germination complete in two weeks

Entire Planting:

  • Seeds are sown directly into containers, two seeds per container in June.

  • Planted during rain in next year.

Stump Planting

  • The use of stumps is still at a trial stage.

Bare-root plants have no chances of survival.
Rate of Growth:

  • Under very favorable conditions initial growth can be quite fast, with a height of 6m after 5 yrs from seed. This, however, is exceptional.

  • In a planted plot at Adhabar, at the age of 3.5 yrs, mean height was 1.95m, but survival 46%

  • In natural regeneration at Sagarnath, age 33 month, mean height was 3.5m and dbh 1.2 cm

  • In Tinau water shed area, after 3 yrs the mean height was 2.5m, dbh 2.2cm


  • Important constructional timber.

  • It is strong and elastic, and the heart wood is very durable.

  • It is cross-grained, so difficult to seasoning.

  • Export to India for railway slippers at one time.

  • Timber weigh 800 and 960 kg/m3

  • Excellent fuel wood

  • It also makes good charcoal

  • Leaves are used to make plates

  • Sal seed are used for oil extraction. After oil extraction the cake can be used to supplement cattle feed.

Dalbergia sisoo
Family: Leguminosae

Nepali name: Sissou, sisham

Natural Occurrence:

It is a large deciduous tree of Terai, Bhabar and Duns. It grows well adjoining to rivers in alluvial soil often associated with Aacacia catehu. It grows up to 1500m in Nepal. Its distribution is in the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra river system including their tributaries from Afganisthan to Assam. However its range has been greatly extended by planting.

Silvicultural characteristics:

  • Deciduous tree

  • Grows up to 30 m in favorable site.

  • Grows well in an area of 8m depth of water table with alluvial soil

  • Grows in other soil with poor growth rates

  • In India it is planted in high pH soil to reclaim eroded sites

  • Does not tolerate water logged areas

  • It is strong light demander

  • Rapidly develop tap roots of length 1-1.5m in the first year

  • It is frost resistance

  • It is not fire resistance

  • Young trees prone to browsing

  • Coppices and pollards freely

  • Its root nodules fix nitrogen

Field Identification:

  • Bark thick grey longitudinally furrowed

  • Leaves odd pinnate, leaflets alternate

  • Pea like seedpods, white or bluish white, 1-4 seeds

  • Flowers yellowish-white

Flowering: March-April
Fruiting: December-January
Time of seed collection: January-March

No of Seeds/kg= 53000 and fruits/kgs 13,500-18000
Germination: Epigeous
Germination % = 90- 100

Method of Propagation:
Natural Regeneration

  • Seeds produce nearly every year

  • Seed pods fall in Jan and March lie on the ground till it germinate with sufficient moisture.

  • Seed dispersal is mainly by wind and water

  • Regeneration found in landslips and abandoned cultivation

  • Seedlings establish need sufficient light and free from weed

  • Re-growth from coppice and root suckers

Artificial regeneration:

Direct sowing

  • Conveniently raised by direct sowing

  • Seeds are sown in lines

  • Germination takes place 10-15days

Entire Planting;

Broken pieces of pods are sown in nursery beds

Their layer of soil spread to cover seeds

Germination compounds in 15 days

Pricked into poly bags.

Poly bag seedlings are planted in monsoon

Stump planting:

  • 12-15 months old seedlings are consider suitable for making stumps

  • root –shoot is most suitable for planting

  • 6 inch root 2 inch shoot has got highest survival

Growth Rate:

  • Top height is 11.2m at the age of 5yrs.

  • Mean annual increment from 10 years onward 8 m3/ha


  • Timber is used for construction, furniture, cart wheels, tool handles

  • Excellent fuel wood

  • Excellent charcoal

  • Valuable fodder

  • Tree is excellent source of honey

  • Excellent parquet.

Pest and Diseases:

  • Ganoderma lucidum – a bracket fungus producing root rot.

  • Polyporus gilvus – also causes root rot

  • Uredo sisso and Maravalia achroa – cause foliage rust.

  • The larvae of Plectoptera reflexa – cause serious defoliation.

Acacia catechu
Family: Leguminosae

Nepali name: Khair

Natural Occurrence:

It is widespread in Terai and extends to about 900 m altitude. Exceptionally it is found up to 1400m. It occurs in India, Thailand and Southern China. It is the very characteristic of edges of rivers in the Terai and Dun areas.

Silvicultural characteristics:

Strong light demander

Grows in wide range of soils, but prefers well drained, coarse gravelly alluvial soil.

Tolerate heavy clay soil.

In India planted in eroded slopes.

Seedlings are susceptible to severe frosts, but from sapling stage, frost damage is less.

Beyond the sapling frost damage is less.

Drought resistance

Prone to browsing and grazing.

It coppices well.

Seedlings develop strong taproot.
Field Identification:

  • Bark dark grey

  • Middle-sized tree

  • Branches are armed with thorns.

  • Flowers pale yellow, in cylindrical spikes

  • Pods are flattened, brown, shining, 5-7 cm long and containing 3-6 seeds

Flowering: Flowers appear in May –June with new leaves.

Fruiting: Pods ripen in January- February and falls in January

Time of seed collection: January

Seed viability: one year
Germination: Epigeous

Germination %: 60 – 80

No of seeds/kg: 40,000
Method of Propagation:
Natural Regeneration:

  • Seed ripen in Jan- Feb and start falling in Jan

  • Seed are dispersed by wind and water

  • Regeneration is most profuse on exposed alluvial soil.

  • Excessive grazing affect the natural regeneration

Artificial Regeneration:
Direct Sowing:

  • Seeds are soaked in water for 24 hrs, and then sown in March/April.

Entire Planting:

  • Seeds are directly sown into polypots in March/April.

  • Seedlings are taken out for planting in June –July

Stump Planting:

  • Stump plants give generally poor results than seedlings raised in polypots.

  • So this method is not recommended.

  • Bare root plants have given poor results.

Growth Rate:

  • Early growth in rapid

  • Adabhar 18-months tree height 4.7m and 5.8 cm diameter. And in Butwal 34months trees 5.8m high and diameter 6.5 cm.


  • The most important product is Katha and Cutch

  • Katha is an impure form of catechne and used in chewing with pan and has medicinal values.

  • Cutch used for tanning and dying

  • Excellent fuel wood and charcoal

  • Construction purpose, and agriculture implements

  • Heart wood is durable

  • Good fodder

Bombax ceiba
Family: Bombacaceae

Nepali- Simal

Natural Occurrence:

Mainly found in Terai, Bhabar and Duns, but occasionally extends to the higher elevations, up to 1500 m. It is often seen as single tree standing in the villages in the Terai.

Silvicultural Characteristics:

  • A Large tree, up to 40 m height by 2 m in diameter.

  • The Stem has buttresses at the base.

  • Light demander and drought resistance

  • Grows well in deep soil than on sandy alluvial soil

  • Tolerate seasonal flooding but growth is stunted in badly drained soil.

  • Frost tender

  • The seedlings may be burnt back annually, but will sprout from the base, until eventually a stem is formed.

  • This dieback and sprouting of seedlings also occurs under poor soil conditions and may be repeated for several years before a stem develops.

  • Shorea robusta shows similar behavior of dying back of seedlings.

  • Browsing causes considerable damage.

  • Coppices well and produce abundant root suckers.

Field identification:

  • Large deciduous tree.

  • Buttressed at base.

  • Branches horizontal

  • Young stem covered with prickles

  • Leaves alternate, digitate, with 5 on 7 leaflets.

  • Flowers appearing when tree is leafless, large, scarlet.

  • Fruit a hard woody capsule, about 10cm long.

  • Seeds embedded in dense wool.

Flowering: January- March

Seed ripening: April – May
One hundred dry pods weigh about 2 kg, and produce about 600 g of seed and 450 g of floss.

No of Seeds / Kg: 21,000 – 45,000

Germination % = 45-70
Method of Propagation:

Natural regeneration:

  • Seed dispersal by the wind. Seed disperse to long distance as the seeds are covered with white hairs.

  • Often come up in clumps of dense thorny shrubs if protected from grazing.

  • Colonize in abandoned cultivation.

  • Fire protection helps greatly to establish

Artificial Regeneration

Direct sowing:

  • Seeds are sown in raised patches of loose soil in early rains.

Entire planting:

  • Seeds are sown in nursery beds or directly in poly bags in May.

  • Germination starts in a week and completes in 25 days.

  • Seedlings are planted in early monsoon.

Stump planting:

  • Stumps are made of one year old seedlings

  • Planted in early monsoon.

Growth Rate:

  • Fast growth under favorable condition

  • In very good conditions the trees can reach a diameter of 38 cm in ten years.

  • In U.P. India it reached 15 cm diameter and 10 m height in 10 years and 32 cm diameter and 18 m height in 20 years.


  • Used mainly for match manufacture.

  • The timber is soft, very easy to work, but very perishable.

  • In addition to matches, it is used for packing cases, toys and cheap ply wood.

  • Light in weight, between 250 and 500 kg/m3.

  • It is not good fuel wood.

  • Leaves are medium quality fodder

  • Fruits produce floss which is used for stuffing pillows.

  • The young flowers can be eaten as a vegetable.

  • Roots and gum are used medicinally.

Pest and Diseases:

  • Seedlings in nursery are often eaten by insects; this may need to be controlled by spraying with an insecticide, such as metacid.

  • Planted trees are attacked by root fungus, Ganoderma lucida, which causes root rot.

Pinus roxburghii

Family: Pinaceae

Nepali name: Khote Salla, Aule Salla, Rani Salla

Chir pine

Natural Occurrence:

Normally it is found between 900m and 1950m, however in sheltered valleys it descends to 450 m and in dry valleys of Karnali and Bheri it ascends to 2700m. In western Nepal it is found in large areas of pure pine forest in both southern and northern slopes, and is also found in association with hill sal forest. In central Nepal it is found in southern drier slopes. In Pokhara valley in northern and eastern slopes it is absent because of high rain fall. In the east it is found along the dry areas of Arun/Tamur valleys. In its upper limit it is mixed with oaks and rhododendrons. Outside Nepal its distribution is found from Afganistan to Sikkim and Bhutan.

Silvicultural characteristics:

  • Evergreen tall tree above 50 m high and 1 m in diameter.

  • Strong light demander and reasonably frost hardy.

  • Grows in poor soil conditions and comes even on eroded area.

  • Annual growth ring clear with resin ducts prominent on vertical section

  • Very fire resistance.

  • It is unpalatable by cattle.

  • In pure stands there is no any woody undergrowth and grasses, but with the ground covered with dead needles.

  • In pure pine plantations hard wood species appear naturally.

  • Unlike most Pinus species, it has certain ability to coppice, especially when the trees are small.

Field Identification:

  • A three- needled pine, with long needles between 20-30 cm

  • Cones ovoid, 10-18 cm by 6-9cm when mature.

  • Thick bark in reddish color in young, bark on old trees is grey, deeply furrowed and divided into elongated plates.

Fruit ripen: Jan – March

Time of seed collection: March –May

No of seeds/kg 8000: 12, 300

Germination %: 70 – 90%

Seed viability: one year.
Natural regeneration:

  • Seed dispersal by wind in April to June

  • Germinate best on bare ground, such as abandoned cultivation or burnt areas.

  • Seedlings establish in an area of moderate grass cover.

  • Young seedlings need light.

Artificial regeneration:

  • Seed ripen in Jan- March.

  • Seeds are shown in poly bags in March

  • Germination begins from 8/10 days and completes in 3 weeks.

  • In higher altitude seeds are sown in sep/ Oct

  • In higher altitude needs one year to produce plantable size seedling in nursery

  • Seedlings are planted in rain.

Growth rate:

  • Early growth is slow.

  • Best height growth, Lumle (1460m) mean height was 8.2 m at five years old plantation.

  • Chautara (1500m) 8.7 m height 4.4 m dbh at the age of nine years.

  • At low quality of nine years mean height 4.7 m and dbh 4.8cm.


  • Useful construction timber particularly in hills.

  • Widely used for fuel wood.

  • Produce valuable resin

Disease: Susceptible to brown needle disease and needle rust

Pinus wallichiana
Family: Pinaceae

Nepali name: Gobre Salla, Lekali Salla

Blue pine.
Natural Occurrence:

This is a higher altitude pine, occurring from about 1800m to 4000 m. It has wide range, extending right across the whole Himalayan range where it its lower limits, it is often mixed with Pinus roxburghii. At higher altitude it is found with Juniper and Birch Scrub. It is abundant in the inner dry valleys such as in the Jumla -Humla. It is also very common in Solokhumbu area. Outside Nepal it extends into Afganistan in the west and Bhutan in the east but absent in Sikkim.

Silvicultural characteristics:

  • Tall, clear bole, evergreen tree with five needles.

  • Strong light demander.

  • Prefers a well drained porous soil and grows even in limestone, if soil above rock is deep enough.

  • Seedlings are frost hardy

  • Less fire resistance than P. roxburghii.

  • It does not coppice but young trees scorched by fire sometime shoot from the base.

  • Young seedling may suffer from drought in dry season

  • Damage by browsing.

Field Identification:

  • A large tree

  • Needles in bundle of five, 11 to 18 cm long, dark-bluish green .

  • Bark smooth, Grey or grayish brown, corky with shallow fissure in mature trees.

  • Cones ellipsoid 10-15 cm long, 3.5 cm wide at first, 5-9cm after

Time of seed collection: Oct – Nov

No. of seeds /Kg: 15,000-30,000

Seed viability: 1 year

Germination %: 55- 80

Method of Propagation:

Natural regeneration:

  • Regenerate profusely in good condition.

  • Seed sheds in Oct- Nov.

  • Seed dispersal by wind and water

  • Germinate after rain.

  • Best germination is on exposed new porous soil on new burnt areas.

  • Growth under shade is slow and overhead light is needed for better development.

  • Lopping of oak trees provide full light to facilitate the germination.

Artificial regeneration:

  • Seed collection Oct –Nov and sown in the nursery by March /April, warm weather is better for germination.

  • Germination begins in 3 weeks and completes in 5 weeks.

  • Seedlings in nursery have to keep for 15/16 months at an altitude of 1500 m, 22/23 month between an altitude of 1500m and 2000 m and 27/28 months above 2000 m.

  • Plantation in early rains is better for growth and survival

Growth Rate:

  • Growth rate is slow.

  • Lumle (1450m), mean height increment from 1 m at 4 yrs to 5.1 m at five yrs.

  • Godavari ( 1520m) mean height 6.3 m at 8 yrs


  • Timber is better quality and durable than P. roxburghii

  • Construction for houses in hills.

  • Used as fuel wood.

  • Resin spilled over the trunk is collected for lighting in remote areas.

  • It produces a good resin, but the yield is less that from P. roxburghii

  • No tapping for resin in Nepal.

Castanopsis indica
Family: Fagaceae

Nepali Name: Dhale Katus, Banj Katus

Natural Occurrence:

It grows between 1200 m to 2900 m, and extends farther to the west than C. hystrix as far as the Kali Gandaki. It is found in higher elevation Shorea robusta forest, associated with Schima and it is very common in high rainfall areas in the Annapurna region and east Nepal. In lower rainfall areas, it tends to be less common than C. tribuloides.

Silvicultural Characteristics:

  • Moderate to large sized evergreen tree.

  • Grows in variety of soils and under wide range of annual rainfall

  • Young seedlings are frost tender

  • Coppices well and recover vigorously if protected well.

  • Slow growing species.

Field Identification:

  • Evergreen trees with alternate leaves.

  • Bark silver grey to brown

  • Leaf margins with prominent regular teeth

  • Flowers in erect spikes

  • Fruits enclosed in cupules which are usually densely covered in branched spines.

  • Fruiting Cupules 2-5cm in diameter, densely covered in sharp spines 5- 10mm long.

Flowering: August /September

Fruit ripen: October – December

Time of seed collection: Oct /Nov

No of nuts /kg: 1300
Method of Propagation:

Natural regeneration:

  • Regenerates freely in protected forests through seeds or coppice.

  • In rich dark forest soil, germination from seeds has shown good performance.

Artificial regeneration:

Direct sowing:

  • Seed are directly sown along contour lines

  • Seeds are sown in March

Entire Planting:

  • Seeds are sown in nursery beds in March

  • Seedlings are pricked out in poly bags.

  • 1 yr to 1.5 yrs seedlings are planted

Stump Planting:

  • 15 months old seedlings are used for stump preparation

  • Stumps are planted in Monsoon.

Growth rate:

  • At Kadambas (1500 m) at 18 months, there was 66 per cent survival and a mean height of 66 cm.

  • At Salle (2000 m) at two years, survival was 98 per cent and mean height 54 cm.

  • In natural forest, growth is faster than that of C. histrix, with a mean annual increment of 8 to 12 mm.


  • Used for buildings and shingles.

  • Leaves are used for fodder.

  • The tannin content is moderate.

  • Fruits are edible.

Alnus nepalensis
Family: Butulaceae

Nepali name: Uttis

English Name: Alder
Natural Occurrence:

It is an indigenous to Nepal, found in Sub Himalayan region from 900m to 2,700m. It is very common deciduous tree in the hills of Nepal. It is a colonizer and grows on poor, degraded soils. It establish readily in landslips and new soils. It is cultivated in the farm lands. It is very commonly seen in Dolakha, Sindhupalchowk and Ramechap districts. Out side Nepal it occurs in India and Myanmar.

Silvicultural characteristics:

  • Grows well in drained moist sites in northern aspect with full light.

  • It is a pioneer species and grows in soils with high water content, but not in waterlogged area.

  • Moderately frost hardy and shade tolerant

  • Grows along the stream and water sites.

  • Grows badly on dry, exposed, ridge tops.

  • Young seedlings are defoliated by frost, 70% killed by cold in Pakharibas at 1700 m Plantations

  • Moderately coppices.

Field Identification:

  • Bark silvery grey with raised lines of prominent lenticels.

  • Leaves alternate, elliptical, with prominent veins.

  • Male flowers in drooping catkins and female flowers in axillary clusters.

  • Fruits cone-like, black 1.5 cm long.

Fruiting: September: November

Time of seed collection: Nov – March

No of seeds/kg: 400,000 – 2,300,000

Seed viability: 4 months

Germination %: 70
Method of Propagation:

Natural regeneration

  • Seeds produce in abundance and disperse by wind.

  • Colonizes in land slips and abandoned cultivation

Artificial regeneration

Direct Sowing:

  • Seeds directly broadcast over gullies and landslips

  • Germinate and establishes successfully.

Entire Planting:

  • Seeds mixed with ash /sand is sown in nursery beds and beds are mulched.

  • Seed germination begins in 1-2weeks and completes in 6 weeks and pricked out in poly pots.

  • Seeds are sown in March.

  • 4 months old seedlings are planted in rains.

  • Bare root plantations are also successful.

Growth Rate:

  • In Parbat, at 1800m seven year old trees were 13.4 m tall but on steep slopes only 3.5m tall.

  • Growth on hot, south facing slopes is poor.

  • At Pipal Chaur, eight year old the largest trees were 14.6m in height and 19 cm dbh.

  • In Dargeeling, at 1800m, ten years old trees reached 17 m in height by almost 30 cm diameter.


  • Wood is light used for packing cases, but not good construction timber.

  • Used as fuel wood but not good quality.

  • Mature leaves are eaten by goat, not by cattle.

  • Used as a shade tree for cardamoms.

  • Broadcast sowing to stabilize landslide.

Artocarpus lakoocha
Family: Moraceae

Nepali name: badhar, badhar, borran, bahar

Natural Occurrence:

In Nepal it is found from Terai to 1300 m and ascends up to 1600m. It is often found in almost every village in the Terai. In its wild state it often grows along the banks of streams. Its range has been considerably extended by planting. Outside Nepal it extends westward to Kumaon in the Himalayan foothills, and it is also found in southern India, Sri lanka, Burma and Malysia.

Silvicultural Characteristics:

  • A medium-sized deciduous tree

  • Light demander

  • Moderately frost tolerant

  • Does not tolerate any kind of shade

  • Grows well in deep permeable soil with a good supply of moisture

  • Liable to be damaged by browsing:

Field identification:

  • Bark grey and rough at old age

  • Leaves simple, alternate, 10-30 cm long, elliptical, leathery.

  • Blaze red with milky latex

  • Male and female flowers in separate spherical heads

  • Fruits 5-10 cm in diameter, irregularly lobed.

Flowering: April

Fruiting: Fruits ripen in July – August

Seed Collection: Hypogeous

No of seeds/kg: 1900 to 5000
Method of propagation:

Natural regeneration:

  • Ripen fruits are eaten by monkeys and birds, which scatter the seeds under the trees, where, after the rains, numerous seedlings may be found.

  • Exposed seed usually does not germinate, and it is better if the seed becomes buried.

  • Unless they are in moist and fairly shady conditions many seedlings die in the dry season.

Artificial regeneration:

Direct sowing:

  • Seeds are sown during monsoon.

  • As the seed is recalcitrant, it should be sown as soon as possible, and not more than two days after collection.

  • Germination starts after a week

Entire planting:

  • Seedlings are raised in a nursery beds and pricked out to poly bags or directly sown to poly bags.

  • Soil is prepared with a mixture of good loamy soil and farm yard manure in proportion of 2:1

  • Seeds are sown in July and planted in next monsoon after one year.

Stump planting:

  • Stumps are reported to have been successful, but no details are available.

Growth Rate:

  • In Hetauda, 18month old plant has 1.6m average height

  • Height growth at 2 years old ranges from about 1.1m in the Terai to 30-60 cm at 1500m.

  • In India mean annual diameter increment is 13 – 17 mm, which is comparatively quick.


  • Main value is fodder.

  • Farmers prize it for its high nutritive value and good yield of leaves.

  • Fruits are edible and sold in local market

  • In India it is a valuable timber.

Tectona grandis
Family: Verbenaceae

Nepali name: Sagawan

English name: Teak
Natural Occurrence:

  • Tectona grandis is not indigenous to Nepal or northern India, but is found in the Indian peninsula, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Indonesia, though there are doubts whether it is truly indigenous in Indonesia.

  • It has been very widely planted in tropical countries.

  • It is planted in Nepal in the Terai. The oldest plantation of teak is Chillia plantation in Rupandehi district. It was planted in 1961. There are other several teak plantations in Sarlahi, Jhapa, Bara, Parsa and Kapilbastu.

  • It has great potential in Terai. Farmers are also planting teak in association with sissoo.

Silvicultural characteristics:

  • A deciduous tree, capable of growing to a very large size at suitable condition.

  • Strong light demander and does not tolerate suppression at any stage of its growth.

  • Best growth is on deep well drained loamy to sandy loam soils.

  • It however grows on harder and shallower soils, but its rate of growth is reduced.

  • It does not tolerate badly drained soils.

  • It is very resistant to fire.

  • Frost tender, so should not be planted in frosty areas.

  • It is not browsed by cattle but damaged by wild boar by rooting up the seedlings.

  • Coppices very well even when the trees are of large size.

  • It suppresses nearly all under growth in pure plantations.

Field identification:

  • Large tree with a straight stem

  • Bark: pale grey with shallow longitudinal fissures

  • Leaves: opposite, very large up to 60cm long, underside densely hairy

  • Fruit: covered with hairs and enclosed by the inflated calyx.

Flowering: August – September

Fruiting: Nov – Jan

No. of Fruits / Kg: 1200- 3100 drupes

Germination %: 10- 60%

Seed viability: one year or more

Method of Propagation:

Natural regeneration:

  • Seeds gradually fall to the ground during the hot season.

  • Germination of seeds may take one year or more.

Artificial regeneration:

Entire planting:

  • Treated seeds are sown in nursery beds in March/April

  • Germination starts from 3 weeks and may completes by 2 months

  • Seedlings are pricked out into poly bags and taken out for plantation in monsoon.

Stump planting:

  • Stump planting is the best practice for its propagation

  • One year old seedlings are used to prepare stump.

  • Stumps are planted out in the field in monsoon.

Growth rate:

  • Sagarnath, 10.5 yrs old has mean dbh 14 cm and top height of 19.3 m.

  • This is equivalent to a mean annual increment of 14.5 m3/ha.

  • In another plot at Sagarnath, 5 yrs old has a mean dbh 4.7cm and mean height of 7.6m which is equivalent to MAI of between 4 and 5 m3/ha.


  • Valuable species for high quality timber.

  • Used for house-building, ships and boats, furniture, etc.

  • It makes very fine decorative plywood

  • Excellent fuel wood.

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