Secondary Species Guinea Pig

Дата канвертавання15.04.2016
Памер68.5 Kb.

Secondary Species - Guinea Pig

Hess et al. 2013. Diagnosis and treatment of an insulinoma in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). JAVMA 242(4):522-526
SUMMARY: This article reports the first postmortem diagnosis and treatment of insulinoma in a guinea pig. Insulinomas are common in ferrets, infrequent in dogs, and even less common in cats, and have never been diagnosed before death in a guinea pig and thus have never been treated. This case report demonstrates that diazoxide treatment can help to achieve euglycemia in hypoglycemic guinea pigs and is a potential treatment option for guinea pigs with insulinoma.
A 5-year-old sexually intact male guinea pig was submitted to the veterinary center with previous history of lethargy, notable weight loss, and recurrent episodes of lateral recumbency and paddling, as though attempting to stand. Upon physical examination, the animal was found with a thin body condition, the abdomen was moderately distended, and mentation was slightly depressed. Complete blood count results were within reference limits, whereas biochemical analysis documented hypoglycemia. Corn-syrup diet as prescribed by the referring veterinarian was discontinued in favor of a high-fiber formula fed via syringe. The patient was also prescribed probiotic supplement for potential dysbiosis. Measurement of blood insulin concentration demonstrated hyperinsulinemia, with concurrent hypoglycemia. Since guinea pigs belong to herbivores species and are monogastric hindgut fermenter, glucocorticoids were not chosen for treatment as they can cause gastrointestinal ulceration and perforation in these species. Instead diazoxide treatment for presumptive insulinoma was started at a dosage of 5mg/kg orally every 12 hours. Diazoxide inhibits insulin release, stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and inhibits peripheral glucose uptake. A blood glucose curve demonstrated persistent hypoglycemia, and the diazoxide dosage was gradually increased to 25 mg/kg every 12 hours. 12 days later  a second glucose curve measurement confirmed adequate euglycemic control. The guinea pig thrived for approximately 3 weeks on the higher diazoxide dosage, when the animal showed suddenly abdominal distension and constipation. Abdominal radiographies were consistent with gastrointestinal stasis, instead of an obstruction. The guinea pig received supportive care, but was found dead the following morning. A necropsy was performed showing a mass in the pancreas. Histologic analysis confirmed a pancreatic beta-cell tumor.

  1. Which is the treatment of choice for guinea pigs with insulinoma?

    1. Glucocorticoids

    2. Diazoxide

    3. Streptozotocin

  1. Which of the following species has the lowest incidence of insulinoma?

    1. Ferrets?

    2. Dogs?

    3. Cats?

    4. Guinea pigs?

  2. What were the side effects of the diazoxide treatment?

    1. Gastrointestinal stasis

    2. Treatment-induced immunosuppression?

    3. Secondary bacterial infections?


1. b

2. d

3. a

Mayer et al. 2013. Use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for evaluation of thyroid function in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). JAVMA 242(3):346-349
SUMMARY: The purpose of this clinical pilot research study was to evaluate the effects of administration of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating (rh THS) hormones on plasma thyroxine concentrations in euthryroid guinea pigs. Since bovine TSH was no longer available as a pharmaceutical preparation, and has been replaced by a more expensive human TSH, the need for establishing new protocols for the TSH stimulating test in companion animal as become more urgent .
10 healthy, sexually intact, euthyroid pet guinea of different sexes and approximately one year of age were chosen for this experimental study. All animals were allowed to acclimate to their surroundings and handling procedures for one week prior to testing. Each guinea pig was injected 100 micrograms of rh TSH intramuscularly (IM). This dose was established by a small pilot study prior to the testing.  All animals were monitored for 3 to 4 hours for any adverse reaction to the administration. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein immediately before the rh TSH injection, 3 and 4 hours after injection to measure plasma thyroxine concentrations by use of a solid-phase competitive radioimmunoassay kit. The distribution of the collected data was evaluated by means of the Shapiro-Wild test. The results of the testing revealed that there was no significant difference in thyroxine concentration prior to TSH injection by sex or between the thyroxine concentrations before and after TSH injection by sex, as well between thyroxine concentrations 3 and 4 hours after TSH injection. However there was a significant difference in thyroxine concentrations before and after TSH injection.
The result of the study confirmed that rh TSH administered IM can be used in TSH stimulation tests in guinea pigs by expecting a twofold increase of thyroxine concentration in euthyroid guinea pigs based on the findings that the human TSH had the expected biological effect on the normal thyroid gland of guinea pigs. However, further studies were suggested to evaluate optimal dose of rh TSH in hypothyroid guinea pigs and in guinea pigs with non-thyroidal illness.

  1. True or false: There was no significant difference in thyroxine plasma concentration before and after TSH injection in guinea pigs.

  2. What was the injected dose of rh TSH IM in guinea pigs?

  1. 100 mg?

  2. 100 g?

  3. 100 micrograms?

  4. 10 micrograms?

  1. The results of the study confirmed that:

  1. Rh TSH administered IM can be used in TSH stimulation tests in guinea pigs.

  2. RH TSH administered orally can be used in TSH stimulation tests in guinea pigs.

  3. Rh TSH cannot be used in TSH stimulation test in guinea pigs.

  4. Rh TSH administered IM can be used in TSH stimulation tests in rodents.


  1. False

  2. c

  3. a

Eschar et al. 2012. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and convenience of selamectin versus ivermectin for treatment of Trixacarus caviae mange in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). JAVMA 241(8):1056-1058
Domain 1: Management of spontaneous and experimentally induced diseases and conditions; Task 2, 3, 4: Control, diagnose, treat disease or condition as appropriate
SUMMARY: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of topical administration of selamectin and to compare this treatment with injectable ivermectin treatment in naturally occurring Trixacarus caviae infestation in pet guinea pigs. 17 guinea pigs from one household with active mite infestation (as determined by the presence of mites or eggs on deep skin scrape) were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups. One group received a single dose of 15 mg/kg selemectin applied topically, the other group received 400 micrograms/kg ivermectin SQ every 10 days for 4 doses. The two groups were housed separately for the duration of the study. Findings included: resolution of pruritis in all guinea pigs within 10 days of initiating treatment, epidermal healing and hair regrowth in all guinea pigs within 40 days of initiating treatment. All animals were negative for mites on skin scrape by 30 days (selemectin group) and 40 days (ivermectin group) and remained mite free long term (19 months). No adverse reactions were seen to either treatment. The authors concluded that selemectin at the dose used was a safe and effective treatment and was more convenient and less painful than repeated injections.

1. What is the etiologic agent of sarcoptic mange in the guinea pig?

a. Demodex caviae

b. Trixacarus caviae

c. Chirodiscoides caviae

2. Where are Trixacarus caviae mites found?

a. On hairs

b. In epidermal tunnels

c. In the dermis

3. True or false: Trixacarus caviae can cause transient popular urticaria in humans


1. b. Trixacarus caviae

2. b. In epidermal tunnels

3. True

Alves. 2012. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 241(2):185-188
SUMMARY: A young adult male Hartley guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) was evaluated for a complete necropsy following sudden death; it had been observed alive approximately 1 hour earlier.
As gross lesions, fresh, unclotted blood was present within the penile sheath and urethral orifice and stained the perineum. Both kidneys were mildly enlarged with diffuse reddish-tan cortical discoloration and appeared soft and flaccid. The renal pelvises were mildly dilated with blood-tinged urine and contained variable amounts of yellowish-tan grainy material; the right kidney was more severely affected. Bilaterally, the ureters were severely distended with similar blood-tinged urine. The urinary bladder had a thickened, firm wall with noticeable compression of the distal ureteral openings at the trigone and was severely distended with dark-red urine admixed with yellowish-tan grainy material. Yellowish-tan, firm calculus was also present in the urinary bladder lumen.
On histological examination on bladder revealed multiple areas of mucosal erosion and ulceration with hemorrhage, congestion, and a subepithelial inflammatory infiltrate composed mostly of heterophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with cellular and necrotic debris and granulation tissue In the most severely affected areas, there was sloughing and loss of the overlying mucosal epithelium. The mucosal epithelium of the vasa deferentia was severely ulcerated and replaced by numerous degenerate heterophils admixed with necrosis, hemorrhage, and fibrin that extended into the subepithelial connective tissue and surrounding muscle layers. A urine sample results were negative for infectious organism. For the guinea pig of this report, urolithiasis with secondary hemorrhagic cystitis, hydroureter, and obstructive nephropathy was the likely cause of the poor weight gain and growth.
Guinea pigs with urolithiasis revealed calcium carbonate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, amorphous phosphate, and calcium oxalate crystalluria. However, despite the variety of crystals detected during sediment examination, polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray diffractometry revealed that the majority (> 88%) of uroliths were composed solely of calcium carbonate. Complete absence of clinical signs is not unusual in guinea pigs with mild urolithiasis. Dysuria or anuria, hunched posture and vocalization during voiding, hematuria, anorexia, and listlessness are evident in more severely affected animals. Radiography is likely the best option for antemortem detection, particularly when the calculi are located in the urethra or urinary bladder.

1. Guinea pig urine is typically alkaline and may contain phosphate and carbonate crystals.

2. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus spp., and Corynebacterium renale have been isolated from the urinary tracts of laboratory Guinea pig with urinary calculi.

1. True

2. True

Hawkins et al. 2009. Composition and characteristics of urinary calculi from guinea pigs. JAVMA 234(2):214-220.

SUMMARY: Historically, urolithiasis in guinea pigs was thought to affect mostly middle aged to older females (>2.5 years) and to be associated with a urinary tract infection.  Most stones were assumed to be calcium oxalate.  This study examined the mineral composition, anatomic location, and urinary tract health status of urolithiasis cases in guinea pigs, along with signalment, to see if previous findings ad case studies still held true.  Records were examined from the years 1985-2003 and additional samples were obtained from various geographic regions from 2004-2007.  Calculi were analyzed and mineral composition determined by optical crystallography and FTIR spectrometry.  Stones were also cultured for bacteria, along with urine and tissues.  The results were reported for retrospective cases and the cases evaluated in this study:


Retrospective Data:

  • Median age for stones removal was 3 years.

  • 33 calculi were from males, 19 from females

  • 71% from urinary bladder, 17% from urethra, 6% from both, 4% from ureter, 2% vagina

  • 83% were composed of 100% calcium carbonate

Current Study Data:

  • Mean age was 44.5 months

  • 51% intact males, 8% castrated males, 33% intact females, 8% spayed females

  • 60% from urinary bladder, 27% urethra, 4% passed spontaneously, 4% ureter, 1% vagina

  • 93% were composed of 100% calcium carbonate, others were mixes of calcium carbonate, struvite, appetite and calcium oxalate

  • Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormality and crystalluria was often present

  • 16% of submitted urine samples and 2 of 12 bladder wall samples yielded bacterial growth.  Bacteria consisted of Corynebacterium renale, Facklamia sp, Strep bovis, and Staph

  • 7% of stones grew bacteria, consisting of Strep viridans, Proteus mirabilis, Staph, E. coli, and Enterococcus.


The authors conclude that, despite previous reports, most stones are calcium carbonate, not oxalate.  The authors attribute this to old analysis methods (need infrared spectroscopy or XRD).  Age means were similar to previous reports, though there was a male predispositions, rather than female.  The incidence of bacterial cystitis was higher in females (17.7%) than males (2.7%).



1.  Which species of bacteria is (are) associated with urinary calculi in laboratory guinea pigs?

a. E. coli

b. S. pyogenes

c. Staph sp.

d. All of the above

2.  Most urinary calculi in guinea pigs are composed of what?

a. Calcium oxalate

b. Struvite

c. Calcium carbonate

d. Both a and b

3.  Which guinea pig is most likely to have urolithioasis?

a. Intact male

b. Castrated male

c. Intact female

d. Spayed female



1. d

2. c

3. a

Coster et al. 2008. Results of diagnostic ophthalmic testing in healthy guinea pigs. JAVMA 232(12):1825-1833.
Task 1 - Prevent, Diagnose, Control, and Treat Disease

Guinea Pig (Secondary)

SUMMARY: Guinea pigs have a high prevalence of ocular diseases, and this study was aimed at presenting normal values for PRT (phenol red thread tear test), STT (Schirmer tear test) and CTT (corneal touch threshold) in guinea pigs of various ages and breeds, as well as determining results of bacterial culture and cytology of the conjuctiva.
The subjects of the study were 31 healthy guinea pigs examined as outpatients at a veterinary teaching hospital.  In addition to brief physical exams, full optho exams were conducted, including menace, pupillary light reflex, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect opthalmoscopy.  For each animal, PRT, STT tests and ocular culture were performed and CTT was measured.  The eye was then anesthetized with topical proparacaine, cytology sample was taken, intraocular pressure was measured, CTT was verified to be zero, and PRT and STT were repeated. 
Results of the diagnostic ophthalmic tests can be found in Table 1.  Importantly, the results for the PRT and STT were similar prior to and after administration of topical anesthetic.  Thirty guinea pigs had positive conjunctival culture; most common isolates were Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus epidermis, and a-hemolytic Streptococcus spp.  Most of the cells seen on cytology were epithelial cells (mostly basal, intermediate and columnar cells), with leukocytes accounting for most of the rest of the cells.  Photomicrographs of cytological preparations are shown in Figures 2 and 3. 
The authors provide comparisons in values between their results and those of previous studies in guinea pigs, as well as other species. Guinea pigs have relatively low tear production relative to other species.  Additionally, they tend to have a high CTT, indicating a relatively lower corneal sensitivity; the authors surmised that this may be a contributing factor to the lack of difference in PRT and STT before and after topical anesthesia.  The organisms isolated by culture are likely nonpathogenic commensal flora, as has been reported in other species.

  1. What do the following abbreviations stand for: CTT, IOP, PRT, STT

  2. Compared with other species, do guinea pigs have relatively high or low tear production?

  3. What is the most common cell seen in the cytology preparations in this study?  The second most common cell?


  1. CTT: corneal touch threshold, IOP: intraocular pressure, PRT: phenol red thread tear test, STT: Shirmer tear test, PLR: pupillary light reflex

  2. low

  3. epithelial cell; leukocyte

Eidson et al. 2005. Rabies virus infection in a pet guinea pig and seven pet rabbits. JAVMA 227(6):932-935.
ACLAM Task 1 - Prevent, Diagnose, Control, and Treat Diseases

ACLAM SPECIES - Primary (Rabbit) and Secondary (Guinea Pig)

SUMMARY: A 6 year old guinea pig with exposure to a raccoon bit its owner. Six days after the bite, it was euthanized and submitted for rabies testing, and was positive with the raccoon variant of the virus. Clinical signs included a poor coat, weepy eyes, and thin body condition. Between 1992 and 2001 the Wadsworth Center Rabies Lab in New York diagnosed rabies in 7 rabbits. Three rabbits had been exposed to raccoons and one had been exposed to a skunk. All seven infected rabbits had the raccoon variant of the virus. Clinical signs in these rabbits included paralysis (the most common clinical sign), mild hypersalivation, biting the air, lethargy, anorexia, and death. Rabbits infected with rabies usually develop paralytic rabies. Some rodents with rabies have died without manifesting clinical signs. No human in the US has reportedly developed rabies after exposure to a rabid rodent or rabbit. To prevent rabies virus infection, domestic rabbits and pet rodents should be protected from contact with wild animals. Bites and scratches to humans from rodents and lagomorphs should be evaluated for potential rabies virus exposure on an individual basis, with consideration of whether the animal was caged outside or permitted outdoors unsupervised.

1. How long is the recommended quarantine period for rabbits that are exposed to potentially rabid wild animals (according to the article)?

a. 14 days

b. 30 days

c. 3 months

d. 6 months

2. The most common variant of the rabies virus found in the Eastern US is:

a. Skunk

b. Raccoon

c. Bat

3. Rabbits and rodents are considered _____________ since the virus is not commonly found in them; they contract strains of the virus usually hosted by other animals; and have not been found to be natural reservoirs for the virus.

a. Spillover species

b. Terrestrial species

c. Zoonotic species

4. The mortality rate of rabies in humans and animals is:

a. 100%

b. Near 100%

c. 95%

d. Near 95%

5. The two forms of rabies are (according to the article):

a. Seizure and flaccid

b. Furious and weak

c. Furious and paralytic

1. d

2. b

3. a

4. b

5. c

Schwarz et al. 2001. Osteodystrophia fibrosa in two guinea pigs. JAVMA 219(1):63-66.
SUMMARY: This article discusses 2 case reports, a 10 month old female uniparous guinea pig (GP) and a 2 year old male GP. Both animals were presented for lethargy and difficulty/reluctance to walk. The female also had an intermittent head tilt and the male had wet, stained fur around the mouth (“slobbers”, ptyalism). Diets for both animals were deemed to have sufficient Vitamin C present. The male was found to have malocclusion and elongation of both cheek teeth and incisors while the female had radiographic evidence of otitis media. Both animals showed radiographic evidence of extensive intra- and periarticular bone formation in the stifle joints, evidence of pathologic/compression fractures, double cortical sign, and generalized osteopenia. Due to their deteriorating conditions, both GPs were euthanized and necropsied.
Osteodensitometry was done via high-resolution DEXA (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) to assess the accuracy of the radiographic diagnosis. Osteodensitometry demonstrated significant decreases in mean thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density values between affected and control GPs. Histological examination of bone showed changes consistent with osteodystrophia fibrosa (OF) associated with increased osteoclastic activity. Both animals had evidence of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in multiple joints. Food analysis of the female GP’s diet revealed a calcium (Ca):phosphorus (P) ratio of 1.23:1. National Academy of Sciences recommends a Ca:P ratio of 1.94:1 (1.3% Ca and 0.67% P concentrations in dry matter). Therefore, the female GP’s diet had less than half the recommended Ca requirement and a low Ca:P ratio, suggesting a nutritional imbalance. A low Ca:P ratio may cause reduced growth rates, stiffness of joints, and calcification of soft tissues in GPs and may also affect the uptake of magnesium and potassium. The injurious effect of high P content in the diet is partially due to the fact that GPs have a low tolerance for excess acid in the diet; unlike other species, ammonia in guinea pigs is not used to neutralize excess acids excreted by the kidneys. Vitamin D deficiency, Ca malabsorption, or other disturbances in Ca metabolism may have played a role in disease onset in these GPs.
Bone loss or mineralization are common histological findings in metabolic bone conditions. Both conditions result in decreased radiographic bone density. Before osteopenia can be detected on survey radiographs, 30-50% of bone mass must be lost. Features of osteopenia include cortical thinning, prominent coarse trabecular bone pattern, and secondary changes (i.e. pathologic fractures, vertebral misalignment). One of the few pathognomonic radiographic signs of osteopenia is the double cortical line (Figure 1, p. 63). OF is a well-recognized condition that results in increased osteoclastic resorption of bone and replacement by fibrous tissue and is caused by primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Primary hyperparathyroidism is rare in domestic animals. Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism was ruled out as both GPs had normal kidneys. Nutritional hyperparathyroidism was thought to be the cause of OF in these animals. Nutritional OF causes an initial loss of alveolar anchorage of open-rooted teeth and should be considered a differential for dental disease in lagomorphs and rodents. Stiffness and lameness in GPs is commonly associated with vitamin C deficiency (scurvy) but one should also consider OF.

  1. OF caused by nutritional hyperparathyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnoses of lameness and dental disease in GPs.

  2. Radiographic evidence of a residual inner and outer rim of cortical bone should be recognized as a double cortical line sign.

  3. A double cortical line sign is a pathognomonic feature of osteopenia in domestic animals and humans.


  1. Which of the following is considered a pathognomonic feature of osteopenia in domestic animals and humans?

  1. Decreased radiographic bone density

  2. Pathologic fractures

  3. Prominent coarse trabecular pattern

  4. Double cortical line

  5. Bone mineralization

  1. List some differential diagnoses for “slobbers” or ptyalism in GPs.

  2. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) in the guinea pig?

  1. Can tolerate a wide range of dietary Ca:P if Mg is present in generous amounts.

  2. An excess of Ca or P will decrease the Mg requirement.

  3. All three minerals play a significant role in acid-base balance in the GP.

  4. GP nephron lacks glutaminase and thus glutamine is not used as a source of ammonia to remove hydrogen ions as ammonium ions.

  5. In GPs, cations rather than ammonia are utilized to neutralize H+ that are then excreted in the urine.

  1. What does DEXA stand for?

5. Suborder/Family/Genus & sp. of guinea pigs?

  1. D. One of the few pathognomonic radiographic signs of osteopenia is the double cortical line, which has been described in disuse osteoporosis in humans.

  2. Ddx for “slobbers” or ptyalism: malocclusion, folate deficiency, chronic fluorosis, subacute scurvy, hereditary factors, heat stress.

  3. B. An excess of Ca or P will increase the Mg requirement.

  4. DEXA = dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

  5. Suborder = hystricomorpha (porcupine-like); Family = Caviidae; Genus and species = Cavia porcellus

Burns RP et al. 2001. Granulosa cell tumor in a guinea pig. JAVMA 218(5):726-728.
SUMMARY: A 4 year old sexually intact female guinea pig presented with a history of decreased urination and defecation with progressive anorexia. On physical exam, abdominal distention was obvious and limited the palpation of the abdomen. Initial diagnostics revealed a leukocytosis of 20,900 with a mature neutrophilia. Abnormal serum chemistries included hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, increased creatine kinase and hyperglycemia. Liver failure was considered, but deemed unlikely due to normal bilirubin, ALP and AST. Muscle wasting and stress most likely resulted in the other abnormalities. Radiographs revealed loss of peritoneal detail and abdominocentesis was performed. Cytological examination revealed large round neoplastic cells. Ultrasound was performed and a cystic mass in the region of the right ovary was discovered. Aspirates and biopsies were performed under ultrasound guidance. Histology revealed disorganized, poorly differentiated tissue that formed small spaces that resembled alveoli, with larger stellate areas of more solid material between the spaces. These features were consistent with granulose cell tumor.
An ovariohysterectomy was performed which included removal of a large, pale encapsulated mass encompassing the right ovary. Post-operatively the animal was treated with enrofloxacin, cisapride and hourly feedings of a pellet slurry. No analgesics were given because of the potential for respiratory depression. Histology confirmed a granulose cell tumor in addition to cystic endometrial hyperplasia.
Incidence of spontaneous neoplasms in guineas are low, with pulmonary neoplasia and neoplasias of skin and subcutis being most common. Of reproductive tract tumors, leiomyomas are the most common and are seen in conjunction with cystic rete ovarii. However, granulosa cell tumors are commonly reported in horses, dogs, rats and gerbils.
Differential diagnoses for abdominal distention in guinea pigs should include cystic rete ovarii, urinary obstruction, pregnancy, gastrointestinal obstruction, ascites, hemoperitoneum, uroperitoneum or peritonitis. Cystic rete ovarii is the most common reproductive tract disease that causes abdominal distention in guinea pigs. It should be noted that since the cysts are of the rete and are not follicular in origin, releasing hormones (GnRH, HCG) are not therapeutic. Surgical treatment is indicated.

  1. Name the order, suborder, family, genus, and species of the guinea pig.

  2. Which of the following are inbred strains? There can be more than 1 answer.

    1. Short-hair (including English and American varieties)

    2. Dunkan-Hartley

    3. Hartley

    4. Strain 2

    5. Strain 13

  3. According to this article, what is the most common reproductive neoplasia in guinea pigs?

    1. Granulosa cell tumor

    2. Leiomyomas

    3. Teratomas

    4. Sertoli cell tumors

  4. Cisapride is

    1. An antibiotic

    2. H2 antagonist

    3. GI prokinetic agent

    4. Prostaglandin analogue

  5. The dosage of buprenorphine in guinea pigs is

    1. 2 mg/kg q 4-6 hours

    2. 0.5 mg/kg q 8-12 hours

    3. 0.05 mg/kg q 4-6 hours

    4. 0.05 mg/kg q 8-12 hours


  1. Rodentia, Hystricomorpha, Caviidae, Cavia porcellus

  2. d and e

  3. b [However, you should note that the LAM BB, 1st ed states that teratomas are the most common reproductive neoplasia in guinea pigs]

  4. c

  5. d

База данных защищена авторским правом © 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка