Review questions general and basal eudicots: ranunculales and proteales

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1. Name and describe the major apomorphy of the Eudicots.

Triaperturate or triaperturate-derived pollen.

2. Name three families in the order Ranunculales.

Berberidaceae, Papaveraceae, Ranunculaceae.

3. What is distinctive about the perianth of the Berberidaceae?

It is multi-seriate: 6–7-seriate with 3 [2,4] parts per whorl, the outer 2 whorls sepaloid, the inner 4–5 whorls petaloid.

4. What is the corolla cycly and placentation of the Papaveraceae?

Corolla cycly: biseriate. Placentation: parietal.

5. What economically important member of the Papaveraceae has shaped human history?

Papaver somniferum, opium poppy.

6. What is the etymology of the root name for Ranunculaceae?

Latin Rana, little frog, after the amphibious habit of many species.

7. What is the gynoecial fusion of the Ranunculaceae?


8. Name the three families of the Proteales.

Nymphaeaceae, Platanaceae, Proteaceae.

9. For the Nelumbonaceae what is the family common name, plant habitat, leaf base/shape, floral formula, and placentation?

Family common name: water lotus family.

Plant habitat: emergent aquatics.

Leaf base/shape: peltate, orbicular.

Floral formula: P2+∞+∞ A∞ G∞, ovary superior.

Placentation: apical.

10. What is the fruit type of the Nelumbonaceae and what accessory tissue is part of this fruit?

Fruit type: aggregate of nuts.

Accessory tissue: accrescent receptacle.

11. What is the single genus and common name of the Platanaceae?

Platanus. Sycamore.

12. What is the stipule type, bud type, inflorescence type, flower sex, and fruit type of the Platanaceae?

Stipule type: infrapetiolar.

Inflorescence type: spike of globose heads.

Flower sex: unisexual.

Fruit type: multiple of achenes.

13. How are the Nelumbonaceae and Platanaceae similar with regard to placentation?

Both have apical placentation.

14. For the Proteaceae, name the perianth cycly, perianth merosity, stamen number, ovary position, and placentation.

Perianth cycly: uniseriate.

Perianth merosity: tetramerous.

Stamen number: 4.

Ovary position: superior.

Placentation: marginal/basal.

15. In what two regions of the world are most Proteaceae found?

Australia and South Africa.

16. What is distinctive about the Gunneraceae in terms of habit, root symbiosis, leaf morphology, and fruit type?

Habit: herb.

Root symbiosis: with the cyanobacterium Nostoc.

Leaf morphology: peltate.

Fruit type: drupe.

17. What is the leaf arrangement and typical leaf texture of the Crassulaceae?

Leaf arrangement: spiral, opposite, or whorled.

Leaf texture: succulent.

18. For the Crassulaceae, give the photosynthetic mechanism, inflorescence type, perianth cycly, gynoecium fusion, and fruit type.

Photosynthesis: CAM.

Inflorescence type: cyme or flowers solitary.

Perianth cycly: dichlamydeous.

Gynoecial fusion: apocarpous.

Fruit type: follicetum (rarely a capsule).

19. Name a few common cultivars of the Crassulaceae.

Aeonium spp., Crassula spp., incl. C. argentea, jade plant; Echeveria spp.; Kalanchoe spp.; Sedum spp.

20. What is the plant habit, trichome type, flower sex, and fruit type of the Hamamelidaceae?

Plant habit: shrub or tree.

Trichome type: stellate.

Flower sex: bisexual or unisexual.

Fruit type: capsule.

21. For the Saxifragaceae, what is the leaf arrangement, and what is the variation of gynoecial fusion and ovary position?

Leaf arrangement: usually spiral.

Gynoecial fusion: syncarpous to rarely apocarpous.

Ovary position: superior to inferior.

22. Name the diagnostic features of the Vitaceae with respect to plant habit, stem morphology, perianth morphology, and fruit type.

Plant habit: vine (liana), herb, or shrub.

Stem morphology: tendrils often opposite the leaves.

Perianth morphology: calyx aposepalous, reduced to a collar in some; corolla apopetalous, calyptrate in Vitis.

Fruit type: berry.

23. What is the most economically important member of the Vitaceae (common and scientific name)?

Grape, Vitis vinifera.

24. How are the Dilleniales/Dilleniaceae distinctive with regard to stamen development and gynoecial fusion?

Stamen development: centrifugal, often in bundles.

Gynoecial fusion: apocarpous, rarely syncarpous.

25. What former family is included within the Santalaceae, s.l. (sensu APG III 2009)?


26. What is the root type and plant nutrition of the Santalaceae?

Root type: haustorial.

Plant nutrition: hemiparasitic.

27. Name two economically important members of the Santalaceae.

Santalum album, sandlewood.

Phoradendron spp., mistletoe.

28. What carnivorous plant families are found in the Caryophyllales?

Drosophyllaceae, Droseraceae, Nepenthaceae. [Note: Dioncophyllaceae is also carnivorous; hashmark of cladogram, Figure 8.17, is misplaced and should only cover lineage to Ancistrocladaceae.

29. Name the apomorphies for the terminal members (including ca. 17 families) of the Core Caryophyllales.

Sieve tube plastids with protein crysalloid surrounded by proteinaceous filaments.

Betalains present; anthocyanins absent.

Ovules campylotroupous, embryo curved.

Perisperm present.

30. What are betalains and what is their function?

Reddish, purplish, or yellowish pigmented compounds that functionally replace the anthocyanins found in other angiosperms.

31. For the Aizoaceae, what is the leaf texture and typical leaf arrangement?

Leaf texture: succulent.

Leaf arrangement (typical): opposite or worled.

32. What is the perianth cycly of the Aizoaceae, and what structures appear like petals in many members?


Staminiodes appear like petals in some.

33. What types of photosynthesis are found in many Aizoaceae?

CAM or C4.

34. What is distinctive about the perianth cycly, locule number, and placentation of the Amaranthaceae?

Perianth cycly: uniseriate.

Locule number: one.

Placentation: basal.

35. For the Cactaceae, what is the plant habit, stem texture, and geographic distribution?

Plant habit: tree or shrub.

Stem texture: succulent.

Geographic distribution: N. & S. America (except for one species in Africa).

36. What are the specialized axillary meristems of cacti termed, and what do these produce?

Areoles, which produce leaf spines.

37. What is unusual about the perianth of the Cactaceae?

It consists of numerous, distinct, spirally arranged tepals, grading from outer bractlike to inner petal-like structures.

38. What type of photosynthesis is found in cacti and what is its physiological significance?

CAM. It allows stomates to open only at night, close during the day, inhibiting water loss.

39. Give the floral formula, perianth/androecial position, and placentation for the Cactaceae.

P ∞ A ∞ G ∞.

Perianth/androecial position: epiperigynous.

Placentation: parietal.

40. What is the common name of the Caryophyllaceae, and what genus denotes this common name?

Carnation family.


41. For the Caryophyllaceae, what is distinctive about the stem nodes, leaf arrangement, corolla (petal) type, and placentation?

Stem nodes: swollen.

Leaf arrangement: opposite (rarely spiral).

Corolla (petal) type: unguiculate (clawed).

Placentation: free-central, at least above.

42. What is unusual about the plant nutrition of the Droseraceae?

Carnivorous, usu. insectivorous.

43. Name and describe the two leaf structural types of the Droseraceae.

Tentacular, with glandular trichomes that capture small animals.

Trap, with two halves that quickly move and capture a small animal.

44. What is the common name and “claim to fame” of Dionaea muscipula?

Venus fly trap, has trap leaves.

45. What is distinctive about the perianth cycly, carpel number, ovule position and type, and fruit type of the Nyctaginaceae?

Perianth cycly: uniseriate.

Carpel number: one.

Ovule position: basal.

Ovule type: usually campylotropous.

Fruit type: anthocarp/diclesium.

46. For the Plumbaginaceae what is the carpel number, locule number, and ovule position and type?

Carpel number: 5.

Locule number: 1.

Ovule position: basal.

Ovule type: anatropous.

47. What is the common name of the Polygonaceae, and what species denotes this common name?

Common name: buckwheat family.

Buckwheat is Fagopyrum esculentum.

48. What two perianth morphologies occur in the Polygonaceae?

Uniseriate (appearing biseriate), homochlamydeous, 3+3.

Uniseriate, homochlamydeous, quincuncial.

49. What is the name of the distinctive stipular structures found in some Polygonaceae?


50. What is the ovule position and type of the Polygonaceae?

Ovule position: basal.

Ovule type: orthotropous.

51. What are some common features of members of the Rosids?

Members tend to have perianths with unfused parts and a stamen merosity greater than that of the calyx or corolla, but there are many exceptions. Generally, Rosids have bitegmic, crassinucellate ovules, distinguishing them from the Asterids, which largely have unitegmic, tenuinucellate ovules.

52. Name four families of great economic or ecological importance in the Fabids.

Cucurbitaceae (squash family), Fabaceae (bean/pea family), Rosaceae (rose family), and Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fagaceae (oak family).

53. What family contains hemiparasites and has flowers with lipid-secreting anterior petals (functioning in pollination) and prickly fruits?


54. For the Zygophyllaceae name two diagnostic features and three economically or ecologically important members.

Diagnostic features: Leaves usually opposite and imparipinnate, geminate, or trifoliolate [simple], stamen filaments basally glandular or with scale-like appendages, fruit usually a lobed capsule or schizocarp.

Economic importance: Guiacum spp., lignum-vitae, Peganum harmala, harmal, source of the dye “turkey red”.

55. Name at least five families of the large order Malpighiales.

Euphorbiaceae, Hypericaceae, Malpighiaceae, Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Violaceae.

55. What is the plant sex of members of the Euphorbiaceae?

Monoecious or dioecious.

56. What two groups (typically treated as subfamilies) of the Euphorbiaceae yield a latex?

Euphorbioideae, Crotonoideae.

57. What is the typical carpel and locule number and inflorescence type in the Euphorbiaceae?

Three carpels and locules. Inflorescence type a cyme, modified as a cyathium in some Euphorbioideae.

58. What is the highly specialized inflorescence type found in many Euphorbioideae?


59. Name three (scientific and common name) economically important members of the Euphorbiaceae.

Aleurites fordii, tung oil; A. moluccana, candlenut oil; Hevea brasiliensis, rubber tree; Manihot esculentus, cassava/ manioc; Ricinus communis, castor bean.

60. Which Euphorbiaceae are important members of plant communities in southern Africa?

Stem succulent Euphorbia spp.

61. Characterize the Hypericaceae with respect to leaf structure and stamen number, development, and fusion.

Leaf structure: pellucid gland dotted or lined.

Stamen number: numerous.

Stamen development: centrifugal.

Stamen fusion: fasciculate.

62. What is distinctive about the Malpighiaceae with respect to leaf morphology, calyx structure, petal structure, and stamen structure?

Leaf morphology: simple, mostly undivided, pinnately-veined, usually opposite [rarely subopposite or ternate], petiolate, usually stipulate (stipules large or connate in some taxa), with two, fleshy glands near the junction of petiole and blade.

Calyx structure: aposepalous or basally synsepalous with 5 sepals/calyx lobes, each with 2 fleshy, basally abaxial glands, sometimes reduced to 1 gland or absent on one sepal, rarely absent entirely.

Petal structure: 5, clawed (unguiculate), typically marginally ciliate, toothed, or fringed, the adaxial-lateral petal often different from the others.

Stamen structure: 10 [2-15], biseriate, rarely 1- or 3-seriate, apostemonous or basally fused into a tube, staminodes or stamens with partially sterile anthers often present, sometimes within an entire whorl.

63. Name two economically important members of the Malpighiaceae.

Malpighia glabra, Barbados-cherry; Bunchosia spp., marmelo; Banisteriopsis caapi, Ayahuasca.

64. What is the common name of the Passifloraceae?

Passion Flower family.

65. What two floral features are distinctive in the Passifloraceae?

One or more whorls of coronal appendages between perianth and androecium, and an androgynophore.

66. What is the common name and medicinal importance of the Salicaceae?

Willow family.

Bark original source of salicin, modified into salicylic acid, aspirin.

67. How are the Salicaceae characteristic with respect to plant sex, leaf tooth morphology, and placentation?

Plant sex: dioecious or hermaphroditic.

Leaf tooth morphology: veins traverses into tooth, expanding into a usually pigmented, rounded gland or a stout trichome (“salicoid” tooth).

Placentation: parietal or basal (rarely axile).

68. What is the typical floral formula of the Violaceae?

K 5 C 5 A 5 G (3), superior.

69. Many members of the Violaceae with zygomorphic flowers have the anterior petal modified into what structure and function?

Anterior petal often with a nectar-storing spur.

70. What is the anther orientation and placentation of the Violaceae?

Anther orientation: connivent.

Placentation: parietal.

71. What are the diagnostic features of the Oxalidaceae?

The Oxalidaceae are distinctive in being herbs, shrubs, or small trees, usually with pinnate or palmate (often trifoliolate) leaves (leaflets often folding at night), flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, the stamens usually biseriate, with outer, basal nectaries, the fruit a loculicidal capsule or berry.

K 5 C 5 or (5) [0] A (5+5) [(+5 staminodes)] G (5) [(3)], superior.

72. What is the alternate, traditional/classical name for the Fabaceae family?


73. What is distinctive about the typical gynoecial fusion, carpel number, placentation, and fruit type of the Fabaceae?

Gynoecial fusion: unicarpellous.

Carpel number: one.

Placentation: marginal.

Fruit type: legume.

74. Prepare a table of the three subfamilies of the Fabaceae and for each listing the (a) flower symmetry; (b) position of the median posterior petal (where pertinent); (c) stamen number; and (d) stamen fusion.





Flower symmetry




Position median posterior petal



not applicable

Stamen number




Stamen fusion


monadelphous or diadelphous

apostemonous or monadelphous

75. Describe in detail a papilionaceous flower and indicate the subfamily (giving both acceptable names) having this type of flower.

A paplionaceous flower is zygomorphic, with 5 sepals and petals, with a posterior petal (banner) usually enlarged, often with a nectar guide, two laterals (wing petals), and two anterior petals that are connate apically and carinate below. Stamens are 10 and connate, either monadelphous or diadelphous. The pistil is enclosed within the staminal sheath.

Subfamily: Faboideae or Papilionoideae.

76. Name several economically important members of the Fabaceae.

Acacia spp.; Arachis hypogaea, peanut; Glycine max, soybeans; Lens culinaris, lentil; Phaseolus spp., beans; Pisum sativum, peas); Ceratonia siliqua, carob; Medicago sativa, alfalfa; Trifolium spp., clovers.

77. What is distinctive about the calyx of the Polygalaceae, and what other family/subfamily do the flowers superficially resemble?

The calyx is usually aposepalous, sepals 5, the two inner, latero-posterior sepals often petaloid (resembling wing petals), rarely all or the two anterior sepals basally connate.

78. What is unusual about the roots in some members of the family Rhamnaceae?

They have a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing Actinomycetes bacteria.

79. What is the significance of Ziziphus spina-christi?

Purported to be the true Christ’s crown of thorns.

80. What is the characteristic perianth/androecial position and stamen position of the Rhamnaceae?

Perianth/androecial position: epiperigynous to perigynous.

Stamen position: alternisepalous/antipetalous.

81. What are the three, currently recognized subfamilies of the Rosaceae and how do they differ?

Rosoideae-apocarpous or unicarpellous gynoecium forming an achene, achenecetum, or drupecetum, including taxa in which the receptacle is expanded and fleshy (e.g., Fragaria) or sunken (e.g., the hips of Rosa).

Dryadoideae-drupecetum or achene, but all having a symbiotic relationship with the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia.

Spiraeoideae-taxa with an apocarpous gynoecium forming a follicetum (Spiraeeae), taxa with a single, superior-ovaried pistil bearing one ovule, the fruit a drupe (Prunus and relatives, classified as the Amygdaleae), and taxa with an inferior ovary, forming a pome (Malus and relatives, classified as the Pyrinae).

82. Name several economically important members (scientific and common names) of the Rosaceae.

Fragaria (strawberry), Malus (apples), Prunus (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum), Pyrus (pear), and Rubus (blackberry, raspberry), as well as essential oils (e.g., Rosa), and numerous ornamental cultivars, such as Cotoneaster, Photinia, Prunus (cherries), Pyracantha, Rosa (roses), and Spiraea.

83. What four families are “Urticalean Rosids”?

Cannabaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae.

84. Name two economically important members of the Cannabaceae (scientific and common names).

Cannabis sativa, hemp, marijuana; Humulus lupulus, hops.

85. Name three diagnostic features of the Moraceae.

Monoecious or dioecious trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs.

Milky latex.

Stipulate, simple leaves.

Unisexual flowers, the female with a usually 2-carpellate (2 styled) pistil and a single, apical to subapical ovule.

Fruit a multiple of achenes, in some taxa with an enlarged compound receptacle or syconium.

86. What are three economically important members of the Moraceae?

Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Ficus carica (edible fig), and Morus spp. (mulberry).

87. For the Ulmaceae name the family common name, plant habit, leaf arrangement, venation structure, and fruit type.

Common name: Elm family.

Plant habit: tree.

Leaf arrangement: spiral, becoming distichous.

Venation structure: veinlets terminate tooth.

Fruit type: often a samara.

88. Name the following for the Urticaceae: common name, plant sex, pollination mechanism, perianth cycly, stamen posture and pollen transfer mechanism, ovary structure, and ovule number, position, and type.

Common name: Nettle family.

Plant sex: monoecious or dioecious (rarely hermaphroditic).

Pollination mechanism: wind.

Perianth cycly: uniseriate.

Stamen posture: inflexed.

Pollen transfer mechanism: catapaulted.

Ovary structure: superior, with one locule and carpel.

Ovule number: one per pistil.

Ovule position: basal.

Ovule type: orthotropous.

89. What is unusual about the trichome structure and internal anatomy of some members of the Urticaceae?

Trichome structure: urent.

Internal anatomy: calcium carbonate cystoliths (within “lithocyst” cells)

90. What is the plant sex of the Begoniaceae? How do male and female flowers differ in perianth structure?

Plant sex: monoecious.

Male flowers usually 2+2 [5+5] and valvate, female flowers usually 5 [5+5], and imbricate.

91. What is the leaf base shape, ovary position, and ovary/fruit shape of the Begoniaceae?

Leaf base shape: oblique.

Ovary position: inferior.

Ovary/fruit shape: winged.

92. What is the typical plant habit, plant sex, and leaf morphology of the Cucurbitaceae?

Plant habit: vine (rarely tree-like).

Plant sex: monoecious or dioecious (rarely hermaphroditic).

Leaf morphology: palmately lobed to divided.

93. Name the typical ovary position, perianth/androecial position, carpel number, and placentation of the Cucurbitaceae.

Ovary position: inferior.

Perianth/androecial position: epiperigynous.

Carpel number: 3 [1-5].

Placentation: parietal, rarely axile.

94. Name three economically important members of the Cucurbitaceae.

Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo and other spp. (squashes, pumpkins), Luffa (luffa).

95. What is the common name, plant sex, inflorescence type, and fruit type of the Betulaceae?

Common name: birch family.

Plant sex: monoecious.

Inflorescence type: catkin.

Fruit type: samara.

96. How does the Fagaceae differ from the Betulaceae?

The Fagaceae differ in that the fruit is a nut subtended by 2–many valved cupule bearing appendages.

97. For the Fagaceae what is distinctive about the (a) male inflorescence? (b) fruit accessory part?

a) Catkin.

b) Cupule bearing appendages.

98. What are the plant sex, male inflorescence type, ovary position, and fruit structure of the Juglandaceae?

Plant sex: monoecious or dioecious.

Ovary position: inferior.

Fruit: Nut, tryma, samara, or pseudodrupe.

98. Name two economically important members of the Juglandaceae.

Carya illinoiensis, pecan, and Juglans spp., walnuts.

99. Name a few features of the Crossosomataceae.

Crossosomataceae are simple-leaved trees or shrubs, with flowers bearing numerous stamens, 1–5 distinct carpels (gynoecium apocarpous), the fruit a follicetum with arillate seeds.

100. In the Geraniaceae, what is distinctive about the nectary position?

Between petals and stamens (except in Pelargonium).

101. What is distinctive about the fruit type of most Geraniaceae?

Fruit is a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp of mericarps or follicles, usually separating from a persistent beak arising from an accrescent style.

102. For the Lythraceae, what is distinctive about the leaf structure, calyx aestivation, and corolla aestivation?

Leaf structure: usually opposite leaves lacking punctate glands.

Calyx aestivation: valvate.

Corolla aestivation: imbricate-crumpled in bud.

103. What is distinctive about the leaf arrangement and venation in the Melastomataceae?

Leaf arrangement: opposite.

Venation: acrodromous (with 3–9 subparallel, major veins).

104. What is the ovary position, anther dehiscence, and anther connective form of the Melastomataceae?

Ovary position: inferior.

Anther dehiscence: poricidal.

Anther connective: appendaged.

105. How can the Myrtaceae often be recognized with respect to leaf structure?

Leaves have pellucid or punctate glands.

106. What is the perianth/androecial position and stamen number of the Myrtaceae?

Perianth/androecial position: epiperigynous.

Stamen number: numerous.

107. Name two spices, one fruit tree, and an important timber/pulp genus of the Myrtaceae.

Spices: Syzygium aromaticum, cloves, Pimenta dioica, allspice.

Fruit tree: Psidium guajava, guava.

Timber/pulp genus: Eucalyptus.

108. What is the common name of the Onagraceae family?

Evening-Primrose family.

109. Name the typical floral formula (including ovary position) of the Onagraceae.

K 4 C 4 A 4+4 G (4), inferior, hypanthium present.

110. What is an apomorphy for most members of the Brassicales?


111. What is the alternate, traditional/classical name for the Brassicaceae family? The common name?


Mustard family.

112. What is the corolla type for the Brassicaceae? Stamen arrangement?

Corolla type: cruciate.

Stamen arrangement: tetradynamous.

113. Give the typical floral formula for the Brassicaceae.

K 4 C 4 A 2+4 G (2), superior, hypanthium absent.

114. How do the Brassicaceae differ from the Capparaceae and Cleomaceae in placentation and fruit morphology?








Fruit Morphology

silique or silicle

indehiscent, no replum, unilocular

dehiscent with replum, unilocular

115. Name several economically important members of the Brassicaceae (scientific and common names).

Radish (Armoracia rusticana), broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, collards, kale (all cultivars of Brassica oleracea), rutabaga and canola oil (B. napus), mustard (B. nigra), turnip (B. rapa), wasabi (Eutrema japonicum), radish (Raphanus sativus), and many more; plus numerous cultivated ornamentals, dye plants (Isatis tinctoria, woad).

116. How are the Tropaeolaceae distinctive with respect to plant habit and perianth structure?

Plant habit: herbs.

Perianth structure: with a spurred calyx and clawed petals.

117. What is the floral formula of the Tropaeolaceae?

K 5 C 5 A 8 G (3), superior.

118. Name five families of the Malvales.

Bixaceae, Cistaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Malvaceae, Thymeleaceae.

119. Name four putative apomorphies for the Malvaceae, s.l.

Inflorescence a “bicolor unit” (consisting of a modified, 3-bracted cyme, the trimerous epicalyx of family members possibly derived from these 3 bracts), calyx valvate, stellate trichomes, dilated phloem rays.

120. What former three families are now included as part of the family Malvaceae?

Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae.

121. For the Malvoideae and Bombacoideae together, name the (a) stamen fusion; (b) anther type.

Stamen fusion: monadelphous, with staminal tube.

Anther type: monothecal.

122. What is the name of the specialized bracts that subtend the calyx in many Malvaceae?


123. What are the common names of Gossypium spp., Theobroma cacao, and Cola nitida?

Cotton, cacao (chocolate), cola.

124. Name the common name of and several economically important members of the family Anacardiaceae.

Cashew, Anacardium occidentale; pistachio, Pistacia vera; mango, Mangifera indica.

125. How is the Anacardiaceae distinctive with regard to (a) nectaries; (b) anatomy?

Nectaries: with a nectariferous disk.

Anatomy: with resin ducts or laticifers.

126. Name several economically important members of the family Rutaceae.

Citrus spp., citrus (grapefruit, lemon, lime, oranges); Ruta graveolens, rue.

127. How is the Rutaceae distinctive with regard to (a) nectaries; (b) glandular secretions?

Nectaries: annular disk at the base of the ovary.

Glandular secretions: secretory glands containing ethereal oils occur in many tissues, appearing as pellucid punctate glands in the leaves and pericarp; hesperidium with internal, swollen trichomes termed juice sacs.

128. How are many Sapindaceae distinctive with regard to (a) leaf morphology; (b) nectaries; (c) chemistry?

Leaf morphology: simple, palmate, trifoliolate, pinnate, or bipinnate, usually spiral, opposite in Hippocastanoideae (incl.), usually exstipulate.

Nectaries: extrastaminal or intrastaminal nectariferous disk.

Chemistry: many taxa with soap-like saponins in tissues.

129. What former families are now included within the Sapindaceae?

Aceraceae, Hippocastanaceae.

130. Name three potential apomorphies for the Asterids.

The presence of iridoid compounds, a sympetalous corolla, and unitegmic, tenuinucellate ovules.

131. What is the common name of the Cornaceae, and how is the family distinctive with regard to (a) leaf arrangement; (b) inflorescence types; (c) ovary position; and (d) fruit type?

Common name: dogwood family.

Leaf arrangement: opposite [rarely spiral].

Inflorescence types: cyme or head of cymes, rarely a raceme, with showy, petaloid inflorescence bracts in some taxa.

Ovary position: inferior.

Fruit type: multilocular drupe.

132. How are the Loasaceae distinctive with respect to trichome anatomy, calyx duration, and placentation?

Trichome anatomy: trichomes silicified, often glochidiate, urent (stinging), or apically glandular.

Calyx duration: persistent.

Placentation: parietal.

133. Name three families of the Ericales of economic importance.

Actinidiaceae (containing Actinidium chinensis, kiwi fruit), Ebenaceae (including Diospyros spp., persimmon, and Euclea pseudebenus, black ebony), Ericaceae (including Vaccinium spp., blueberry, cranberry) and Sapotaceae (source of important fruit and timber trees, as well as of Palaquium gutta, gutta-percha, and Manilkara zapota, chicle, the original chewing gum).

134. How is the Balsaminaceae distinctive with respect to calyx morphology, stamen fusion/structure, anther anatomy, and fruit type?

Calyx morphology: aposepalous with 3 [5] often petaloid sepals, lowermost forming slender, nectariferous spur.

Stamen fusion/structure: monadelphous (upper filaments and anthers connate), the fused anthers forming a calyptra covering stigma(s).

Anther anatomy: 3–4–sporangiate, the sporangia with thread-like “trabeculae” that partition sporogenous tissue and hold pollen together at dehiscence.

Fruit type: drupe with 5, schizocarpic pyrenes (Hydrocera) or a touch-sensitive, explosively dehiscent capsule.

135. What is the common name of the Ericaceae, and how is the family distinctive with regard to (a) associated soil chemistry; (b) leaf morphology; and (c) leaf duration?

Soil chemistry: often acidic.

Leaf morphology: simple, exstipulate, spiral, opposite, or whorled, sometimes with a basal pulvinus, evergreen, generally coriaceous, variable in shape, ranging from linear and strongly abaxially concave revolute (“ericoid”) to broad and relatively flat, with pinnate netted venation.

Leaf duration: usually evergreeen.

136. What is the anther dehiscence of many Ericaceae and how do these anthers develop?

Poricidal, often becoming inverted during development.

137. Name some economically important members of the Ericaceae.

Cultivated ornamentals, especially Rhododendron [Azalea] and Erica; Vaccinium species (including blueberry and cranberry) are important fruit plants.

138. What is the common name of the Fouquieriaceae, and what is the (a) perianth cycly; (b) corolla fusion; (c) carpel number?

Ocotillo family.

a) Dichlamydeous; b) sympetalous; c) three.

139. Describe in detail the shoot and leaf morphology of the Fouquieriaceae. How are these adaptive?

The stems are woody to succulent, ridged. The leaves are simple, undivided, spiral, those of long shoots forming petiolar spines, these with axillary fascicles of drought-deciduous nonspiny leaves.

These are adaptive in that the leaves can form rapidly after rains, then dry up when the soil moisture is gone, xeromorphic adaptations (for a dry habitat).

140. How is the Myrsinaceae distinctive with respect to leaf structure, stamen arrangement, and placentation?

Leaf structure: simple, spiral or opposite, exstipulate.

Stamen arrangement: antipetalous.

Placentation: free-central.

141. What is the common name and floral formula of the Polemoniaceae?

Phlox family.

K (5) C (5) A 5 G (3), superior.

142. What is the common name of the Primulaceae, and how are they similar to the Myrsinaceae?

Primrose family.

Similar in having antipetalous stamen position and free-central placentation.

143. Describe the structure and function of the modified leaf in the Sarraceniaceae.

The leaves are simple, exstipulate, usually in a basal rosette, with a “pitcher” structural type, being tubular (by conduplication and fusion of margins during development), with an apical hood (“nectar spoon” in Heliamphora; “operculum” in others), the tube becoming fluid-filled, often with digestive glands on inner surface; insects and other small animals are attracted to pitcher mouth visually, by scent, or by nectary-like glands (located on nectar spoon in Heliamphora); prey animals are directed downward by introrse trichomes at pitcher’s upper end and slide downward on slightly lower, slick surface into fluid, where they drown and are digested by means of secreted digestive enzymes or symbiotic bacteria.

144. Name the three genera of the Sarraceniaceae, their distribution, and how they differ with respect to leaf and stigma morphology.





W. North America

Guayana Highland of South America

E. North America

Leaf morphology

apical hood an “operculum”

apical hood a “nectar spoon”

apical hood an “operculum”

Stigma morphology

5-branched with terminal stigmas

5-branched with terminal stigmas

apically peltate with stigmatic regions underneath

145. How are the Sarraceniaceae characterized with respect to flower orientation, calyx/corolla duration, and placentation?

Flower orientation: nodding.

Calyx duration: persistent.

Corolla duration: deciduous.

Placentation: axile below, parietal above.

146. What is the common name of the Theaceae and the scientific name of its most economically important member?

Tea family.

Camellia sinsensis, tea.

147. Characterize the Theaceae with respect to plant habit, leaf type/arrangement/duration, and stamen number/development.

Plant habit: tree or shrub.

Leaf type: simple.

Leaf arrangement: spiral.

Leaf duration: evergreen.

Stamen number: numerous.

Stamen development: centrifugal.

148. What is distinctive about the Garryaceae with regard to plant sex, inflorescence type/orientation, and perianth cycly?

Plant sex: dioecious.

Inflorescence type/orientation: pendant, thyrsoid catkins.

Perianth cycly: uniseriate (male); absent to reduced to 2 appendages near style (female).

149. For the Boraginaceae s.l., what is the inflorescence unit, corolla fusion, and corolla symmetry?

Inflorescence unit: monochasial scorpioid cyme (often circinate), rarely of solitary, axillary flowers.

Corolla fusion: sympetalous.

Corolla symmetry: actinomorphic or zygomorphic.

150. Describe the gynoecial morphology (including carpel, locule, and ovule number), style position, and fruit type for the Boraginoideae.

Gynoecial morphology: vary is deeply 4-lobed, with 2 carpels, 4 locules, 1 ovule per locule.

Style position: gynobasic.

Fruit type: schizocarp of 4 nutlets (sometimes reduced in number).

151. How does the Hydrophylloideae resemble the Boraginoideae in corolla symmetry, stamen merosity, ovary position, and carpel number?

Corolla symmetry: both gen. actinomorphic.

Stamen merosity: 5

Ovary position: superior.

Carpel number: 2.

152. How is the Hydrophylloideae different from the Boraginoideae in ovary shape, style position, and fruit type?

Ovary shape: unlobed.

Style position: terminal.

Fruit type: capsule (usu. 1 locular).

153. Name the other subfamilies of the Boraginaceae s.l. and indicate how they differ. Which one is achlorophyllous/parasitic?

Cordioideae-mostly trees, ovary with a terminal, 4-branched style, the fruit a drupe with 4-locular endocarp.

Ehretioideae-mostly trees, ovary 4-lobed with a terminal, 2-branched style, the fruit a drupe with 2 (2-seeded) or 4 (1-seeded) pyrenes.

Heliotropoideae-herbs or shrubs, the style terminal, unbranched with short stigma.

Lennooideae-achlorophyllous, root-parasitic herbs with a fleshy, circumscissile capsule.

154. What class of chemical compounds is found in the tissues of the Apocynaceae?


155. What is unusual about the gynoecial fusion in many members of the Apocynaceae?

Gynoecium is syncarpous, often only apically, with ovaries distinct.

156. Describe the distinctive androecium and pollen fusion type found in the Asclepiadoids (milkweeds).

In Asclepidoids, pollen grains of each theca of an anther are fused into a waxy mass called a pollinium. The right pollinium of each anther is attached to the left pollinium of the adjacent anther by a translator, consisting of two hairlike translator arms (also termed retinacula) attached together to a two-parted, gland-like corpusculum. The unit of pollen dispersal in Asclepiadoids is the translator apparatus, made up of the yoke-shaped translator and the two, adnate pollinia (half-anthers) of adjacent stamens, and located within “pollination slits” on the sides of the gynostegium.

157. Name two medicinally important members of the Apocynaceae, including the compounds used and diseases these are used to treat.

Catharanthus roseus, Madagascar periwinkle, from which vincristine/vinblastine is used to treat childhood leukemia.

Rauvolfia serpentina, from which the drug reserpine is derived (used in the past to treat hypertension and schizophrenia).

158. Review the diagnostic features of the gentian family (Gentianceae), noting the floral nectaries and glands.

The Gentianaceae are distinctive in being trees, shrubs, or usually herbs (sometimes achlorophyllous and mycotrophic), with a usually 4–5 [–12] -merous perianth/androecium, often with nectary pits on corolla lobes and a disk or glands at ovary base, the ovary superior, 2-carpellate, with usually parietal (sometimes axile or free-central) placentation, the fruit a septicidal capsule or berry.

159. Describe the leaf arrangement, stipular morphology, and ovary position of the Rubiaceae.

Leaf arrangement: opposite.

Stipular morphology: connate, often bearing structures termed colleters, which produce mucilaginous compounds protecting the young shoot.

Ovary position: inferior [rarely superior].

160. Name economically important members of the Rubiaceae with respect to uses as a medicine, beverage, and sexual stimulant.

Medicine: Cinchona, the source of quinine.

Beverage: Coffea arabica, coffee.

Sexual stimulant: Pausinystalia johimbe, yohimbe.

161. For the Acanthaceae, describe the leaf arrangement, flower symmetry, and modified funiculus.

Leaf morphology: opposite, simple.

Flower symmetry: bilateral.

Modified funiculus: retinaculum/jaculator, functioning in seed dispersal.

162. For the Bignoniaceae, describe the plant habit, leaf arrangement, flower symmetry, and seed morphology and nutrition.

Plant habit: tree, shrub, or liana.

Leaf arrangement: opposite or whorled.

Flower symmetry: zygomorphic (bilateral).

Seed morphology/nutrition: often flat and winged, exalbuminous.

163. How can the Lamiaceae be recognized with respect to (a) plant chemistry; (b) stem shape; (c) leaf type and arrangement; (d) corolla type; (e) style position (in most); and (f ) fruit type (in most)?

a) Usually contain aromatic etheral oils (volatile organic compounds) in glands of stem, leaves, calyx.

b) 4-sided; square in cross-section.

c) Simple, opposite-decussate.

d) Bilabiate.

e) Gynobasic.

f) Schizocarp of 4 nutlets.

164. What is the common name of the Oleaceae and how are they distinctive in trichome structure, leaf arrangement, and stamen number?

Common name: Olive family.

Trichome structure: peltate, secretory.

Leaf arrangement: opposite.

Stamen number: two.

165. What is distinctive about the Orobanchaceae with respect to plant nutrition and physiology?

Achlorophyllous or chlorophyllous, mostly parasitic to hemiparasitic herbs.

166. What is the common name of the Phyrmaceae and why is it called that?

Lopseed family; in Phryma, the fruit is a reflexed achene with persistent calyx.

167. What relatively large, mostly western North American genus is now classified in the Phyrmaceae?


168. What traditionally defined families, or portions of these families, are now included within the (expanded) Plantaginaceae?

Callitrichaceae, Globulariaceae, Hippuridaceae, Scrophulariaceae.

169. What are the general floral characteristics of the Scrophulariaceae?

Flowers zygomorphic with a superior, 2 [3]-carpellate ovary having axile placentation with usually numerous ovules.

170. For the Verbenaceae, what is the stem morphology, leaf type/arrangement, corolla symmetry, style position, and fruit type?

Stem morphology: often 4-sided.

Leaf type/arrangement: simple, opposite.

Corolla symmetry: actinomorphic or zygomorphic.

Style position: terminal.

Fruit type: schizocarp of 1-seeded mericarps or a drupe of 1–4 pyrenes.

171. How are the Convolvulaceae and Solanaceae similar and how different?

Similar in having internal phloem, actinomorphic, sympetalous flowers with involute aestivation.
Floral formula usually K (5) C (5) A 5 or (5) G (2), superior.

Different in that the Convolvulaceae are often dextrorse twining vines, less commonly shrubs or trees (trees, shrubs, herbs, or lianas in Solanaceae), and have usually 2 ovules per carpel (usually numerous in Solanaceae).

172. Name an important agricultural species in the Convolvulaceae.

Ipomoea batatas, sweet potato.

173. For the Solanaceae, what is the (a) flower symmetry; (b) corolla aestivation (in bud); (c) stamen number; (d) ovary position; (e) carpel number; and (f ) ovule number (per carpel)?

a) Actinomorphic; b) involute; c) five; d) superior; e) two; f) usually numerous.

174. Name three members of the Solanaceae of great economic importance.

Atropa belladona, belladona; Capsicum spp., peppers; Datura, jimsonweed, angel trumpet; Nicotiana tabacum, tobacco; Solanum esculentum, tomato; Solanum melongena, eggplant; Solanum tuberosum, potato.

175. Give the common name and list two economically important members of the Aquifoliaceae.

Holly family.

Ilex paraguarensis, yerba mate (tea); Ilex spp., holly (cultivated ornamentals).

176. What is the plant sex, leaf duration, and fruit type of the Aquifoliaceae?

Plant sex: dioecious.

Leaf duration: usually evergreeen.

Fruit type: drupe with pyrenes.

177. Give the common name and list three economically important members of the Apiaceae.

Common name: carrot family.

Anethum, dill; Apium, celery; Carum, caraway; Coriandrum, coriander; Cuminum, cumin; Daucus, carrot; Foeniculum, fennel; and Petroselinum, parsley; some species are poisonous, such as Conium maculatum, poisonhemlock.

178. For the Apiaceae, what is the (a) leaf base; (b) inflorescence type; (c) ovary position; (d) fruit type?

a) Sheathing; b) compound umbel or reduced to a head or dichasium or simple flower; c) inferior; d) schizocarp of mericarps.

179. How does the Araliaceae resemble the Apiaceae? How does it differ?

Resembles in that inflorescence is usu. a head or umbel or secondary inflorescence of umbels; flowers actinomorphic, epigynous (ovary usu. inferior); placentation apical-axile;

Differs in being mostly woody (Apiaceae usually herbs), inflorescence sometimes a panicle of umbels (usually a compound umbel in Apiaceae), stamens 5-10 (5 in Apiaceae), carpels 2-5 (only 2 in Apiaceae), fruit a drupe with multiple endocarps, berry, or schizocarp with carpophore (always a schizocarp of mericarps in Apiaceae).

180. How are the fruits and seeds of the Pittosporaceae distinctive?

Fruits loculicidal capsule or a berry, with a viscid, resinous pulp.

Seeds arillate (winged in hymenosporum).

181. Name two alternative ways to classify the families of the Dipsacales.

As seven families: Adoxaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Diervillaceae, Dipsacaceae, Linnaeaceae, Morinaceae, and Valerianaceae.

Or (APG III 2009) as two families: Adoxaceae and Caprifoliaceae, the latter inclusive of the other six.

182. What is the common name of the Caprifoliaceae?

Honeysuckle family.

183. For the Caprifoliaceae, name the leaf arrangement, inflorescence type, and ovary position.

Leaf arrangement: opposite.

Inflorescence type: cyme.

Ovary position: inferior.

184. What is distinctive about the carpel number, locule number, and fruit type in the Dipsacaceae?

Carpel number: two.

Locule number: one functional.

Fruit type: achene, usually enclosed by the epicalyx and with a terminal, persistent calyx.

185. What is distinctive about the carpel number, locule number, and corolla type in the Valerianaceae?

Carpel number: three.

Locule number: one functional.

Corolla type: sympetalous, 5-merous, spurred.

186. What is the alternate traditional/classical name for the Asteraceae?


187. What is the inflorescence type of the Asteraceae? On what criteria can these be subdivided?

Head (capitulum); divided into subtypes based on flower type (disk, ray, and/or bilabiate) and flower sex.

Head types are: (1) discoid, with only disk flowers, all bisexual; (2) disciform, with only disk flowers, a mixture of pistillate and sterile with bisexual and staminate, in the same or different heads; (3) radiate, with central (bisexual or male) disk flowers and peripheral (female or sterile) ray flowers; (4) ligulate, with all ray flowers (typically with 5-toothed corolla apices); and (5) bilabiate, with all bilabiate flowers.

188. Define (a) involucre; (b) phyllary; (c) chaff; (d) pappus.

a) Bracts that cover/subtend the compound receptacle of a head.

b) Each individual involucral bract.

c) Flower bracts of members of the Asteraceae.

d) Modified calyx of flowers of the Asteraceae.

189. Name and describe the three corolla types of the Asteraceae.

(1) bilabiate, corolla zygomorphic with a short tube having upper and lower lips; (2) disk, corolla actinomorphic with short to elongate tube bearing 5 [4] teethlike or elongate lobes; or (3) ray or ligulate, corolla zygomorphic with generally short tube having elongate, flat, extension bearing 3–5 apical teeth.

190. For the Asteraceae, what is the (a) stamen fusion; (b) ovary position; (c) fruit type?

a) Syngenesious; b) inferior; c) achene (multiple fruit of achenes).

191. Name two economically important members of the Asteraceae (used for food).

Cynara scolymus, artichoke; Helianthus annuus, sunflower.

192. How are the Campanulaceae distinctive with regard to flower symmetry, stamen fusion, ovary position, and fruit type?

Flower symmetry: actinomorphic or zygomorphic.

Stament fusion: connivent or connate with a staminal type, epipetalous or not.

Ovary position: inferior [rarely superior].

Fruit type: berry or capsule.

193. Name the diagnostic features of the Goodeniacae.

The Goodeniaceae are distinctive in being herbs, shrubs, rarely trees, the flowers 5-merous, with sympetalous, bilabiate or often unilabiate (with the 5 lobes anterior) corollas, stamens forming a tube, the style growing through the connivent or connate anthers with a cupular indusium that collects pollen, and a usually inferior ovary, the fruit a capsule, rarely a drupe or nut. K (5) [(3)] C (5) A (5) or 5 G (2), inferior [rarely half inferior or superior].

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