Review of policy: Alternative risk management measures to import




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Parlatoria proteus (Curtis) [Diaspididae]

brown scale



Yes (Takagi 1969, Ben-Dov et al. 2012)


Yes (ABRS 2009, Ben-Dov et al. 2012)

Assessment not required










Pinnaspis aspidistrae aspidistrae (Signoret)

[Diaspididae]

aspidistra scale


Yes (Takagi 1969, Wang and Lin 1997, Ben-Dov et al. 2012)


Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2012)

Assessment not required










Planococcus citri (Risso) [Pseudococcidae]

citrus mealybug



Yes (Lee 1988, Wang and Lin 1997, Ben-Dov et al. 2012)


Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2012)

Assessment not required










Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) [Pseudococcidae]

Comstock's mealybug



Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, TaiBNET 2012)


No (ABRS 2009, Ben-Dov et al. 2012)

Yes: recorded as pest of Lilium spp. (Maddison 1993, Wang and Lin 1997). Occurs on the aerial parts of the host plant (Ben-Dov et al. 2012).

Yes: The Australian climate is likely to be conducive for the spread of this pest. It is polyphagous and has a wide host range including commercial fruit trees, ornamental shrubs and creepers, amenity trees and natives (CABI 2012).

Yes: This is an economically significant pest of many crops (Ben-Dov et al. 2012). The introduction of these pests in commercial production areas may limit access to overseas markets.

Yes

Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni)

[Pseudococcidae]

longtail mealybug


Yes (Lee 1988, Wang and Lin 1997)

Yes (ABRS 2009, Ben-Dov et al. 2012)

Assessment not required










Saissetia coffeae (Walker) [Coccidae]

hemispherical scale



Yes (Lee 1988, Ben-Dov et al. 2012)

Yes (ABRS 2009, Ben-Dov et al. 2012)

Assessment not required










LEPIDOPTERA (moths, butterflies)

Acrolepiopsis incertella (Chambers) [Acrolepiidae]

carrionflower moth



Yes (BAPHIQ 2012)


No (Landry 2007, AICN 2008, ABRS 2009)

No: recorded as feeding on Lilium spp. by boring into the bulbs (Ellis 2004, Landry 2007). Not known to be associated with flowers and foliage.

Assessment not required







Agrotis segetum Denis & Schiffermüller

[Noctuidae]

cutworm, dark moth


Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, EPPO 2007, TaiBNET 2012)


No (ABRS 2009, CABI 2012)

Yes: A. segetum is a highly polyphagous pest that attacks a wide range of important crop plants and ornamentals including bulbaceous species (CABI 2012).

Yes: Association with the cut flower host provides opportunity for establishment and spread as this pest is polyphagous. It is established in areas with a wide range of climatic conditions (CABI 2012) and therefore has the potential to establish and spread in Australia.

Yes: Cutworms cause economic loss to many crops as they affects leaves, stems and roots of hosts (CABI 2012) including cotton, maize, potato, oilseeds, vegetable and root crops (CABI 2012).

Yes

Brithys crini Fabricius

[Noctuidae]

borer moth


Yes (BAPHIQ 2012)


Yes (Common 1990, Maddison 1993, ALA 2011)

Assessment not required










Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) [Noctuidae]

green looper caterpillar



Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, TaiBNET 2012)


Yes (EPPO 2007, AICN 2008)

Assessment not required










Euproctis taiwana (Shiraki)

[Lymantriidae]

(basionym Porthesia taiwana Shiraki)

tussock moth



Yes (Lee 1988, Wang and Lin 1997, Liu 1998)


No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

Yes: This species feeds on the leaves of many flowers, including lilies (Liu 1998, Kuo 2005).

Yes: This species feeds on the leaves of gladiolus and lily plants (Liu 1998), the leaves of soybean (Talekar et al. 1988), grapevine (Chang 1988) and of rose in Taiwan (Biosecurity Australia 2006). The Australian climate is likely to be conducive for the spread of this pest.

Yes: This moth feeds on several hosts and can affect commercial crops through feeding on leaves, including flowers, fruit trees, vegetables and cereals. Larval hairs cause allergic reactions (Kuo 2005).

Yes

Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) [Noctuidae]

corn earworm



Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, CABI 2012, EPPO 2007)

Yes (ABRS 2009)

Assessment not required










Kaniska canace Linnaeus [Nymphalidae]

(synonym Nymphalis canace Linnaeus)

blue admiral


Yes (Khramov et al. 2011, TaiBNET 2012)

No (Khramov et al. 2011)

Yes: Its distinctive larvae feed on hosts of the order Liliales including Smilax, Tricyrtis, Streptopus and Lilium spp. plants (Robinson et al. 2012).

Yes: Association with the host provides opportunity for establishment and spread of this species where cut flowers are sold and hosts are grown throughout Australia. Spreads in regions with similar climatic range as Australia.

Yes: The species is considered a minor pest of Lilium spp. However, Smilax spp. are widely spread in Australia (APNI 2012), and consequently its establishment and spread has potential for economic consequences in parts of Australia.

Yes

Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus) [Lycaenidae]

longtailed pea-blue



Yes (TaiBNET 2012, Robinson et al. 2012)

Yes (ABRS 2009)

Assessment not required










Orgyia postica (Walker) [Lymantidae]

tussock moth



Yes (Lee 1988, Liu 1998, TaiBNET 2012)

No (CABI 2012)

Yes: This species has been recorded on Lilium species, larvae feed on leaves and flower buds (CoA undated - a). A pest of flowers in Taiwan (Liu 1998).

Yes: This species currently occurs from Japan to southern China (Nasu et al. 2004, Zhu and Zhang 2004). It established in areas with a wide range of climatic conditions and therefore has the potential to establish and spread in Australia.

Yes: This species is polyphagous (CABI 2012). It has been recorded as a pest of Eucalyptus plantations in Japan (Nasu et al. 2004). It is also considered to be one of the ten most important moths attacking tropical fruits in Southern China (Zhu and Zhang 2004). Hosts include durian, eucalypts, longan, lychee, mango, mangosteen, poplar, rambutan, roses, table grapes (CABI 2012), and soybean, cocoa, red beans and pear (Biosecurity Australia 2006).

Yes

Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) [Noctuidae]

oriental leafworm moth



Yes (Lee 1988, TaiBNET 2012)

Yes (ABRS 2009)

Assessment not required










Xylena formosa (Butler)

[Noctuidae]

(synonym Xylena plumbeopaca Hreblay & Ronkay)

cutworm


Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, TaiBNET 2012)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996, ABRS 2009)

Yes: Recorded on lilies (Maddison 1993). This species is a generalist floral herbivore common in Japan, China, and Taiwan (Oguro and Sakai 2009).

Yes: The limited distribution of this species internationally suggests that it is not invasive; however, current reported distribution suggests that there are similar environments in parts of Australia that would be suitable for its establishment and spread.

Yes: This species is considered a minor pest of Lilium spp, though it has been recorded as feeding on sap of Citrus spp. and other fruit trees (Biosecurity Australia 2009). Therefore, this species has potential for economic consequences in parts of Australia and would impact upon overseas markets.

Yes

ORTHOPTERA (grasshoppers, crickets, locusts)

Oxya intricata (Stal)

[Acrididae]

[synonym Oxya hyla intricata (Stal)]

small rice grasshopper



Yes (BAPHIQ 2009)


No (ABRS 2009)

Yes: Recorded on Lilium spp. (BAPHIQ 2009, CoA undated - b). Generally, this is a rice pest that consumes foliage of grassy species (Heinrichs and Barrion 2004). On Lilium spp., it is likely a contaminant pest from nearby rice fields or previous crop rotations.

No: Adults are the most likely stage associated with minor hosts such as Lilium spp. Oxya lay their eggs behind rice leaves and stems, and when dry in the soil (Heinrichs and Barrion 2004). Its limited distribution internationally suggests that it is not an invasive species.

Yes: The species is not considered a major pest of Lilium spp. Adults and nymph damage and their feeding are easy to spot (Heinrichs and Barrion 2004). However, it is a pest of rice and consequently its establishment and spread has potential for economic consequences in parts of Australia.

Yes


THYSANOPTERA (thrips)

Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) [Thripidae]

flower thrips



Yes (Tang 1976, Wang and Lin 1997, BAPHIQ 2009)

No (Mound 2005, ABRS 2009)*

Yes: Thrips are sap-sucking insects that feed on foliage or flowers (Lewis 1997). Frankliniella intonsa is associated with the leaves and flowers of Lilium (Maddison 1993, BAPHIQ 2009).

Yes: This species is polyphagous and its current reported distribution suggests that there are similar environments in parts of Australia that would be suitable for its establishment and spread.

Yes: Flower thrips cause distortion of fruit and reductions in quality (Buxton and Easterbrook 1988); discolouration resulting in sales losses on ornamental and cut flower varieties (Sauer 1997). Flower thrips will affect cut flower trade as phytosanitary restrictions can apply.

Yes


Haplothrips chinensis Priesner [Phlaeothripidae]

Chinese thrips



Yes (Liu 1998, TaiBNET 2012)

No (ABRS 2009)

Yes: This species has been recorded as a pest of rose, hibiscus, gladiolus and lily in Taiwan (Liu 1998, Kakimoto et al. 2006).

Yes: This species occurs on flowers but is also a predatory thrips (Kakimoto et al. 2006). It is recorded on several flower species in Japan (Kudo 1977), citrus (Biosecurity Australia 2009) and other fruit crops (GAAS 2012), and on vegetable crops in Korea and Taiwan (Woo 1988, Chang 1991).

Yes: This pest is listed as an invasive species by the USDA (Invasive.org 2010). It has a wide host range and can cause damage to several fruit and vegetable crops. Flower thrips will also affect cut flower trade and other commodities as phytosanitary restrictions can apply.

Yes

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché)

[Panchaetothripinae]

greenhouse thrips


Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, TaiBNET 2012)

Yes (ABRS 2009, Denmark and Fasulo 2010)

Assessment not required










Liothrips vaneeckei (Priesner) [Phaleothripidae]

lily bulb thrips



Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, TaiBNET 2012)

Yes (Malipatil et al. 2002)

Assessment not required










Megalurothrips distalis (Karny) [Thripidae]

bean blossom thrips



Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, TaiBNET 2012)

No (Maddison 1993, ABRS 2009)

Yes: Thrips are sap-sucking insects that feed on foliage or flowers (Lewis 1997). Found in Lilium spp. flowers in Asia and Pacific Islands (Maddison 1993).

Yes: The host range for this species includes legumes, groundnut and ornamentals (Reitz et al. 2011). It is likely to find environments in parts of Australia that would be suitable for its establishment and spread.

Yes: Flower thrips cause discolouration resulting in sales losses on ornamental and cut flower varieties (Sauer 1997). Damages buds of flowers of many leguminous plants (Ananthakrishnan 1993). Flower thrips will affect cut flower trade as phytosanitary restrictions can apply.

Yes

Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood

[Thripidae]

strawberry thrips


Yes (TaiBNET 2012)

Yes (ABRS 2009)

Assessment not required










Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan) [Thripidae]

banana flower thrips



Yes (Lee 1988, Wang and Lin 1997)

Yes (ABRS 2009)

Assessment not required










Thrips palmi Karny

[Thripidae]

melon thrips


Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, TaiBNET 2012)

Yes (ABRS 2009)6

Assessment not required










Thrips simplex (Morison)

[Thripidae]



Gladiolus thrips

Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, TaiBNET 2012)

Yes (ABRS 2009)

Assessment not required










Thrips tabaci Lindeman

[Thripidae]

onion thrips


Yes (Wang and Lin 1997, TaiBNET 2012)

Yes (ABRS 2009)6

Assessment not required










PATHOGENS

BACTERIA

Erwinia carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al. [Enterobacteriales : Enterobacteriaceae]

(synonym Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones) Hauben et al. emend. Gardan et al.)

bacterial soft rot


Yes (Hsu and Tzeng 1981, Hseu et al. 2004)


Yes (Bradbury 1977, Chandrashekar and Diriwaechter 1983, Toth et al. 2001)

Assessment not required










Pseudomonas gladioli Severini [Pseudomonadales : Pseudomonadaceae]

(synonym P. antimicrobica Attafuah & Bradbury, P. cocovenenans van Damme et al, Burkholderia gladioli (Severini) Yabuuchi et al., B. cocovenenans (van Damme) Gillis)

stem rot, bacterial leaf spot


Yes (Chiou and Wu 2001)

Yes (Tesoriero et al. 1982, Saddler 1994)

Assessment not required










Pseudomonas marginalis (Brown) Stevens

[Pseudomonadales : Pseudomonadaceae]

(synonym Pseudomonas marginalis pv marginalis (Brown) Stevens)


Yes (Tzeng et al. 1994)

Yes (Wimalajeewa and Price 1985, CABI 1993, EPPO 2007, CABI 2012)

Assessment not required










FUNGI

Alternaria tenuissima (Kunze) Wiltshire

[Pleosporales : Pleosporaceae] (basionym Helminthosporium tenuissimum Kunze) (synonym Clasterosporium tenuissimum (Nees & T. Nees) Sacc.)



Yes (Farr and Rossman 2011, TaiBNET 2012)

Yes (APPD 2011, Farr and Rossman 2011)

Assessment not required










Athelia rolfsii (Curzi) Tu & Kimbr. [Atheliales : Atheliaceae] (anamorph Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.) (synonym, S. rolfsii var. delphinii (Welch) Boerema & Hamers, S. delphinii Welch, Corticium rolfsii Curzi, C. centrifugum, Pellicularia rolfsii (Curzi) E. West, Botryobasidium rolfsii (Curzi) Venkatar.)

blight, stem and root rot



Yes (Chen et al. 1998, CABI 2012)

Yes (Simmonds 1966, Sampson and Walker 1982, Shivas 1989, Lenné 1990)

Assessment not required










Aspergillus niger Tiegh.

[Eurotiales : Trichocomaceae] (synonym Sterigmatocystis nigra (Tiegh.) Tiegh., Aspergillopsis nigra (Tiegh.) Speg., Rhopalocystis nigra (Tiegh.) Grove)

black mould


Yes (CABI 2012, TaiBNET 2012)


Yes (Simmonds 1966, Cook and Dubé 1989, Shivas 1989, Walker 2001)

Assessment not required










Botrytis elliptica (Berk.) Cooke [Helotiales : Sclerotiniaceae] (basionym Ovularia elliptica Berk.) (synonym Botrytis liliorum Fujikiro, Polyactis cana Corda , Spicularia cana (Corda) Bonord., Botrytis canescens Sacc., Peronospora elliptica (Berk.) W.G. Sm.)

grey mould, leaf blight



Yes (Lu and Chen 2005, BAPHIQ 2009)


Yes (Cunnington 2003, Sampson and Walker 1982, Shivas 1989)

Assessment not required










Botrytis tulipae (Lib.) Lind [Helotiales : Sclerotiniaceae] (teleomorph Sclerotium tulipae Lib.) (synonym Botrytis parasitica Cavara, Peronospora parasitica (Pers.: Ft.) Fr., Sclerotium entogenum Westendorp)

blight, neck rot



Yes (Sawada 1959, TaiBNET 2012)

(as P. parasitica, B. parasitica)



Yes (Sampson and Walker 1982, Shivas 1989, Cook and Dubé 1989, Cunnington 2003)

Assessment not required










Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. : Fr.) Grove

[Glomerellaceae : Incertae sedis] (synonym Exosporium dematium (Pers.) Link, Colletotrichum omnivorum Halst., Vermicularia dematium (Pers.) Fr., Lasiella dematium (Pers.) Quél.)

anthracnose, leaf spot


Yes (Hong et al. 2006)


Yes (Simmonds 1966, Sampson and Walker 1982, Shivas 1989, Cook and Dubé 1989)

Assessment not required










Epicoccum nigrum Link [Ascomycetes : Incertae sedis] (synonym Epicoccum purpurascens Ehrenb., E.asterinum Pat., Phoma epicoccina Punith., Tulloch & J.G. Leach)

Yes (TaiBNET 2012, Farr and Rossman 2011)

Yes (APPD 2011, Farr and Rossman 2011)

Assessment not required










Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. [Hypocreales : Nectriaceae] (synonym Fusarium angustum Sherb.)

blights, wilts, rots



Yes (TaiBNET 2012, Farr and Rossman 2011)

Yes (Simmonds 1966, Sampson and Walker 1982, Shivas 1989, Cook and Dubé 1989, Lenné 1990)

Assessment not required










Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. lilii Imle.

[Hypocreales : Nectriaceae]

vascular wilt


Yes (BAPHIQ 2009)

No (Brake et al. 2002, APPD 2011, Farr and Rossman 2011)

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