Samples used for sequencing

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Samples used for sequencing
Human (n=2): ECACC (European collection of cell cultures, cell line (C0002-BR), a human Caucasian individual (kindly provided by Svante Pääbo, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, MPI-EVA). Two West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) samples: ECACC cell line “EB176”; avpr1a sequence extracted from the chimpanzee genome of a Western African chimpanzee (Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium 2005). Two Central African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and two bonobo (Pan paniscus) samples provided by the MPI-EVA. Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla ssp.): ECACC cell line “EB(JC)”, orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus: ECACC cell line “EB185 (JC)”. Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar): ECACC cell line “MLA144”. One siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) and one black-crested gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) sample, kindly provided by Christian Roos from the German Primate Center (GPC). Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) (n=4): sub-sampled from those described by Winney et al. (Winney et al. 2004). One rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) sample provided by the MPI-EVA. African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops): ECACC cell line “MA104”.

In species with only one microsatellite (e.g. hamadryas baboon, macaque, green monkey, nomascus gibbon and West African chimpanzee), the single microsatellite could be categorised as either -3625bp or -3956 bp, because the -3956bp is a simple GTn microsatellite, whereas the -3625bp is more complex with variable numbers of both CT repeats and GT repeats (CTnGTn).

Male mating behaviour

Behavioural assays on voles have shown that variation in the site of expression of AVPR1a influences male social attachment and partner affiliation (Hammock & Young 2002). We therefore focussed our behavioural categorization on the mating behaviour of males, particularly the duration and exclusivity of male-female post-mating affiliations. In giving species a single behavioural categorization we necessarily generalized about behaviours that may vary among individuals within species. However, there are sufficient behavioural differences among species to make cross species comparisons meaningful.

Male post-mating behaviour


Male post-copulatory mating behaviour

Human (Homo sapiens)

Capable of long-term pair-bonds (Barrett et al. 2002)

Chimpanzee (Central & West African), (Pan troglodytes verus & Pan troglodytes troglodytes)

Weak, non-exclusive, male-female associations (Nishida & Hiraiwa-Hasegawa 1987)

Bonobo (Pan pansicus)

Weak, non-exclusive, male-female associations (Hohmann et al. 1999)

Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla ssp)

Strong, non-exclusive, male-female associations (Stewart & Harcourt 1987)

Orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus)

Weak, non-exclusive, male-female associations (Rodman & Mitani 1987)

Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar)

Capable of long-term pair-bonds (Leighton 1987; Palombit 1996)

Crested gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys)

Capable of long-term pair-bonds (Jiang et al. 1999; Leighton 1987; Palombit 1996)

Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus)

Capable of long-term pair-bonds (Lappan 2007; Leighton 1987)

Green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)

Weak, non-exclusive, male-female associations (Melnick & Pearl 1987)

Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

Weak, non exclusive, male-female associations (Melnick & Pearl 1987)

Hamadyas baboon (Papio hamadryas hamadryas)

Strong, non-exclusive, male-female associations (Abbeglen 1984; Kummer 1968)


Abbeglen, J. J. 1984 On socialization in hamadryas baboons. Lewisburg, Pa: Bucknell University Press.

Barrett, L., Dunbar, R. I. M. & Lycett, J. 2002 Human evolutionary psychology. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hammock, E. A. D. & Young, L. J. 2002 Variation in the vasopressin V1a receptor promoter and expression: implications for inter- and intraspecific variation in social behaviour. European Journal of Neuroscience 16, 399-402.

Hohmann, G., Gerloff, U., Tautz, D. & Fruth, B. 1999 Social bonds and genetic ties: Kinship association and affiliation in a community of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Behaviour 136, 1219-1235.

Jiang, X. L., Wang, Y. X. & Wang, Q. A. 1999 Coexistence of monogamy and polygyny in black-crested gibbon (Hylobates concolor). Primates 40, 607-611.

Kummer, H. 1968 Social organisation of hamadryas baboons: a field study. Basel: Karger.

Lappan, S. 2007 Social relationships among males in multimale siamang groups. International Journal of Primatology 28, 369-387.

Leighton, D. R. 1987 Gibbons: territoriality and monogamy. In Primate Societies (ed. B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker), pp. 135-145. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Melnick, D. J. & Pearl, M. C. 1987 Cercopithicines in multimale groups: genetic diversity and population structure. In Primate Societies (ed. B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Nishida, T. & Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M. 1987 Chimpanzees and bonobos: cooperative relationships among males. In Primate Societies (ed. B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker), pp. 165-177. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Palombit, R. A. 1996 Pair bonds in monogamous apes: A comparison of the siamang Hylobates syndactylus and the white-handed gibbon Hylobates lar. Behaviour 133, 321-356.

Rodman, P. S. & Mitani, J. C. 1987 Orangutans: sexual dimorphism in a solitary species. In Primate Societies (ed. B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker), pp. 146-154. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Stewart, K. J. & Harcourt, A. H. 1987 Gorillas: variation in female relationships. In Primate Societies (ed. B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker), pp. 155-164. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Winney, B. J., Hammond, R. L., Macasero, W., Flores, B., Bourg, A., Biquand, V., Biquand, S. & Bruford, M. W. 2004 Crossing the Red Sea: phylogeography of the hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas hamadryas. Molecular Ecology 13, 2819-2827.

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