Russula spp of Northern California




Дата канвертавання26.04.2016
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Russula spp. of Northern California

In this key, pileocystidia by definition stain gray to blue in sulfovanillin, primordial hyphae possess incrustations that retain the red color of basic fuchsin after destaining with hydrochloric acid, and free hyphal tips of the pileopellis, which do not generally stain distinctively, are rarely used as a diagnostic feature. See attachment for spore descriptions.


(1) Short gills of varying lengths (i.e., not fully extending between stalk and cap margin) regularly alternating with long gills and fruiting body hard and rigid (especially the stalk); cap cuticle generally inseparable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

(1) Short gills absent or if present, not regularly alternating with long gills; fruiting body typically not hard and rigid; cap cuticle usually, but not always, separable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

(2) Context not changing color when bruised; fruiting body all white but often with brownish spots in age; cap 7-30 cm broad with depressed center; gills adnate to decurrent, white or tinged green; taste slowly acrid; spores white to cream, 8-10.5 X 6.5-9 µm, A3-B3, ornaments 0.3-1.3 µm high . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. brevipes

(2) Context changing color to pink, red, gray, or black when bruised; cap whitish when young and uninjured but soon becoming gray, brown, or black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


(3) Gills pinkish at maturity, bruising reddish-brown but not blackening, close to subdistant; cap 6-15 cm broad, white aging gray to brown, usually dry (aerolate in some); pileocystidia present; stalk usually eccentric, white, becoming pinkish and finally brown with pink tones, context pink; taste mild to bitter; spores white, C1-D1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. eccentrica

(3) Gills when bruised changing directly to black or changing to red then black; pileocystidia absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


(4) Context changing to dark gray or black when bruised (no red interphase); cap surface unpolished with a matted finish (sometimes areolate in age), white but blackening in age, 6-17 cm broad, hyphal tips 5-7 µm wide; context rapidly darkening; gills close; taste mild; spores white, 7-10 x 5-7 µm, warts < 0.2 µm high, C1-D1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. albonigra

(4) Context changing to pink or red then gray or black when bruised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


(5) Gills thick and distant (2-3 mm apart); cap 10-20 cm broad (sometimes massive), white but soon black, subviscid drying to a dull, matted finish, often areolate in age, hyphal tips up to 5 µm wide; taste variable; spores white, 6-8 x 5-7 µm, warts to 0.3 µm high, D1 . . . . . . R. nigricans

(5) Gills close to subdistant, cap often smaller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


(6) Cap 6-15 cm broad, white but soon black, depressed in age, hyphal tips scarce, 3.5 µm to 5 µm wide; context unambiguously bruising red then black; taste mild to slightly acrid; spores white, C2, warts to 0.5 µm high . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. dissimulans

(6) Cap 4-15 cm broad, white but soon brown, margin often incurved, hyphal tips narrow, up to 3.5 µm wide; context bruising pink then black; taste very acrid, especially the gills; spores white, C2, warts to 0.5 µm high . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. acrifolia


(7) Spores white to cream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

(7) Spores yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


(8) Taste mild; pileocystidia present or absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

(8) Taste acrid; pileocystidia present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


Spores white, taste mild:
(9) Cap 3-8 cm broad, light purple, center usually darker, striate, fragile; pileocystidia absent, incrustations on primordial hyphae present; stalk white; spores very pale yellow (which can appear white in a light deposit), A2-B1-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. lilacea

(9) Incrustations on primordial hyphae absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


(10) Cap pale yellow or off-white . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

(10) Cap brown, red, or a mixture of purple, blue, olive, and wine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


(11) Cap yellow with brown stains, smooth, dry, firm, with a matte-like finish, cuticle peeling with difficulty, SV- free hyphal tips present, primordial hyphae absent; stalk white and firm; gills white with brown stains, some forked near stalk; spores white to cream, D1-C1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. sp. (undescribed no. 12)

(11) Cap white (but may have pale yellow areas, dry; pileocystidia generally SV- but eventually becoming gray; many gills forked near stalk; stalk white, firm; spores cream, C1; associated with Quercus spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. sp. (undescribed no. 4)


(12) Cap uniformly dark yellow-brown or brown, becoming greenish brown, 6-12 cm broad; pileocystidia absent; some gills forked and anastomosed near stalk; stalk white, sometimes with purplish tints in age; spores C1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. brunneola

(12) Cap red or lilac or variegated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


(13) Cap red but fading to red and yellow or pink and yellow, pileocystidia abundant; gills white to cream, often forked; stalk white; spores white to cream, B2 . . . . R. sp. (undescribed no. 10)

(13) Cap robust (8-14 cm broad), lilac, but becoming a mixture of lilac, olive, and wine in age, margin smooth; pileocystidia present; gills white to cream (some short), soft and flexible; stalk white or white tinged lilac; spores B1, some B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. cyanoxantha


Spores white, taste acrid:
(14) Cap white or yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

(14) Cap pink, red, or variegated (mixture of yellow, olive, violet, or purple) . . . . . . . . . . .19


(15) Cuticle thick, rubbery, elastic, and translucent, cap cream to yellow, 3-8 cm broad; not or slightly striate; stalk white; cap, stalk, and context may bruise brown; spores A2-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. crassotunicata

(15) Cuticle not thick and rubbery; tissue unchanging when bruised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

(16) Cap primarily white . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

(16) Cap primarily yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


(17) Cap white to grayish-white or white with a slight tinge of lilac, 3.5-10 cm broad, slightly striate; stalk white; usually fruiting on well-rotted conifer logs; spores B2 . . . . . . . R. stuntzii

(17) Cap white to very pale yellow, sometimes with a faint gray tint in age; fruiting on the ground; spores D2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. raoultii


(18) Cap pale yellow (but traces of other colors usually, but not always, present), 3-7 cm broad; stalk white, sometimes developing yellow areas, especially near base; odor fruity; spores cream, C2-D2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. fragilis

(18) Cap pale yellow, 3-8 cm broad; stalk white; sharply acrid; odor none; spores B1-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. cremoricolor


(19) Cap red (but may fade to yellow in age), 3-8 cm broad, margin usually striate in age, cuticle separable ½ the distance to the center of cap; stalk white; spores B1-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R. cremoricolor (red phase)

(19) Cap pink or pink and yellow or variegated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


(20) Cap bright pink with or without red tinges or blotches, 3-8 cm broad, margin usually striate in age, cuticle separable ½ the distance to the center of cap; stalk white; spores B1-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. cremoricolor (pink phase)

(20) Cap a mixture of colors or variegated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


(21) Cap variegated, purple in center, otherwise olive or yellow with vinaceous, red, or purple spots, sometimes yellow throughout, 3-7 cm broad; stalk white, sometimes developing yellow areas, especially near base; odor fruity; spores cream, C2-D2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. fragilis

(21) Cap a mixture of pink and yellow or yellow throughout, 3-8 cm broad, margin usually striate; stalk white; odor none; spores white, B2; associated with Sitka spruce in northern California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. bicolor


(22) Taste mild; primordial hyphae present or absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

(22) Taste acrid; primordial hyphae usually absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51


Spores yellow, taste mild:
(23) Cap green, brown, yellow, or white (sometimes with red or pink blotches) . . . . . . . . . 24

(23) Cap pink, red, or purple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


(24) Cap greenish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

(24) Cap white, yellow, or brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27


(25) Cap olive-green to pale yellow-brown, 6-15 cm broad, margin smooth or weakly striate in age, cuticle separable 1/3 the distance to the center of cap; pileocystidia present; gills brown in age; odor of fish or shrimp; FeSO4 staining surface of stalk dark gray to dark green; stalk pink, white, or white tinged pink or purple, context slowly staining yellow then brown; spores B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. elaeodes

(25) No odor of shrimp; FeSO4 not staining surface of stalk dark gray to dark green; and stalk context not staining brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26


(26) Cap olive-green or olive-brown, purple to wine-red in age, 10-30 cm broad, robust, very firm, margin smooth, cuticle separable only at margin; pileocystidia absent; stalk usually tinged pink; spores 8-12 x 6.5-9 µm, A2-A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. olivacea

(26) Cap green or gray-green, often yellowish in the center, fading to olive- or light gray-brown throughout in age, 6-12 cm broad, cuticle separable 1/2 the distance to the center of cap; pileocystidia present; stalk white; spores B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. aeruginea


(27) Cap white or yellowish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

(27) Cap brownish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33


(28) Cap yellow, 5-9 cm broad, margin smooth or weakly striate in age, cuticle separable 1/3 the distance to the center of cap; pileocystidia present; gills brown in age; odor of fish or shrimp; FeSO4 staining surface of stalk dark gray to dark green; stalk pink, white, or white tinged pink or purple, context slowly staining yellow then brown; spores B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. grundii

(28) No odor of shrimp; FeSO4 not staining surface of stalk dark gray to dark green; and stalk context not staining brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


(29) Incrustations on primordial hyphae present (but may be rare) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

(29) Incrustations on primordial hyphae absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31


(30) Cap uniformly yellow, cuticle thick and rubbery, peeling with difficulty, free hyphal tips abundant, not staining in SV or slowly graying, incrustations on primordial hyphae present but rare; gills often forked near stalk; stalk white but becoming tan where bruised; spores pale yellow, B2-C2, some B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. sp. (undescribed no. 8)

(30) Cap pale yellow to white, sometimes washed with light pink or with pinkish-orange blotches, 5-8 cm broad, not striate or only slightly so, cap cuticle separating with difficulty; gills deep yellow; stalk white; spores yellow, B1-C1, spore ornaments up to 0.7 µm high and often solitary; associated with Quercus spp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. sp. (undescribed no. 1)


(31) Cap lemon yellow becoming lighter, 4-10 cm broad; stalk white; spores yellow, B2-B3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. flaviceps

(31) Cap pale yellow to dingy-white, often with at least hints of other colors . . . . . . . . . . 32


(32) Cap yellow, often with undertones of lilac and/or gray or with a pink or lilac margin, in age pale purplish pink with a yellow center, 3-8 cm broad; odor mild to fruity; stalk white or with a pink blush; spores dark yellow C2-E2, many reticulated . . . . . . . R. sp. (undescribed no. 9)

(32) Cap pale yellow to dingy-white, sometimes with pinkish or orange tones (or pink throughout when young) and developing brown blotches in age, 4-10 cm broad, margin smooth, often firm, cuticle separable for only a short distance (1/4 or less to center of cap); gills usually forking abundantly at the stalk; taste mild to slightly bitter; stalk white or occasionally tinged pink; spores dark yellow, C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. basifurcata


(33) Cap deep brown, fading lighter brown with a purplish cast, 6-12 cm broad, fragile in age, margin not striate or barely so; pileocystidia uncommon, incrustations on primordial hyphae present but uncommon; stalk white, unchanging when bruised; spores dark yellow, A3-A2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. integra

(33) Incrustations on primordial hyphae absent; cap either very firm or conspicuously striate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34


(34) Cap and stalk very firm; cap reddish-brown fading to yellow-brown to yellow, smooth to matte, 8-12 cm broad; pileocystidia scarce and weakly sulfovanillin-positive; stalk dry, whitish; spores C1-C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. mustelina

(34) Cap not firm, yellow-brown to brown, 3-8 cm broad, sticky, conspicuously striate; pileocystidia absent; stalk whitish, often brownish near base; odor fruity but becoming unpleasant in age, taste mild to mildly acrid; spores C1-C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. amoenolens


(35) Cap purple or purplish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

(35) Cap primarily some other color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43


(36) Spores very pale yellow (the spore print usually appearing white); cap light purple, reddish purple, or light maroon, center often darker, 3-5 cm broad, striate, fragile; stalk white; spores A2-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. lilacea

(36) Spores with a yellow tint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


(37) Incrustations on primordial hyphae present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

(37) Incrustations on primordial hyphae absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


(38) Stalk white to slightly tinged rose, aging or bruising gray; cap purplish-red or vinaceous, sometimes with brownish tones, especially in center, 5-10 cm broad; gill edges graying; spores pale yellow, A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. vinosa

(38) Stalk white with no other colors; if bruising, then staining brown, not gray; gills not graying in age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39


(39) Cap purplish-brown, 6-12 cm broad, fragile in age, margin not striate or barely so; pileocystidia uncommon, incrustations on primordial hyphae present but uncommon; stalk white, unchanging when bruised; spores dark yellow, A3-A2 (not reticulated). . . . . . . . . R. integra

(39) Cap purple to violet without any brown, spores partially reticulated . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40


(40) Cap purple or reddish-violet, 7-10 cm broad, short striate, cuticle separable ½ the distance to the center of cap; stalk white (not staining or aging brown), iodoform odor sometimes present at stalk base; spores C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. turci

(40) Cap violet to vinaceous, 6-10 cm broad, short-striate in age, cuticle separable with difficulty; stalk white, often staining brown when bruised or with age; no odor at stalk base; spores C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. amethystina


(41) Cap solid deep purple, margin smooth, 2-7 cm broad; stalk white; spores yellow, C1-D1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. murrillii

(41) Cap color primarily purple, but other colors may be present (rose or wine or yellow). . . . 42


(42) Cap rosy-purple, 3-8 cm broad, margin smooth, slightly striate in age, cuticle separable 2/3 the distance to the center of cap; stalk white; spores dark yellow, C2-D2 . . . . . . . R. cessans

(42) Cap purplish-red or vinaceous-violet with yellow blotches in center, 6-10 cm broad, depressed in age, margin inrolled becoming lobed, cuticle hardly separable; pileocystidia present but few; spores yellow, B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R. curtipes


(43) Pileocystidia absent, incrustations on primordial hyphae present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

(43) Pileocystidia usually present, incrustations on primordial hyphae absent . . . . . . . . . . 45


(44) Cap pink, rose, or salmon, becoming pink to pinkish-orange on the margin with a yellow center, cap center broadly depressed in age, 4-9 cm broad; stalk white sometimes with yellowish or brownish stains in age; spores dark yellow, C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. chamaeleontina

(44) Cap reddish orange, few incrustations on primordial hyphae, some free hyphal tips faintly graying in SV; stalk white; spores yellowish-orange, B2-C2, solitary warts present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R. sp. (undescribed no. 5)


(45) Cap 2.5 cm broad or smaller, mixture of red and yellow, pileocystidia short and numerous; stalk white; spores B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. sp. (undescribed no. 11)

(45) Cap generally larger than 2.5 cm broad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46


(46) Cap red, burgundy, or purplish-brown, 6-15 cm broad, margin smooth or weakly striate in age, cuticle separable 1/3 the distance to the center of cap; pileocystidia present; gills browning in age; odor of fish or shrimp; FeSO4 staining surface of stalk dark gray to dark green; stalk pink, white, or white tinged pink or purple, context slowly bruising yellow then brown; spores B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. xerampelina

(46) No odor of shrimp; FeSO4 not staining surface of stalk dark gray to dark green; and stalk context not bruising brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


(47) Cap 10-30 cm broad, robust, very firm, vinaceous with olive tints, margin smooth, cuticle separable only at margin; pileocystidia absent; gills cream to pale yellow; stalk white or tinged pink, often with rusty spots near base; spores 8-12 x 6.5-9 µm, A2-A3 . . . . . . . . . R. olivacea

(47) Cap smaller; either pileocystidia or incrustations on primordial hyphae present. . . . . . . 48


(48) Cap grayish-green to grayish-blue (fading in age and sometimes becoming yellowish at center) with a white surface bloom, resulting in a delicate velvet-like layer (pruinose), 3-10 cm broad, surface dry (matte finish), not or only slightly striate, pileocystidia present but sparse; stalk white; spores very pale yellow (cream), D1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. parazurea

(48) Cap not obviously pruinose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49


(49) Stalk red or at least tinted red; cap bright red, sometimes with yellow areas in age, 4-7 cm broad, cuticle separating to center; taste mild, slowly becoming weakly acrid; spores C1-C3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. rhodopoda

(49) Stalk not red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


(50) Cap pink, red, or clearly variegated, a mixture of reddish purple or greenish-purple or rosy-brown with a brown, blackish, or olive center, 3-7 cm broad, striate; stalk white, sometimes with yellow stains; spores bright yellow-ochre, C1/B2-C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. abietina

(50) Cap deep red to rosy-purple, 3-8 cm broad, margin smooth, slightly striate in age, cuticle separable 2/3 the distance to the center of cap; stalk white; spores dark yellow, C2-D2 R. cessans


Spores yellow, taste acrid:
(51) Cap basically white, yellow, or brown; pileocystidia present or absent . . . . . . . . . . 52

(51) Cap pink, red, wine, or purplish; pileocystidia present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55


(52) Cap whitish (but may have other faint colors) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

(52) Cap brownish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


(53) Cap pale yellow, 3-8 cm broad, smooth to slightly striate, cuticle not easily separable; pileocystidia present; stalk white; spores cream to very pale yellow, B2-C2 . . . . . R. albidula

(53) Cap white to grayish white or pale yellow, often with a narrow rose margin; cuticle not easily separable or for only a short distance; cap margin smooth; pileocystidia present; stalk white, rarely tinged pink; taste weakly acrid; spores cream to very pale yellow, B2 . . . . . . . . R. exalbicans


(54) Cap 5-15 cm broad, yellow-brown, flat, conspicuously striate; pileocystidia present; stalk whitish, becoming brownish stained; taste bitter at first, then acrid; odor strongly of almonds, fetid in age; spores D3-E3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. fragrantissima

(54) Cap brown to yellow-brown, 3-8 cm broad, sticky, conspicuously striate; pileocystidia absent; stalk whitish, often brownish near base; odor unpleasant, taste acrid; spores C2 . R. amoenolens


(55) Incrustations on primordial hyphae present; cap 3-8 cm broad, reddish-orange with yellow spots, SV+ pileocystidia present but few; gills sometimes forked; spores deep yellow, C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. sp. (undescribed 3)

(55) Incrustations on primordial hyphae absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


(56) Stalk distinctly pink, red, or purple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

(56) Stalk white or with a slight tinge of pink or purple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60


(57) Cap reddish-purple to purple, center darker, 3-8 cm broad, margin slightly striate, cuticle separable 2/3 the distance to the center of cap; stalk purple; odor fruity; spores pale yellow, A2-A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. queletii

(57) Cap coral or red, stalk pink to red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


(58) Cap coral (red with yellow blotches in age), 3-6 cm broad, margin striate in age, cuticle separable for only a short distance; stalk white with a bright coral blush; odor fruity; taste slowly very acrid; spores cream to pale yellow, warts 0.5-0.7 µm high, mostly A2, some B2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. sp. (undescribed 6)

(58) Cap red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59


(59) Cap red to scarlet, 4-10 cm broad, smooth to striate in age, cuticle separating with difficulty; stalk pink to red; taste distinctly acrid; spores A2-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. sanguinea

(59) Cap bright red, sometimes with yellow areas, 4-7 cm broad, cuticle separating to center; stalk pink to red; taste slowly becoming weakly acrid; spores C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. rhodopoda


(60) Cap generally < 4 cm broad, pink to rose with yellow blotches, plane to depressed in age, striate, cuticle not separating or barely so; stalk white, 4-5 cm long; spores B2 . . . . R. ellenae

(60) Cap usually >4 cm broad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


(61) Stalk graying; cap brick red (with yellow spots in age), 6-15 cm broad; taste acrid but mild in age; stalk white but grayish in age or where bruised; associated with Bishop pine and Monterey pine, where it is common; spores C1-C2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. californiensis

(61) Stalk not graying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62


(62) Cap purple or variegated with purplish tints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

(62) Cap red or light colored but without purple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64


(63) Cap variegated, purple in center, otherwise olive or yellow with vinaceous, red, or purple spots, sometimes yellow throughout, 3-7 cm broad; stalk white, often tinged purple or rose; odor of geraniums or fruity; spores yellow, C2-D2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. pelargonia

(63) Cap purple gray or purple-brown, fading to olive in places, 3-7 cm broad; stalk white; spores yellow to ochre, A2-A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. firmula


(64) Cap red when young, soon rosy to grayish white or pale yellow, often with a narrow rose margin, 3-8 cm broad; cuticle not easily separable or for only a short distance; cap margin smooth; stalk white, rarely tinged pink; taste weakly acrid; spores pale yellow, B2-C2 . . . R. exalbicans

(64) Cap brick red, becoming pink with a yellow center, 6-11 cm broad, striate in age; stalk white or tinged pink, not changing where bruised; all tissue very fragile in age; taste slowly very acrid; spores pale yellow, B2-B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. tenuiceps



(R. punicea, which may be limited to Sitka spruce forests and therefore not to be expected at Salt Point, is identical except for an all white stalk with little if any yellowing in the smaller cap (3-7 cm broad). Spores are deep yellow, B2/A2


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