Review of policy: Alternative risk management measures to import




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1.3Existing policy

1.3.1Current import policy for Lilium spp. bulbs as nursery stock


Currently, import conditions exist for many species of Lilium as bulbs imported from the Netherlands and from ‘all countries’ as nursery stock for cut flower production in open quarantine or for potted colour plant production. In 2007, more than 75 million bulbs were imported into Australia, the bulk of which were Lilium bulbs (72.5 million) (AQIS 2008). Existing import conditions for lily bulbs as nursery stock, for potted colour or cut flower production, can be accessed at http://www.daff.gov.au/aqis/import/icon-icd

Standard bulb import conditions for permitted Lilium species bulbs, as nursery stock for potted colour or cut flower production, are subject to:



  • an import permit

  • phytosanitary certification for freedom from black wart and potato cyst nematode (and freedom from rust and smut fungi if from the Netherlands)

  • inspection prior to mandatory methyl bromide fumigation or hot water immersion for invertebrate pests

  • growth in open quarantine (field planting or tunnel house) at a QAP, and

  • two crop inspections following a period of sufficient growth for symptoms of quarantine pathogens, prior to release as cut flowers or potted colour.

Bulbs imported from the Netherlands and certified under Bloembollenkeuringsdienst (BKD) scheme, are subject to one disease inspection during growth in quarantine. Additional conditions apply to bulbs packaged in peat moss imported from FMD countries (ICON 2012).

Contaminated consignments (soils, plant debris, disease or quarantinable matter) are subject to cleaning, nematicide treatment, destruction or re-export (determined by the risk associated with the contaminating material).

Table 1 Specific quarantine/biosecurity measures for Lilium spp. bulbs as nursery stock (potted colour or cut flower production)



Reference number

Condition title

Condition  C14922 (Netherlands) / C14921 (other countries)

Lists of permitted Lilium spp. and hybrids as nursery stock including American, Asiatic, Candidum, Dauricum, Martagon, Oriental and Trumpet hybrids.

Condition C7416

BKD Scheme (the Netherlands)- requirements for import and growth in QAP for approved species and hybrids exported and certified under the scheme

Condition  C7418

Conditions for non-certified bulbs (i.e. non-BKD generated bulbs from the Netherlands).

1.3.2Past policies for lily cut flowers


In 1978 trade in Lilium spp. cut flowers was halted due to concerns of propagability mainly from bulbils on the leaf axis, that is, from Lilium spp. known as bulbil-forming species. Lilium was then placed on the list of prohibited cut flower species. In 1981, the prohibition was modified to allow entry of flowers of species which did not form bulbils. The species of most concern was Lilium tigrinum (Tiger lily) (Evans et al. 1998).

The prohibition was extended in 1982 to other species able to propagate by axil bulbils


(L. tigrinum, L. bulbiferum, L. sargentiae and L. sulphureum) (AQIS 1983, Evans et al. 1998). This is because of the capacity for propagation into full plantlets from stem bulbils and the increased likelihood of distribution and spread of pathogens that they may carry.

However, the importation of all Lilium species as cut flowers was stopped in 1983 due to operational difficulties in identifying species/hybrids at inspection and the delays this was causing at the border (AQIS 1983).


1.3.3Current import policy for cut flowers


There are no import conditions for Lilium spp. cut flowers as these are not currently permitted entry into Australia. Conditions for permitted cut flower species can be found at: http://www.aqis.gov.au/icon32/asp/ex_querycontent.asp.

Standard cut flower import conditions for permitted species are subject to mandatory devitalisation for propagable species and mandatory methyl bromide fumigation.

Some cut flowers/foliage consignments can be exempt from mandatory fumigation on arrival through one of the following three options:


  • Overseas Accreditation Schemes for flower suppliers (currently operating in Singapore and Malaysia)

  • Offshore fumigation monitored by National Plant Protection Organisation (NPPO) in the country of origin (Currently, only China has arrangements in place with DAFF)

  • Importer Initiated Pathway Fumigation Exemption (IIPFE) based on proven clean pathways - exemption from mandatory fumigation is considered for individual importer applications for specific pathway exemptions, from importers who can demonstrate that their existing import pathways have maintained substantial compliance to DAFF requirements (i.e. freedom from live pests) over the preceding twelve month period based on historical data.

Table 2 Specific quarantine/biosecurity measures for cut flowers



Reference number

Condition title

Condition  C6519

General guide for commercial consignments of cut flowers

Condition  C6511

Nil tolerance for live quarantine pests and treatment to be used for infested flowers that are exempt from mandatory fumigation

Condition  C6518

Treatment to be used for cut flowers infested with snails and slugs

Condition  C8739

Devitalisation treatment and list of overseas accredited facilities

Condition  C9658

Overseas Accreditation Scheme (Singapore and Malaysia)- requirements for exemption from fumigation for species exported and certified under the scheme

The existing policy for the importation of cut flowers is based on minimising the risk of accidental introduction of any associated pathogen and arthropod pest. The risk management measures proposed in this document provide equivalence under a systems approach as an alternative measure which may be equally effective in meeting Australia’s quarantine requirements.



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