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David A. Grimaldi November, 2015

Division of Invertebrate Zoology

American Museum of Natural History

Central Park West at 79th Street

New York, New York 10024-5192

Telephone: 212-769-5615, -5277 FAX

Diversity, fossil record, and evolution of insects; fossilization in amber; systematics of Drosophilidae and other Diptera; evolution of sociality in insects; the evolution of biological communities, particularly tropical forests; extinction and environmental deterioration.

B. Sc., 1979, University of Connecticut. Major concentrations in Biology and Fine Arts.

M.Sc., 1983, State University of New York, Binghamton. Evolutionary Biology.

Ph.D., 1986, Cornell University, Entomology.


1986-1991: Assistant Curator, American Museum of Natural History.

1988-present: Adjunct Professor, City University of New York (Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology).

1991-1996: Associate Curator (tenured), American Museum of Natural History.

1994-present: Adjunct Professor, Cornell University (Department of Entomology).

1994-1999: Chairman, Department of Entomology, American Museum of Natural History.

1996-present: Curator, American Museum of Natural History.

1995-present: Adjunct Professor, Columbia University (Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology).

2008-present: Professor, Gilder Graduate School, Program in Comparative Biology, American Museum of Natural History


2007: Thomas Say Award, Entomological Society of America, for distinguished contributions to insect systematics.

2015: Gilbert Harris Award, Paleontological Research Institute, for distinguished contributions to systematic paleontology.

GRANTS AND FUNDING: last 15 years

1998-2001: NSF, Biological Infrastructure Program, $90,000, for a databased catalogue of the world species of termites (Isoptera). PI: Kumar Krishna, co-PI: D. Grimaldi.

2000-2002: NSF, Biological Collections Program, $292,000, for curation, conservation, and databasing of the collections of fossil insects and amber fossils at the AMNH. PI: D. Grimaldi

2000-2003: NSF, Systematic Biology Program, $245,000, for a monographic revision of the Drosophila melanogaster species group. PI: D. Grimaldi; co-PI: Valerie Schawaroch.

2001-2004: NSF, Geosciences Program, $240,000, for research on Triassic fossils from the Cow Branch Formation of Virginia. PI: Nick Fraser. Co-PI: David Grimaldi

2006-2009: NSF, Systematics Program, $116,000, for research on insects in Cretaceous amber and the origin of modern biological communities. PI: David Grimaldi

2011-2013: Institute for Museum and Library Services, $149,000, for conservation of fossiliferous amber specimens in the AMNH. PI: Lisa Elkin, Co-PI: D. Grimaldi.

2012-2013: NSF, DDIG, $14,500: A time scale for scales: Phylogeny and divergence times of basal lineages of Coccoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera). CoPI: Isabelle Vea (RGGS Student).

2013-2014: NSF DDIG, $15,527: Phylogeny and fossil record of the ants. CoPI: Phil Barden (RGGS student).

2013-2015: National Science Foundation EF-1304943, “Digitization TCN: Collaborative Research: Fossil Insect Collaborative: A deep-time approach to studying diversification and response to environmental change.” A collaborative grant involving 7 institutions; AMNH award is $352,484.

2016-2018: National Science Foundation OPUS Award, "The Brachyceran Flies: Synthesizing 30 Years of Research on 200 Million Years of Evolutionary History." PI: D. Grimaldi.


UNDERGRADUATES (*NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates program):

James Hayden, Columbia Univ., 2003: Diversity and community ecology of Macrolepidoptera.

Ann Carla Staver, Columbia Univ., 2004: Diversity and abundance in forest canopy Drosophilidae

Megan Adcock, Bennington College, 2004: Systematics of fossil and living emesine bugs.

Aaron Davitt, University of Denver, 2005: Mesozoic Coleoptera.

Sweta Agrawal, Columbia University, 2008: Comparative study of the halteres in Diptera.

Phillip Barden, Arizona State University, 2009: Comparative morphology of the termite fontanelle


Caroline Chaboo, Ph.D., 2005, Cornell Univ.: Systematics of cassidine Chrysomelidae (tortoise beetles). Presently: Assistant Professor, University of Kansas.

Sara Lubkin, Ph.D., 2007, Cornell Univ: Systematics and paleontology of Paleozoic and Mesozoic Archostemata (Coleoptera).

Craig Gibbs, Ph.D., CUNY: Patterns of drosophilid fly species diversity and abundance in Neotropical forest canopies. Presently: Queens Zoo, WCS.

Torsten Dikow, Ph. D., 2007, Cornell Univ.: Phylogeny of the robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae). Presently: Research Scientist, Field Museum (Chicago).

Isabelle Vea, currently (2009-2013): Phylogeny and fossil record of the archaeococcoid scale insects. Presently: Postdoctoral researcher, Univ. Nagoya, Japan.

Philip Barden, currently (started 2010): Phylogeny and fossil record of the basal lineages of ants.

Valerie Schawaroch, 2000-2004, AMNH: A monographic revision of the Drosophila melanogaster species group (NSF Fellow). Presently: Associate Professor, Baruch College, CUNY.

Enrique Penalver, 2004-2006, Univ. of Valencia, Spain: Paleobiology and paleoecology of the Miocene fossil community preserved in Dominican amber (Spanish government funded). Presently: Curator, Museo Geominero, Madrid.

Jessica Ware, 2008-2010: Species revision and phylogeny of the lower termites (NSF Fellow). Presently: Assistant Professor, Rutgers Univ.

Steven Ray Davis, 2014-2016: Transcriptome studies on the diversity and evolution of weevil rostrum (Gerstner Postdoctoral Fellow).
COURSES TAUGHT: last 10 years

Columbia Univ., Insect Diversity (2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2014) .


Curator-in-Charge of Diptera, Lepidoptera, Isoptera, fossil insects, and minor holometabolan orders (Trichoptera, Mecoptera, Siphonaptera, Strepsiptera).

Development of world's largest collection of amber fossils, through acquisitions and fieldwork, including 8,000 specimens of amber fossils from the Miocene of the Dominican Republic and Oligocene of Mexico; 3,000 specimens of Eocene amber from Baltic region and India; and 7,000 specimens from the Cretaceous of New Jersey, Lebanon, Burma (Myanmar). Studies on conservation, preparation, imaging, and treatment of amber.

Development of largest and most diverse collection of Drosophilidae (Diptera) in the world, c. 400,000 specimens and 2,000 species, largely through fieldwork.

INVITED LECUTRES: last 7 years.

35 invited lectures were given at various universities and conferences, in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and Africa.



Tanzania, 1995, biodiversity survey of Tarangire National Park.

Republic of South Africa, 2005: Kruger National Park; Pretoria (work at National Botanical Inst.)


Vietnam, 1998-2000, biodiversity surveys of protected forests (sponsored by NSF).

India, 2008-10, 2013, 2015: excavations of Paleo-Eocene amber from Gujarat, western India.


Austria, 1996: Vienna, Salzburg

Denmark, 1998, work at Zoological Museum, Univ. Copenhagen.

England, 1990, 1995, 1999, 2000, 2002, work at Natural History Museum, London; Oxford U.

Germany, 1994; 1996, 2009, 2010, 2011: work at Stuttgart Museum; Humboldt Museum, Berlin.

Greece, 2007: Athens, Crete

Hungary, 1996, 2011: Budapest (work at Hungarian Natural History Museum).

Italy, 1995-2000: work at museums in Florence, Milan, Turin, Venice.

Poland: Pongracz, Cracow, Warsaw.

Russia, 1995, St. Petersburg, work at Zool. Instit., Ekaterininsky Palace; Moscow (Paleo. Inst.) 2002.

Slovakia, 1992, Bratislava: meetings.

The Netherlands, 1995: work at Leiden museum.


Hawaii, 1993: fieldwork on all the large islands

Fiji Islands, 2008: fieldwork on Vanua Levu and Viti Levu.

New Caledonia, 2008: fieldwork.


Alaska, 1998, 2001: prospecting Cretaceous on peninsula, Kodiak Is., arctic tundra

Arizona, 1990-2000: field work on Diptera in southeastern Arizona.

Arkansas, 1992: field work on Diptera; excavations of Eocene amber (Claiborne Form.)

Florida, 1995-2000: field work on Diptera, principally in Everglades.

New Jersey, 1992-1998: excavations of Cretaceous amber.

South Dakota, 2010: Field work in Hell Creek Formation, Harding County.

Virginia: 1998-present: excavations of Triassic insects from the Cow Branch Formation.

Wyoming, 1997-1999: prospecting and excavations of K/T amber.

Washington state, 1994: Excavations of Eocene amber from Renton Formation.

Washington, D.C., 1985-present: yearly work at Smithsonian Institution.

Eastern United States, 1990- present: prospecting and excavations for Cretaceous amber



Costa Rica, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1999, 2013: Field work on Diptera.

Brazil, 2000: Field work on Diptera, plenary lecture at Int. Congr. Ent.

Dominican Republic, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 2014: Biodiversity surveys of modern insect

fauna and stratigraphic work on Miocene amber deposits.

French Guiana, 1997: Field work on Diptera.

Panama, 1985, 1988, 1999: Field work on Diptera.

Peru, 1984: Field work on Diptera.

Venezuela, 1989, 1991, 1993: Biodiversity surveys of tepuis; field work in Andes.

Virgin Islands (British and U.S.), 1990, 1992, 1993: Biodiversity surveys.

1. Jaenike, J., S.Ausubel, and D.A. Grimaldi. 1982. On the evolution of clonal diversity in parthenogenetic earthworms. Pedobiologia 23: 304-310.

2. Grimaldi, D.A., and J. Jaenike. 1982. Laboratory culturing of mycophagous drosophilids. Dros. Info. Serv. 58: 156-157.

3. Grimaldi, D. and J. Jaenike. 1983. The Diptera breeding on skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus (Araceae). J. New York Ent. Soc. 91: 83-89.

4. Jaenike, J. and D. Grimaldi. 1983. Genetic variation for host preference within and among populations of Drosophila tripunctata. Evolution 37: 1023-1033.

5. Jaenike, J., D.A. Grimaldi, A.E. Sluder, and A.L. Greenleaf. 1983. -amanitin tolerance in mycophagous Drosophila. Science 221: 165-167.

6. Grimaldi, D. 1984. Review of: Biological Diversification in the Tropics: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium for the Association for Tropical Biology, G.T. Prance (ed.), Columbia Univ. Press, 714 pp. J. New York Ent. Soc. 92: 94-96.

7. Grimaldi, D. and J. Jaenike. 1984. Competition in natural populations of mycophagous Drosophila. Ecology 65: 1113-1120.

8. Grimaldi, D. 1985. Niche separation and competitive coexistence in mycophagous Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 87: 498-511.

9. Grimaldi, D. 1985. Review of: Courtship Behaviors of the Hawaiian Picture-Winged Drosophila, by H.T. Spieth, 1984, Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 103 (92 pp.). J.New York Entomol. Soc. 1285-1287.

10. Grimaldi, D. 1986. The Chymomyza aldrichii species-group (Diptera: Drosophilidae): relationships, new Neotropical species, and the evolution of some sexual traits. J. New York Ent. Soc. 94: 342-371.

11. Grimaldi, D. 1986. A new Drosophila (Hirtodrosophila) from Malaysia with broad-headed males (Diptera: Drosophilidae). J. New York Ent. Soc. 94: 372-376.

12. Grimaldi, D. and B.A. Underwood. 1986. Megabraula, a new genus for two new species of Braulidae (Diptera), and a discussion of braulid evolution. Syst. Entomol. 11: 427-438.

13. Grimaldi, D.A. 1987. Phylogenetics and taxonomy of Zygothrica (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 186: 103-268.

14. Grimaldi, D.A. 1987. Amber fossil Drosophilidae (Diptera), with particular reference to the hispaniolan taxa. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2880: 23 pp.

15. Grimaldi, D.A. 1988. Relicts in the Drosophilidae (Diptera). Pp. 183-213, In: J.K. Liebherr (ed.), Zoogeography of Caribbean Insects. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press.

16. Grimaldi, D. 1988. Bee flies and bluets: Bombylius (Diptera: Bombyliidae) flower-constant on the distylous species, Hedyotis caerulea (Rubiaceae), and the manner of foraging. J. Nat. Hist. 22: 1-10.

17. Grimaldi, D. 1988. Review of: Manual of Nearctic Diptera, vol. 2. J.F. McAlpine (ed.) Research Branch Agriculture Canada Monogr. 28: 657 pp. J. New York Ent. Soc. 96: 124-126.

18. Grimaldi, D. 1988. Drosophila (Hirtodrosophila) chandleri (Diptera: Drosophilidae) a new species from Sri Lanka with broad-headed males. J. New York Ent. Soc. 96: 323-326.

19. Michener, C.D. and D.A. Grimaldi. 1988. A Trigona from Late Cretaceous amber of New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae). Amer.Mus. Novitates 2917: 10 pp.

20. Michener, C.D. and D. Grimaldi. 1988. The oldest fossil bee: apoid history, evolutionary stasis, and antiquity of social behavior. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 85: 6424-6426.

21. Grimaldi, D. 1988. Still life with flowers: the discovery of the oldest fossil bee. Natural History 9/88: 86-89.

22. Grimaldi, D. 1989. The genus Metopina (Diptera: Phoridae) from Cretaceous and Tertiary ambers. J. New York Ent. Soc. 97: 65-72.

23. Grimaldi, D. and G. Fenster. 1989. Evolution of extreme sexual dimorphisms: structural and behavioral convergence among broad-headed male Drosophilidae (Diptera). Amer. Mus. Novitates 2939: 25 pp.

24. Grimaldi, D., C.W. Beck, and J.J. Boon. 1989. Occurrence, chemical characteristics, and paleontology of the fossil resins from New Jersey. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2948: 28 pp.

25. Grimaldi, D. (ed.) 1990. Insects from the Santana Formation, Lower Cretaceous, of Brazil. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 195: 191 pp.

26. Grimaldi, D. 1990. Diptera, pp. 164-183, In: ibid.

27. Grimaldi, D. 1990. New distributional records of Scaptomyza (Bunostoma) australis from South Pacific islands and biogeographic implications. J. New York Ent. Soc. 98: 484-488.

28. Grimaldi, D. 1990. A phylogenetic classification of the Drosophilidae. Pg. 344, In: Abstr. 2nd Int. Congress Dipterology, Bratislava, Aug. 27-Sept. 1, 1990.

29. Grimaldi, D. 1990. A phylogenetic, revised classification of genera in the Drosophilidae (Diptera). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 197: 139 pp.

30. Grimaldi, D. 1990. Revision of Zygothrica (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Part II. The first African species, two new Indo-Pacific groups, and the bilineata and samoaensis species groups. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2964: 31 pp.

31. Poinar, G.Q., Jr. and D.A. Grimaldi. 1990. Fossil and extant macrochelid mites (Acari: Macrochelidae) phoretic on drosophilid flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 98: 88-92.

32. Grimaldi, D. 1991. Mycetobiine woodgnats (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from the Oligo-Miocene amber of the Dominican Republic, and Old World affinities. Amer.Mus.Novitates 3014: 24 pp.

33. Grimaldi, D. 1991. Drosophila canaryana Takada and Yoon, 1989 (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a junior synonym of Drosophila guanche Monclús, 1976. Entomol. News 102: 223-226.

34. Grimaldi, D. 1991. Cladistics and the classification of the Drosophilidae. Pp. 85-97, In: L. Weismann et al. (eds.), Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. Dipterology (Bratislava). SPB Acad. Publ.: The Hague.

35. Grimaldi, D. 1991. The Santana Formation insects. Pp. 379-406, In: J.G. Maisey (ed.), Santana Fossils: An Illustrated Atlas. New Jersey: T.F.H.Publications.

36. DeSalle, R. and D.A. Grimaldi. 1991. Morphological and molecular systematics of the Drosophilidae. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 22: 447-475.

37. Heed, W.B. and D.A. Grimaldi. 1991. Revision of the morphocryptic, Caribbean mayaguana species subcluster in the Drosophila repleta group (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Amer. Mus. Novitates 2999: 15 pp.

38. Krishna, K. and D. Grimaldi. 1991. A new fossil species from Dominican amber of the living Australian termite genus Mastotermes (Isoptera: Mastotermitidae). Amer. Mus. Novitates 3021: 10 pp.

39. Shedrinsky, A.M., D. Grimaldi, T.P. Wampler, and N.S. Baer. 1991. Amber and copal: pyrolysis gas chromatographic (PyGC) studies of provenance. Wien. Ber. Naturwiss. Kunst 6/7/8: 37-62.

40. Grimaldi, D. 1992. Systematics of the genus Colocasiomyia de Meijere (Diptera: Drosophilidae): cladistics, a new generic synonym, new records, and a new species from Nepal. Entomol. Scandanavica 22: 417-426.

41. Grimaldi, D. 1992. Drosophila putrida Sturtevant, 1916 (Insecta, Diptera): proposed replacement of the holotype by a neotype. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 49: 129-132.

42. Grimaldi, D. and C. Young. 1992. Observations on the bizarre jelly mass habit of larval Geranomyia (Diptera: Tipulidae: Limoniidae). J. New York Ent. Soc. 100: 634-637.

43. Grimaldi, D. et al. 1992. Systematics and modes of reproductive isolation in the Holarctic Drosophila testacea species group (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc.Amer. 85: 671-685.

44. Grimaldi, D. 1992. Vicariance biogeography, geographic extinctions, and the North American Oligocene tsetse flies. Pp. 178-204, In: M.J. Novacek and Q.D. Wheeler (eds.), Extinction and Phylogeny. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

45. DeSalle, R. and D. Grimaldi. 1992. Characters and the systematics of the Drosophilidae. J. Heredity 83: 182-188.

46. DeSalle, R., J. Gatesy, W. Wheeler,and D. Grimaldi. 1992. DNA sequences from a fossil termite in Oligo-Miocene amber and their phylogenetic implications. Science 257: 1933-1936.

47. Grimaldi, D. 1992. Windows in time. Review of: Life in Amber, by G. O. Poinar, Jr. (Stanford Univ. Press). Science 258: 1822.

48. Grimaldi, D. 1993. The care and study of fossiliferous amber. Curator 36: 31-49.

49. Grimaldi, D. 1993. Amber fossil Drosophilidae (Diptera), Part II. Review of the genus Hyalistata, new status (Steganinae). Amer. Mus. Novitates 3084: 15 pp.

50. Grimaldi, D. and W.N. Mathis. 1993. Fossil Periscelididae (Diptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 95: 383-403.

51. Grimaldi, D., C. Michalski, and K. Schmidt. 1993. Amber fossil Enicocephalidae (Heteroptera) from the Lower Cretaceous of Lebanon and Oligo-Miocene of the Dominican Republic, with biogeographic analysis of Enicocephalus. Amer. Mus. Novitates 3071: 30 pp.

52. Kathirithamby, J. and D. Grimaldi. 1993. Remarkable stasis in some lower Tertiary parasitoids: descriptions, new records, and review of Strepsiptera in the Oligo-Miocene amber of the Dominican Republic. Ent. scand. 24: 31-41.

53. Shedrinsky, A.M., D.A. Grimaldi, J.J. Boon, and N.S. Baer. 1993. Application of pyrolysis-gas chromatography and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to the unmasking of amber forgeries. J. Analytical App. Pyrolysis 25: 77-95.

54. Yeates, D. and D. Grimaldi. 1993. A new Metatrichia window fly (Diptera: Scenopinidae) in Dominican amber, with a review of the systematics and biogeography of the genus. Amer. Mus. Novitates 3078: 8 pp.

55. DeSalle, R., J. Gatesy, W. Wheeler, and D. Grimaldi. 1993. Working with fossil DNA from amber. Discovery (Yale Univ.) 24: 19-24.

56. Grimaldi, D. 1993. Forever in amber. Natural History 6/93: 59-61.

57. Grimaldi, D. 1994. Description and immature stages of Hirtodrosophila batracida sp. n. (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a predator of frog embryos. Entomol. Scandanavica 25: 129-136.

58. Grimaldi, D., A. Shedrinsky, A. Ross, and N.S. Baer. 1994. Forgeries of fossils in “amber”: history, identification, and case studies. Curator 37: 251-274.

59. Grimaldi, D., E. Bonwich, M. Delannoy, and S. Doberstein. 1994. Electron microscopic studies of mummified tissues in amber fossils. Amer. Mus. Novitates 3097: 31 pp.

60. Grimaldi, D. and R. DeSalle. 1994. The scientific romance with amber. pp. 295-308, In: G.D. Rosenberg and D.L. Wolberg (eds.), DinoFest: Proceedings of a conference for the general public. Mar. 24-26, 1994. Paleont. Soc. Spec. Publ. 7, 502 pp. Knoxville: Univ. Tenn. Press.

61. DeSalle, R. and D. Grimaldi. 1994. Very old DNA. Curr. Opinion Gen. Develop. 4: 1-6.

62. Grimaldi, D. 1995. A remarkable new species of Ogcodes (Diptera: Acroceridae) in Dominican amber. Amer. Mus. Novitates 3127: 8 pp.

63. Grimaldi, D. 1995. The age of Dominican amber. pp. 203-217, In: K.B. Anderson and J.C. Crelling (eds.), Amber, Resinite, and Fossil Resins. Washington, D.C.: Am. Chem. Soc., ACS Symp. Ser. 617.

64. Grimaldi, D. and G.R. Case. 1995. A feather in amber from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey. Amer. Mus. Novitates 3126: 6 pp.

65. Grimaldi, D. and D. De Souza Amorim. 1995. A basal new species of Olbiogaster (Diptera: Anisopodidae) in Dominican amber, and its systematic placement. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 97: 561-568.

66. Hibbett, D.S., D. Grimaldi, and M.J.Donoghue. 1995. Cretaceous mushrooms in amber. Nature 377: 487.

67. Fraser, N.C., D.A. Grimaldi, P.E. Olsen, and B. Axsmith. 1996. A Triassic Lagerstätte from eastern North America. Nature 380: 615-619.

68. MacPhee, R.D.E. and D.A. Grimaldi. 1996. Mammal bones in Dominican amber. Nature 380: 489-490.

69. Grimaldi, D. 1996. Captured in amber. Scientific American, April 1996: 70-77 (+ cover).

70. Grimaldi, D. 1996. The ancient allure of amber. Natural History Feb/96:

71. Grimaldi, D. 1996. Amber: Window to the Past. New York: Abrams/AMNH. 216 pp.

72. Grimaldi, D. 1997. The bird flies, genus Carnus: species revision, generic relationships, and a fossil Meoneura in amber (Diptera: Carnidae). Amer. Mus. Novitates 3190: 30 pp.

73. Grimaldi, D. 1997. A fossil mantis (Insecta: Mantodea) in Cretaceous amber of New Jersey, with comments on the early history of the Dictyoptera. Amer. Mus. Novitates 3204: 11 pp.

74. Agosti, D., D. Grimaldi, and J.M. Carpenter. 1997. Oldest known ant fossils discovered. Nature 391: 447.

75. Carpenter, J.M. and D.A. Grimaldi. 1997. Social wasps in amber. Amer. Mus. Novitates 3203: 7 pp.

76. Grimaldi, D., D. Agosti, and J.M. Carpenter. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. Amer. Mus. Novitates 3208: 43 pp.

77. Hibbett, D.S., D. Grimaldi, and M.J. Donoghue. 1997. Fossil mushrooms from Miocene and Cretaceous ambers and the evolution of Homobasidiomycetes. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 981-991.

78. Lewis, R.E. and D. Grimaldi. 1997. A pulicid flea in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic (Insecta: Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Amer.Mus. Novitates 3205: 9 pp.

79. Grimaldi, D. 1997. Amber: precious preserver of the past. Pacific Discovery (Calif. Acad. Sci.), winter 1997: 8-13.

80. Grimaldi, D. 1999. The co-radiations of pollinating insects and angiosperms in the Cretaceous. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 86: 373-406.

81. Grimaldi, D. and J. Cumming. 1999. Brachyceran Diptera in Cretaceous ambers and Mesozoic diversification of the Eremoneura. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 239:124 pp.

82. Grimaldi, D. and T. Nguyen. 1999. Monograph on the spittlebug flies, genus Cladochaeta (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Cladochaetini). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 241: 326 pp.

83. Marshall, S.A., R. Langstaff, and D.A. Grimaldi. 1999. New species of Sphaeroceridae (Insecta, Diptera) in Dominican amber. Stud. Dipterol. 6: 295-304.

84. Camargo, J.M.F., D.A. Grimaldi, and S.R.M. Pedro. 2000. The extinct fauna of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in Dominican amber: two new species and redescription of the male of Proplebeia dominicana (Wille and Chandler). Amer. Mus. Novitates 3293: 24 pp.

85. Thorne, B.L., D.A. Grimaldi, and K. Krishna. 2000. Early fossil history of the termites. Pp. 77-93, In: T. Abe et al. (eds.), Termites: Evolution, Sociality, Symbiosis, and Ecology. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

86. Grimaldi, D. (ed.) 2000. Studies on Fossils in Amber, with Particular Reference to the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Leiden: Backhuys Publ., 510 pp..

87. Grimaldi, D. 2000. A diverse fauna of Neuropterodea in amber from the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Pp. 259-304, in D. Grimaldi (ed.), 2000.

88. Grimaldi, D., A. Shedrinsky, and T.P. Wampler. 2000. A remarkable deposit of fossiliferous amber from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) of New Jersey. Pp. 1-76, in D. Grimaldi (ed.), Studies on Fossils in Amber, with Particular Reference to the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Leiden: Backhuys Publ., 510 pp..

89. Grimaldi, D., T. Nguyen, and R. Ketcham. 2000. Ultra-High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography (UHR CT) and the study of fossils in amber. Pp. 77-92, in D. Grimaldi (ed.), 2000.

90. Bertolani, R. and D. Grimaldi. 2000. A new eutardigrade (Tardigrada: Milnesiidae) in amber from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) of New Jersey. Pp. 103-110, in D. Grimaldi (ed.), 2000.

91. Currie, D.C., and D. Grimaldi. 2000. A new black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) genus from mid Cretaceous (Turonian) amber of New Jersey. pp. 473-486, in D. Grimaldi (ed.), 2000.

92. Krishna, K. and D. Grimaldi. 2000. A new subfamily, genus, and species of termite (Isoptera) from New Jersey Cretaceous amber. pp. 133-140, in D. Grimaldi (ed.), 2000.

93. Engel, M. and D. Grimaldi. 2000. A winged Zorotypus in Dominican amber (Insecta: Zoraptera), with discussion of relationships of and within the order. Acta Geol. Hispanica 35: 149-164. [special volume on fossil insects].

94. Grimaldi, D. 2000. The Mesozoic radiations of the insects and origins of the modern fauna. Proc. XXI Int. Congr. Entomol., Iguassu, Brazil (plenary lecture), Aug. 17-26, 2000, vol. 1, pp. xix-xxvii.

95. Grimaldi, D., E. Quinter, and T. Nguyen. 2000. Fruit flies as ecological indicators: species diversity and abundance of Drosophilidae (Diptera) along an altitudinal transect in Parc National de Marojejy, Madagascar. Feldiana 97: 123-135.

96. Mathis, W.N. and D. Grimaldi. 2000. The first Beckeriella Williston from the Afrotropical Region Madagascar (Diptera: Ephydridae): two new species from Madagascar. Feldiana 97: 105-113.

97. Grimaldi, D., J.A. Lillegraven, D. Bookwalter, T.P. Wampler, and A. Shedrinsky. 2000. Amber from Upper Cretaceous through Paleocene strata of the Hanna Basin, Wyoming, with evidence for source and taphonomy of fossil resins. Rocky Mountain Geology 35: 163-204 (+ cover).

98. Klompen, H. and D. Grimaldi. 2000. First Mesozoic record of the Parasitiformes: a larval argasid tick in Cretaceous amber (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 94: 10-15.

99. Grimaldi, D. and D. Agosti. 2000. A formicine in Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and early evolution of the ants. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 97: 13678-13683.

100. Grimaldi, D. 2000. Review of: Poinar, G. Jr., and R. Poinar: The Amber Forest: A Reconstruction of a Vanished World (Princeton Univ. Press, 1999). Quart. Rev. Biol.. 75: 445-446.

101. Grimaldi, D. and D. Agosti. 2000. Commentary: The earliest ants are Cretaceous, not Eocene. Can. Ent.. 132: 691-693.

102. Grimaldi, D. and V. Blagoderov. 2001. A new genus of Lygistorrhinidae from Viet Nam (Diptera: Mycetophiloidea) and phylogenetic relationships in the family. Studia Dipterologica 8: 43-57.

103. Heiss, E. and D. Grimaldi. 2002. Archearadus burmensis gen.n., sp. n., a remarkable Mesozoic Aradidae (Heteroptera) in Burmese amber. Carolinea 59: 99-102.

104. Heiss, E. and D. Grimaldi. 2002. The first known female of Archearadus burmensis Heiss and Grimaldi, 2001 in Cretaceous Burmese amber (Heteroptera: Aradidae). Zeit. Arb. Gem. Öst. Ent. 54: 55-59.

105. Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. (75 yr. anniversary issue invited paper) J. Paleont. 75: 1152-1160.

106. Wier, A., M. Dolan, D. Grimaldi, R. Guerrero, J. Wagensberg, and L. Margulis. 2002. Microbial symbionts from 20 million-year-old Mastotermes termites. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 99: 1410-1413.

107. Anderson, N.M. and D. Grimaldi. 2002. A fossil water measurer from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hemiptera: Gerromorpha: Hydrometridae). Insect Systematics and Evolution 32: 381-392.

108. Grimaldi, D., M.S. Engel, and P. Nascimbene. 2002. Fossiliferous Cretaceous amber from Burma (Myanmar): its rediscovery, biotic diversity, and paleontological significance. Amer. Mus. Novitates 3361: 71 pp.

109. Engel, M. and D. Grimaldi. 2002. The first Mesozoic Zoraptera (Insecta). Amer. Mus. Novitates 3362: 20 pp.

110. Grimaldi, D. 2003. “Fossil Record,” pp. 455-463 In: Encyclopedia of Insects, V.H. Resh and R. Cardé (eds.), Academic Press, New York.

111. Grimaldi, D. 2003. “Coevolution” (pgs. 235-237), “Pollination” (pgs. 574-577), and “Terrestrial Arthropods” (pgs. 149-157), in Life on Earth: An Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Ecology, and Evolution. Santa Barbara: ABC CLIO.

112. Krishna, K., and D. Grimaldi. 2003. The first Cretaceous Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera): A new species, genus, and subfamily in Burmese amber. American Museum Novitates 3390: 10 pp.

113. Grimaldi, D., V. Blagoderov, and D.S.Amorim. 2002. The Mesozoic family Archizelmiridae (Diptera). Journal of Paleontology 77: 368-382.

114. Grimaldi, D. 2003. A revision of Cretaceous mantises and their relationships, including new taxa (Insecta: Dictyoptera). American Museum Novitates 3412: 1-47.

115. Grimaldi, D., F. Ervik, and R. Bernal. 2003. Two new Neotropical genera of Drosophilidae (Diptera) visiting palm flowers. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 76: 109-124 [Festschrift volume in honor of Jerome G. Rozen].

116. Grimaldi, D. 2003. First amber fossils of the extinct family Protopsyllidiidae, and their phylogenetic significance among Hemiptera. Insect Systematics and Evolution 34: 329-344.

117. Fraser, N. C. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2003. Late Triassic continental faunal change: new perspectives on Triassic insect diversity as revealed by a locality in the Danville Basin, Virginia, Newark Supergroup. Pp. 192-205 In: P. M. LeTourneau and P. E. Olsen (eds.), The Great Rift Valleys of Pangea in Eastern North America. New York: Columbia University Press.

118. Engel, M.S. and D. Grimaldi. 2004. New light shed on the oldest insect. Nature 427: 627-630.

119. Engel, M. S. and D. Grimaldi. 2004. A new rock crawler in Baltic amber, with comments on the order (Mantophasmatodea: Mantophasmatidae). American Museum Novitates 3431: 11 pp.

120. Blagoderov, V. and D. Grimaldi. 2004. Fossil Sciaroidea (Diptera) in Cretaceous ambers, exclusive of Cecidomyidae, Sciaridae, and Keroplatidae. American Museum Novitates 3433: 76 pp.

121. Ross, A.J., and D. Grimaldi. 2004. Raphidiomimula, an enigmatic new cockroach in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Burma) (Insecta: Blattodea: Raphidiomimidae). Systematic Palaeontology 2: 101-104.

122. Engel, M.S. and D.A. Grimaldi. 2004. A primitive earwig in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Dermaptera: Pygidicranidae). Journal of Paleontology 78: 1018-1023.

123. Grimaldi, D., A. Shmakov, and N. Fraser. 2004. Mesozoic thrips and early evolution of the order Thysanoptera (Insecta). Journal of Paleontology 78: 941-952.

124. Borkent, A. and D. Grimaldi. 2004. The earliest fossil mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97: 882-888.

125. Schawaroch, V. , D. Grimaldi, and A. Klaus. 2005. Focusing on morphology: applications and implications of confocal laser scanning microscopy (Diptera: Campichoetidae, Camillidae, Drosophilidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 107: 323-335.

126. Engel, M.S., and D. A. Grimaldi. 2004. The first Mesozoic stephanid wasp (Hymenoptera: Stephanidae). Journal of Paleontology 78: 1192-1197.

127. Grimaldi, D. 2004/5. Drosophilidae. Invited submission for: The Diptera of Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica.

128. Grimaldi, D. and M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. xv + 755 pp.

129. Grimaldi, D., J. Kathirithamby, and V. Schawaroch. 2005. Strepsiptera and triungula in Cretaceous amber. Insect Systematics and Evolution 36: 1-20.

130. Grimaldi, D., Z. Junfeng, A. Rasnitsyn, and N. Fraser. 2005. Revision of the bizarre Mesozoic scorpionflies in the Pseudopolycentropodidae (Mecopteroidea). Insect Systematics and Evolution 36: 443-458.

131. Engel, M.S. and D. Grimaldi. 2005. Primitive new ants in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar, New Jersey, and Canada (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). American Museum Novitates 3485: 23 pp.

132. Peñalver, E. and D. Grimaldi. 2005. Assemblages of mammalian hair and blood-feeding midges (Insecta: Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Miocene amber. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (Earth Sciences) 96: 177-195.

133. Grimaldi, D. and M. S. Engel. 2005. Fossil Liposcelididae and the lice ages (Insecta: Psocodea). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B), Biological Sciences 273: 625-633.

134. Engel, M.S. and D. Grimaldi. 2006. The first Cretaceous sclerogibbid wasp (Hymenoptera: Sclerogibbidae). American Museum Novitates 3515: 1-7.

135. Engel, M. S. and D. Grimaldi. 2006. The earliest webspinners (Insecta: Embiodea). American Museum Novitates 3514: 1-15.

136. Amorim, D. S. and D. Grimaldi. 2006. Valeseguyidae, a new family of Diptera in the Scatopsoidea, with a new genus in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar. Systematic Entomology 29: 1-9.

137. Engel, M.S. and D. Grimaldi. 2006. Cretaceous Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera) and phylogeny of the family. American Museum Novitates 3568: 1-21.

138. Grimaldi, D. and M.S. Engel. 2006. Extralimital fossils of the "Gondwanan" family Sphaeropsocidae (Psocodea). American Museum Novitates 3523: 1-18.

139. Peñalver, E. and D. Grimaldi. 2006. New data on Miocene butterflies in Dominican amber (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae and Nymphalidae) with the description of a new nymphalid. American Museum Novitates 3519: 1-17.

140. Peñalver, E., D. Grimaldi, and X. Delclòs. 2006. Early Cretaceous spider web with its prey. Science 312: 1761.

141. Engel, M. S. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2006. The first Cretaceous spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 79: 359-368.

142. Engel, M.S. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2006. A diminutive pelecinid wasp in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae). Northeastern Naturalist 13: 291-297.

143. Grimaldi, D. and M. S. Engel. 2006. Rebuttal to George Poinar's review of Evolution of the Insects. American Scientist (website).

144. Peñalver, E., M. S. Engel, and D. Grimaldi. 2006. Fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic. American Museum Novitates 3541: 16 pp.

145. Blagoderov, V., D. Grimaldi, and N. Fraser. 2006. How time flies for flies: Diverse Diptera (Insecta) from the Late Triassic of eastern North America. American Museum Novitates 3572: 39 pp.

146. Lo, N., M. S. Engel, S. Cameron, C. A. Nalepa, G. Tokuda, D. Grimaldi, O. Kitade, K. Krishna, K.-D. Klass, K. Mackawa, T. Miura, G. J. Thomspon. 2007. Save Isoptera: A comment on Inward et al. Biology Letters 3: 562-563.

147. Grimaldi, D. A. and M. S. Engel. 2007. Why descriptive science still matters. BioScience 57: 646-647.

148. Liu, Z., M. S. Engel, and D. Grimaldi. 2007. Phylogeny and geological history of the cynipoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). American Museum Novitates 3583: 48 pp.

149. Engel, M. S. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2007. New false fairy wasps in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey and Myanmar (Hymenoptera: Mymarommatoidea). Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 110: 159-168.

150. Engel, M.S. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2007. The neuropterid fauna of Dominican and Mexican amber (Neuropterida: Megaloptera, Neuroptera). American Museum Novitates 3587: 58 pp.

151. Engel, M.S., D. Grimaldi, and K. Krishna. 2007. Primitive termites from the Early Cretaceous of Asia. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde (B), 371: 32 pp.

152. Engel, M.S., D. Grimaldi, and K. Krishna. 2007. A synopsis of Baltic amber termites (Isoptera). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde (B) 372: 20 pp.

153. Grimaldi, D. A. 2007. Mantodea: praying mantises (pp. 234-238) In: D. M. Martill, G. Bechly, R. F. Loveridge (eds.), The Crato Fossil Beds of Brazil, Window into an Ancient World. Cambridge Univ. Press. xvi + 625 pp.

154. Willkommen, J. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2007. Diptera: true flies, gnats, and crane flies. pp. 369-387, In: ibid.

155. Grimaldi, D. A. and M. S. Engel. 2008. An unusual, primitive Piesmatidae (Insecta: Heteroptera) in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Burma). American Museum Novitates 3611: 17 pp.

156. Grimaldi, D. A. 2008. A stalk-eyed ephydroid fly from the Eocene (Diptera: Ephydroidea: Camillidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 110: 543-550.

157. Grimaldi, D. and D. Triplehorn. 2008. Insects from the Upper Miocene Grubstake Formation of Alaska. American Museum Novitates 3612: 19 pp.

158. Grimaldi, D. A. and M. S. Engel. 2008. A termite bug in Early Miocene amber of the Dominican Republic (Heteroptera: Termitaphididae). American Museum Novitates 3619: 10 pp.

159. Cognato, A. I. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2009. 100 million years of morphological stasis in bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Systematic Entomology 34: 93-100.

160. Grimaldi, D. A. and A. .Arillo. 2008. The Tethepomyiidae, a new family of enigmatic Cretaceous Diptera. Alavesia 2: 259-265.

161. Grimaldi, D. A., M. S. Engel, and K. Krishna. 2008. The species of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation: A revision. American Museum Novitates 3626: 30 pp.

162. Engel, M. S. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2008. Diverse Neuropterida in Cretaceous amber, with particular reference to the paleofauna of Myanmar (Insecta). Nova Supplementa Entomologica, Keltern (Deutsches Entomologisches Institut) 20: 1-86.

163. Engel, M.S. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2008. A jugular-horned beetle in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Coleoptera: Prostomidae). Alavesia 2: 215-218.

164. Marshall, S. A., M. Buck, J. H. Skevington, and D. Grimaldi. 2009. A revision of the family Syringogastridae (Diptera: Diopsoidea). Zootaxa 1996: 1-80.

165. Engel, M. S. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2009. Diversity and phylogeny of the Mesozoic wasp family Stigmaphronidae (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea). Denisia 26: 53-68 [special issue on amber].

166. Engel, M.S., D. Grimaldi, and K. Krishna. 2009. Termites: their phylogeny and rise to ecological dominance. American Museum Novitates 3650: 27 pp.

167. Grimaldi, D.A., J. Cumming, and A. Arillo. 2009. The Chimeromyiidae, a new family of Eremoneura Diptera in amber from the Early Cretaceous. Zootaxa 2078: 34-54.

168. Krishna, K. and D. Grimaldi. 2009. Diverse Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae (Isoptera) in Dominican amber. American Museum Novitates 3640: 48 pp.

169. Grimaldi, D. 2009: Did Disease Indeed Destroy the Dinosaurs? Review of: What Bugged the Dinosaurs? Death and Disease in the Cretaceous, by G. O. Poinar Jr. and R. Poinar. Princeton Univ. Press (2008). Bioscience 59: 446-447.

170. Grimaldi, D. 2009. Review of: Voyages of Discovery, A Visual Celebration of Ten of the Greatest Natural History Expeditions, by T. Rice. Buffalo, NY: Firefly. Quarterly Review of Biology 84: 279-281.

171. Grimaldi, D. 2009. Pushing back amber production. Science 326: 51-52.

172. Grimaldi, D. 2009. The Asteioinea of Fiji (Insecta: Diptera: Periscelididae, Asteiidae, Xenasteiidae). American Museum Novitates 3671: 59 pp

173. Knight, T., P. S. Bingham, D. A. Grimaldi, K. Anderson, R. D. Lewis, and C. E. Savrda. 2010. A new Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) amber deposit from the Eutaw Formation of eastern Alabama, USA. Cretaceous Research 31: 85-93.

174. Chatzimanolis, S., M. S. Engel, A. F. Newton, and D. A. Grimaldi. 2010. New ant-like stone beetles in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaenidae). Cretaceous Research 31: 77-84.

175. Ouvrard, D., D. Burckhardt, D. Azar, and D. Grimaldi. 2010. Non-jumping plant-lice in Cretaceous amber (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea). Systematic Entomology 35: 172-180..

176. Peñalver, E. and D. Grimaldi. 2010. Latest occurrences of the Mesozoic family Elcanidae (Orthoptera) in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar and Spain. Annals de la Socièté Entomologique de France 46, in press.

177. Azar, D., M. S. Engel, and D. Grimaldi. 2010. A new genus and species of Sphaeropsocidae in Early Cretaceous amber from Lebanon. Annals de la Socièté Entomologique de France 46, in press.

178. Grimaldi, D. and M. S. Engel (eds.), 2010. (Introduction to special issue) Arthropod fossils and phylogeny. Arthropod Structure and Development, vol. 39, issues 2-3.

179. Grimaldi, D. 2010. 400 million years on six legs: On the origins and early evolution of the Hexapoda. Arthropod Structure and Development 39: 191-203.

180. Ware, J., D. Grimaldi, and M. S. Engel. 2010. The effects of fossil placement and calibration on divergence times and rates: An example from the termites (Insecta: Isoptera). Arthropod Structure and Development 39: 204-219.

181. Grimaldi, D. and P. Nascimbene. 2010. Raritan (New Jersey) amber. pp. in: D. Penney (ed.), Fossiliferous Amber from the Major World Deposits. Manchester: Siri Scientific Press.

182. Pohl, H., B. Wipfler, D. Grimaldi, F. Beckman, and R. G. Beutel. 2010. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42 million-year-old fossil Mengea tertiaria (Insecta, Strepsiptera). Naturwissenschaften 97(9): 855-859.

183. Endara, L. and D. Grimaldi. 2010. Lord of the Flies: Pollination of Dracula orchids. Lankesteriana 10: 1-11.

184. Rust, J. H. Singh, R. S. Rana, T. McCann, L. Singh, K. Anderson, N. Sarkar, P. C. Nascimbene, F. Gerdes, J. C. Thomas, M. Solórzano-Kraemer, C. J. Williams, M. S. Engel, A. Sahni, and D. Grimaldi. 2010. Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the Early Eocene of India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (43): 18360-18365.

185. Wegeriek, P. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2010. A new subfamily of aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidomorpha) from the Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber, with a description of the oldest apterous morphs. Acta Geologica Sinica 84(4): 665-672 [English edition of Proceedings volume].

186. Heinrichs, J., M.E. Reiner-Drehwald, K. Feldberg, D. A. Grimaldi, P. C. Nascimbene, M. von Konrat, and A. R. Schmidt. 2011. Kaolakia borealis no. gen. et sp. (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida): a leafy liverwort from the Cretaceous of Alaska. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 165: 235-240.

187. Engel, M. S., H. Singh, P.C. Nascimbene, and D. Grimaldi. 2011. Webspinners (Insecta: Embiodea) in Early Eocene amber from western India (Insecta, Embiodea). In: M.S. Engel (ed.) Contributions Celebrating Kumar Krishna. Zookeys 148: 197-208.

188. Engel, M. S., H. Singh, P. C. Nascimbene, and D. Grimaldi. 2011. The termites (Insecta: Isoptera) in Early Eocene Cambay amber, with the earliest record of the Termitidae. In: M.S. Engel (ed.), Contributions Celebrating Kumar Krishna. Zookeys 148: 105-123.

189. Grimaldi, D., A. Arillo, J. Cumming, and M. Hauser. 2011. Brachyceran Diptera (Insecta) in Cretaceous ambers, part IV: Significant new orthorrhaphous taxa. In: M.S. Engel (ed.), Contributions Celebrating Kumar Krishna. Zookeys 148: 293-332.

190. Engel, M.S., D. A. Grimaldi, and J. Ortega-Blanco. 2011. Serphitid wasps in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Serphitidae). Insect Systematics and Evolution 42: 197-204.

191. Bisulca, C., P. C. Nascimbene, L. Elkin, and D. Grimaldi. 2012. Variation in the deterioration of fossil resins and implications for the conservation of fossils in amber. American Museum Novitates 3734: 1-19.

192. Grimaldi, D. and H. Singh. 2012. The extinct genus Pareuthychaeta in Eocene ambers (Diptera: Schizophora: Ephydroidea). The Canadian Entomologist 144: 17-28.

193. Schmidt, A., S. R. Jancke, E. Ragazzi, G. Roghi, E. E. Lindquist, P. C. Nascimbene, K. Schmidt, T. Wappler, and D. A. Grimaldi. 2012. Arthropods in amber from the Triassic Period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 14796-14801.

194. Guanghai Shi, G. D. A. Grimaldi, G. E. Harlow, J. Wang, J. Wang, M. Yang, W. Lei, Q. Li, X. Li. 2012. Age constraint on Burmese amber based on U-Pb dating of zircons. Cretaceous Research 37: 155-163.

195. Grimaldi, D. A. and A. H. Kirk-Spriggs. 2012. Fossil Curtonotidae (Diptera: Schizophora: Ephydroidea). American Museum Novitates 3760: 1-16.

196. Chatzimanolis, S., D. Grimaldi, M. S. Engel, and N. C. Fraser. 2012. Leehermania prorova, the earliest staphyliniform beetle, from the Late Triassic of Virginia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). American Museum Novitates 3761: 1-28.

197. Grimaldi, D. 2012. Moses Harris: Naturalist and artist. Pp.48-51 in: T. Baione (ed.), Natural Histories: Extraordinary Rare Book Selections from the American Museum of Natural History. New York: Sterling Publishing.

198. Vea, I. M. and D. Grimaldi. 2012. Phylogeny of ensign scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae) based on the morphology of fossil and Recent females. Systematic Entomology 37: 758-783.

199. Barden, P. and D. Grimaldi, 2012. Rediscovery of the bizarre Cretaceous ant Haidomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), including two new species. American Museum Novitates 3755: 1-16.

200. Krishna, K., D. Grimaldi, V. Krishna, and M.S. Engel. 2013. Treatise on the Isoptera of the World. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 377, vols. 1-7: 1-2704.

201. Engel, M.S., D. A. Grimaldi, V. H. Gonzalez, I. Hinojosa-Diaz, and C. D. Michener. 2012. An exomalopsine bee in Early Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic (Hymenoptera: Apidae). American Museum Novitates 3758: 1-16.

202. Grimaldi, D.A., M. S. Engel, P. C. Nascimbene, and H. Singh. 2013. Coniopterygidae (Neuroptera: Aleuropteryginae) in amber from the Eocene of India and Miocene of Hispaniola. American Museum Novitates 3770: 1-20.

203. Engel, M.S., J. Ortega-Blanco, C. Soriano, D. A. Grimaldi, and X. Delclos. 2013. A new lineage of enigmatic diaprioid wasps in Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea). American Museum Novitates 3771: 1-23.

204. Grimaldi, D. A., M. S. Engel, and H. Singh. 2013. Bugs in the biogeography: Leptosaldinae (Heteroptera: Leptopodidae) in amber from the Miocene of Hispaniola and Eocene of India. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 86: 226-243.

205. Engel, M. S., D. A. Grimaldi, J. Ortega-Blanco. 2013. A stephanid wasp in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hymenoptera: Stephanidae), with comments on the antiquity of the Hymenoptera. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 86: 244-252.

206. Grimaldi, D. A. and M. S. Engel. 2013. The relict scorpionfly family Meropeidae (Mecoptera) in Cretacous amber. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 86: 253-263.

207. Engel, M.S., D. A. Grimaldi, and J. Ortega-Blano. 2013. Zoropelecinus zigrasi, a pelecinid wasp in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae). Novitates Paleoentomologicae 4: 1-10.

208. Barden, P. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2013. A new genus of highly specialized ants in Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3681(4): 405-412.

209. Barden P, Grimaldi D. 2014. A diverse ant fauna from the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). PLoS ONE 9(4): e93627. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093627.

210. Grimaldi, D. and M. A. Johnston. 2014. The long-tongued Cretaceous scorpionfly Parapolycentropus Grimaldi and Rasnistyn (Mecoptera: Pseudopolycentropodidae): new data and interpretations. American Museum Novitates 3793: 1-23.

211. Dikow, T. and D. A. Grimaldi. 2014. Robber flies in Cretaceous ambers (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae). American Museum Novitates 3799: 1-19.

212. Parker, J. and D. Grimaldi. 2014. Specialized myrmecophily at the ecological dawn of ants. Current Biology 24: 1-7.

213. Poppe, J. L., H. J. Schmitz, D. Grimaldi, and V. L. S. Valente. 2014. High diversity of Drosophilidae (Insecta, Diptera) in the Pampas biome of South America, with descriptions of new Rhinoleucophenga species. Zootaxa 3779: 215-245.

214. Grimaldi, D., P.S. Ginsberg, L. Thayer, S. McEvey, M. Hauser, M. Turelli, and B. Brown. 2015. Strange little flies in the big city: Exotic flower-breeding Drosophilidae (Diptera) in urban Los Angeles. PLoSONE 10(4): e0122575. doi: 10.1371/jounral.pone.0122575.

215.Karremans, A. P., F. Pupulin, D. Grimaldi, K. Beentjes, R. Butot, G. E. Fassi, K. Jasper, J. Kruizinga, P. Roessing, E. Smets, and B. Gravendeel. 2015. Pollination of Specklinia by nectar feeding Drosophila: first reported case of a deceptive syndrome employing aggregation phermomones in Orchidaceae. Annals of Botany 116: 437-455.

216. Arillo, A., D. A. Grimaldi, E. Penalver, R. Perez-de la Fuente, X. Delclos, J. Criscione, P. Barden, and M. Riccio. 2015. Long-proboscid Brachyceran flies in Cretaceous amber (Diptera: Brachycera: Stratiomyomorpha: Zhangsolvidae). Systematic Entomology 40: 242-267.

217. Peñalver, E., A. Arillo, A., R. Perez-de la Fuente, M. Riccio, X. Delclòs, E. Barrón, and D. A. Grimaldi. 2015. Long-proboscid flies as pollinators of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Current Biology 25: 1917-1923.

218. Vea, I. and D. Grimaldi. 2015. Diverse new scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in amber from the Cretaceous and Eocene, with a phylogenetic framework for fossil Coccoidea. American Museum Novitates 3823: 1-80.

219. Vea, I. and D. Grimaldi. 2015. Putting scales into evolutionary time: The divergence of major lineages of scale insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea) preceded the radiation of their modern angiosperm hosts. Nature Reports, in press.

220. Barden, P. and D. Grimaldi. 2015. Advanced sociality and adaptive radiation in Cretaceous stem-group ants. Current Biology, in press.

221. Engel, M.S., P. Barden, M. Riccio, and D. Grimaldi. 2015. Morphologically specialized castes of termites (Isoptera) and advanced sociality in the Early Cretaceous. Current Biology, in press.

222. Burks, P.A. J. A. Heraty, J. D. Pinto, and D. Grimaldi. 2015. Small but not ephemeral: newly discovered species of Aphelinidae and Trichogrammatidae (Insecta: Hymenopter: Chalcidoidea) from Eocene amber. Systematic Entomology 40(3): 592-605.

223. Grimaldi, D. A. 2015. Titian Ramsey Peale: America's First Lepidopterist (Preface, pp. 9-11) + captions for 217 plates of butterfly and caterpillar paintings, In: The Butterflies of North America, Titian Peale's Lost Manuscript. New York: Abrams/American Museum of Natural History. 256 pp.

224. Daza, J. D., E.L. Stanley, P. Wagner, A.M. Bauer, and D. A. Grimaldi. 2015. Mid-Cretaceous amber fossils shed light on the past diversity of tropical lizards. Science Advances (Accepted, in revision 10 Nov. 2015).

225. Crepet, W.L., K.C. Nixon, D. Grimaldi, and M.L.Riccio. 2016. A mosaoic lauralean flower from the Early Cretaceous of Myanmar. Submitted to American Journal of Botany, Sept. 15, 2015.

226. Grimaldi, D. A. and A. Ross. 2016. Extraordinary Lagerstätten in amber, with particular reference to the Cretaceous of Burma. In: N. Fraser and H. Dieter-Sues (eds.), Major Lagerstätten of the World. Dunedin Press, Edinburgh, UK. (45 ms pp. + 15 pp plates).

227. Fraser, N.C., D. A. Grimaldi, B. J. Axsmith, A. B. Heckert, C. Liutkus-Pierce, D. Smith, and A. C. Dooley, Jr. 2016. The Solite Quarry: A window into life by a Triassic lake margin. In: N. Fraser and H. Dieter-Sues (eds.), Major Lagerstätten of the World. Dunedin Press, Edinburgh, UK.

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