ISPM 11 (FAO 2004) provides details on the identification and selection of appropriate risk management options. Pest risk management describes the process of identifying and implementing phytosanitary measures to manage risks posed by identified quarantine pests, while ensuring that any negative effects on trade are minimised.
Pest risk management evaluates and selects risk management options to reduce the risk of entry, establishment and spread of identified pests for the identified import pathways. To effectively prevent the introduction of pests associated with an identified pathway, a series of important safeguards, conditions or phytosanitary measures must be in place. Cut flowers represent a direct pathway for arthropod pests identified by the pest categorisation, which may also act as vectors for viral pathogens.
1.11.1Identification and selection of appropriate risk management options
Phytosanitary measures to prevent the establishment and spread of quarantine pests may include any combination of measures; including pre- or post-harvest treatments, inspection at various points between production and final distribution, surveillance, official control, documentation, or certification. A measure or combination of measures may be applied at any one or more points along the continuum between the point of origin and the final destination. Pest risk management explores options that can be implemented
in the exporting country,
at the point of entry or
within the importing country.
The ultimate goal is to protect plants and prevent the introduction of identified quarantine pests.
Measures can range from total prohibition to permitting import subject to visual inspection. In some cases, more than one phytosanitary measure may be required in order to reduce the pest risk to an acceptable level.
Pest risk management
This chapter describes the phytosanitary procedures associated with the importation of Lilium spp. cut flowers from Taiwan, and provides information on the management of quarantine pests identified with an unrestricted risk exceeding Australia’s appropriate level of protection (ALOP). The proposed phytosanitary measures are described below.
Pest risk management evaluates and selects options for measures to reduce the risk of entry, establishment or spread of quarantine pests for Australia where they have been assessed to have an unrestricted risk above Australia’s ALOP. In examining the unrestricted risk, existing commercial production practices in Taiwan have been considered, as have postharvest procedures and the packing of Lilium spp. cut flowers.
In addition to Taiwan’s existing commercial production practices for the production of Lilium spp. cut flowers and minimum border procedures in Australia, specific pest risk management measures are proposed to achieve Australia's ALOP. Finalisation of the quarantine conditions may be undertaken with input from DAFF and the Australian states and territories as appropriate.
1.12.1Management for arthropod quarantine pests
Arthropod pests of concerns to Australia associated with Lilium spp. cut flowers from Taiwan have been assessed as requiring phytosanitary measures.
The existing conditions for cut flower imports stipulate mandatory methyl bromide treatment, or the alternatives detailed in section 1.3.3. Taiwan has requested alternative measures to methyl bromide.
The proposed risk management measures are:
1. Methyl bromide fumigation offshore or onshore, OR
2. A systems approach administered by BAPHIQ, including pre-export phytosanitary inspection and certification, to ensure that Lilium spp. cut flowers are free of arthropod pests of concern (Table 3).
Consignments will be subject to onshore inspection and verification. These risk management measures are consistent with Australia’s quarantine policy for arthropod pests on other cut flower imported commodities.
Any measures equivalent with the above will be considered.
1.12.2Management for virus quarantine pests
The standard import conditions for cut flowers include mandatory devitalisation for propagable species. The purpose of this measure is to render the risk from certain viruses and obligate fungi as equivalent to non-propagable species from the perspective of the propagation pathway for establishment.
As the varieties/hybrids proposed for import from Taiwan do not produce stem bulbils they are non-propagable. Thus, the risk for virus transmission is similar to other cut flower pathways currently permitted.
In addition, Lilium spp. bulbs are currently permitted from all countries for production in open quarantine. Open quarantine is subject to monitoring and inspection for pests and disease.
Therefore no additional phytosanitary measures are recommended to manage the risk of quarantine virus pests.
1.12.3Operational system for the maintenance and verification of phytosanitary status
A system of operational procedures is necessary to maintain and verify the phytosanitary status of Lilium spp. cut flowers from Taiwan.
Recognition of the competent authority
BAPHIQ is the designated NPPO for Taiwan under the IPPC.
The objectives of the NPPO are to ensure that:
recommended service and certification standards are met by all relevant agencies participating in this program
recommended administrative processes are established to provide assurance that the recommended requirements of the program are being met.
Where a systems approach is adopted for the management of arthropod pests, as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation, or when fumigation is performed prior to export, the pathway will be subject to audit and verification.
BAPHIQ is responsible for establishing a system for Lilium spp. production that meets the phytosanitary requirements of Australia and for the audit of their system. DAFF may undertake an audit of the BAPHIQ system.
The objectives of the recommended requirement for audit and verification are to ensure that:
an effective approved documented system for the net houses, the packing houses and during transport is in operation.
Provisions for traceability
All consignments must have adequate labelling or other means of identification so that they can be traced to critical points of the pathway.
Packaging and labelling
The objective of the requirement for packaging and labelling are to ensure that secure packaging that meets Australia’s import conditions is used.
The objective of the requirement for storage and transport are to ensure that:
product for export to Australia is secure to prevent mixing or cross-contamination with produce destined elsewhere
maintain the quarantine integrity of the commodity during storage and movement.
Pre-export phytosanitary inspection and certification
The objectives of phytosanitary certification are to ensure that:
an International Phytosanitary Certificate (IPC) is issued for each consignment, consistent with ISPM No. 12 Phytosanitary Certificates (FAO 2011), to provide formal documentation to DAFF verifying the relevant measures have been undertaken offshore
ensure the goods have been inspected for quarantine pests and other regulated articles by the NPPO
each IPC includes a description of the consignment (including grower number and packing house details).
Additional Phytosanitary Certificate declaration
Each consignment must be accompanied by an original IPC endorsed with the following additional declarations:
Produce sourced from an accredited supplier under the agreement between DAFF and BAPHIQ for lily cut flowers.
The Lilium spp. cut flowers are commercial hybrid varieties and are free of stem bulbils.
DAFF officers will undertake an inspection of all Lilium spp. cut flowers consignments covered by separate phytosanitary certificates issued by the NPPO on arrival of the consignment in Australia. The inspection will be conducted using the standard inspection regime for the type of commodity and may involve specific techniques or use of optical enhancement where necessary.
The detection of live quarantine pests or regulated articles during an inspection will result in the failure of the inspection lot.
The objective of this procedure is to ensure that each consignment, as defined by a single phytosanitary certificate, is verified at the first port of entry to confirm that the consignment meets Australia’s import requirements.
If no live quarantine pests, disease symptoms or other regulated articles are detected in the inspection lot, the consignment will be released from quarantine.
Consignments will fail if quarantine pests and/or regulated articles are detected during on-arrival inspections. Remedial action is to be taken when this occurs.
DAFF will advise BAPHIQ about non-compliance so that BAPHIQ can apply appropriate corrective action with suppliers.