Review of policy: Alternative risk management measures to import




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Glossary


Term or abbreviation

Definition

Additional declaration

A statement that is required by an importing country to be entered on a phytosanitary certificate and which provides specific additional information on a consignment in relation to regulated pests (FAO 2012).

Appropriate level of protection (ALOP)

The level of protection deemed appropriate by the Member establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory (WTO 1995).

Area

An officially defined country, part of a country or all or parts of several countries (FAO 2012).

Area of low pest prevalence

An area, whether all of a country, part of a country, or all parts of several countries, as identified by the competent authorities, in which a specific pest occurs at low levels and which is subject to effective surveillance, control or eradication measures (FAO 2012).

Consignment

A quantity of plants, plant products or other articles being moved from one country to another and covered, when required, by a single phytosanitary certificate (a consignment may be composed of one or more commodities or lots) (FAO 2012).

Control (of a pest)

Suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population (FAO 2012).

DAFF

Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay.

Endangered area

An area where ecological factors favour the establishment of a pest whose presence in the area will result in economically important loss (FAO 2012).

Entry (of a pest)

Movement of a pest into an area where it is not yet present, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled (FAO 2012).

Establishment

Perpetuation, for the foreseeable future, of a pest within an area after entry (FAO 2012).

Equivalence (of phytosanitary terms)

The situation where, for a specified pest, different phytosanitary measures achieve a contracting party’s appropriate level of protection (FAO 2012).

Host range

Species capable, under natural conditions, of sustaining a specific pest or other organism (FAO 2012).

Import permit

Official document authorising importation of a commodity in accordance with specified phytosanitary import requirements (FAO 2012).

Import risk analysis

An administrative process through which quarantine policy is developed or reviewed, incorporating risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.

Infestation (of a commodity)

Presence in a commodity of a living pest of the plant or plant product concerned. Infestation includes infection (FAO 2012).

Inspection

Official visual examination of plants, plant products or other regulated articles to determine if pests are present or to determine compliance with phytosanitary regulations (FAO 2012).

Intended use

Declared purpose for which plants, plant products, or other regulated articles are imported, produced, or used (FAO 2012).

Interception (of a pest)

The detection of a pest during inspection or testing of an imported consignment (FAO 2012).

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM)

An international standard adopted by the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization, the Interim Commission on phytosanitary measures or the Commission on phytosanitary measures, established under the IPPC (FAO 2012).

Introduction

The entry of a pest resulting in its establishment (FAO 2012).

National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO)

Official service established by a government to discharge the functions specified by the IPPC (FAO 2012).

Official control

The active enforcement of mandatory phytosanitary regulations and the application of mandatory phytosanitary procedures with the objective of eradication or containment of quarantine pests or for the management of regulated non-quarantine pests (FAO 2012).

Pathway

Any means that allows the entry or spread of a pest (FAO 2012).

Pest

Any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products (FAO 2012).

Pest categorisation

The process for determining whether a pest has or has not the characteristics of a quarantine pest or those of a regulated non-quarantine pest (FAO 2012).

Pest free area (PFA)

An area in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained (FAO 2012).

Pest free place of production

Place of production in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained for a defined period (FAO 2010).

Pest free production site

A defined portion of a place of production in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained for a defined period and that is managed as a separate unit in the same way as a pest free place of production (FAO 2012).

Pest risk analysis (PRA)

The process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether an organism is a pest, whether it should be regulated, and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it (FAO 2012).

Pest risk assessment (for quarantine pests)

Evaluation of the probability of the introduction and spread of a pest and of the associated potential economic consequences (FAO 2012).

Pest risk management (for quarantine pests)

Evaluation and selection of options to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of a pest (FAO 2012).

Phytosanitary certificate

An official paper document or its official electronic equivalent, consistent with the model certificates of the IPPC, attesting that a consignment meets phytosanitary import requirements (FAO 2012).

Phytosanitary measure

Any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests (FAO 2012).

Phytosanitary regulation

Official rule to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests, including establishment of procedures for phytosanitary certification (FAO 2012).

Polyphagous

Feeding on a relatively large number of hosts from different genera.

PRA area

Area in relation to which a pest risk analysis is conducted (FAO 2012).

Quarantine pest

A pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled (FAO 2012).

Regulated article

Any plant, plant product, storage place, packing, conveyance, container, soil and any other organism, object or material capable of harbouring or spreading pests, deemed to require phytosanitary measures, particularly where international transportation is involved (FAO 2012).

Restricted risk

Risk estimate with phytosanitary measure(s) applied.

Spread

Expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest within an area (FAO 2012).

SPS Agreement

WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (WTO 1995).

Stakeholders

Government agencies, individuals, community or industry groups or organisations, whether in Australia or overseas, including the proponent/applicant for a specific proposal, who have an interest in the policy issues.

Systems approach(es)

The integration of different risk management measures, at least two of which act independently, and which cumulatively achieve the appropriate level of protection against regulated pests (FAO 2012).

Unrestricted risk

Unrestricted risk estimates apply in the absence of risk mitigation measures.


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