Reptiles are (more / less) adapted to terrestrial life




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SI A ECL 365

Worksheet 3


  1. Reptiles are (MORE / LESS) adapted to terrestrial life.

    1. More



  1. What was the single most influential development prompting the move from water to land? What broke the vertebrates tie to water

    1. amniotic or shelled egg




  1. What was the “age of reptiles”

    1. Mesozoic



  1. Name the 4 extant orders of reptiles

    1. Testudines – turtles (319 species)

    2. Squamata – lizards and snakes (8,396 species)

    3. Sphenodonta – tuatara (2 species)

    4. Crocodilia – alligators and crocodiles (23 species)



  1. True / False Reptiles are a monophyletic group.

    1. False



  1. Name 3 characteristics of Reptiles.

    1. Amniotic egg with yolk (most lay eggs on land)

    2. Lack larval stage

    3. Impermeable skin : scales or plates of keratin cover & protect body

    4. Breathe via lungs

    5. Ectotherms

    6. Generally 3-chambered heart (crocodiles & birds have 4)



  1. Most reptiles have a _____ chambered heart

    1. 3



  1. Discuss Anthracosaurs

    1. group of non-amniotic amphibians

    2. Transitional amphibian



  1. What is kinesis?

    1. skull movement



  1. Name a stem amniote group.

    1. Cotylosaurs



    1. Fenestra stands for ________________ in Latin.



  1. Name the 3 amniote conditions (relating to skull fenestration) and describe them.

    1. Anapsid – no opening behind eye

    2. Synapsid - 1 opening behind eye

    3. Diapsid - 2 openings behind eye



  1. Skull fenestration serves what purposes?

    1. Allows greater amount of jaw musculature for attachment to skull

    2. Improve alignment of major jaw muscles (for greater jaw openings)

    3. Allow for muscle expansion during contraction

    4. Lighten skull without compromising strength


  1. What was the dominant terrestrial vertebrate grouping from the Permian – Triassic period?

    1. Mammal-like reptiles – early off shoot of stem reptiles



  1. Turtles have a ____________________ covering their backs and a

_______________ covering their ventral surface. (carapace and plastron)



  1. _______________ is the largest turtle found (12- 15 ft across) (Archelon)


  1. Name the two major groups of Diapsids

    1. Lepidosauria

    2. Archosauria




  1. Name the two extinct orders within Lepidosauria

    1. Plesiosauria

    2. Ichthyosauria




  1. What reptile is considered a living fossil and where is it found?

    1. Order Sphenodonta (tuataras) and New Zealand


  1. Lizards are (Anapsid, Synapsid, Diapsid) (Diapsid)




  1. Name the three traditional (old) suborders of squamata.

    1. Lacertilia: lizards

    2. Serpentes: snakes

    3. Amphisbaenia: worm lizards



  1. Name the two squamate lineages currently supported.

    1. Iguania

    2. Scleroglossa



  1. __________________ and _________________ nested within Scleroglossa

    1. Serpentes

    2. Amphisbaenia



  1. Name 3 characteristics of Lacertilia

    1. Moveable eyelids

    2. Ear openings present

    3. Most are diurnal

    4. Most have limbs, but some limbless



  1. True / False All snakes are terrestrial.

    1. False: Most are terrestrial (though some aquatic, arboreal, and fossorial)




  1. Dinosaurs were dominant _________________ and were __________________ (Anapsid, Synapsid, Diapsid)

    1. Archosaurs

    2. Diapsid



  1. Name the orders of stem archosaurs.

    1. Theocodonta

    2. Crocodilia

    3. Pterosauria

    4. Ornithischia

    5. Sauricia




  1. Name 3 characteristics of Order Pterosauria.

    1. Date to Triassic (~ 220 MYA)

    2. Flying reptiles

    3. Hollow, air-filled bones, elongate jaws

    4. Flying surface (patagium) supported by elongated 4th digit

    5. Largest had wingspan of 35 ft.

    6. Large sternum but unkeeled (unlike birds)

    7. Probably lived in Iowa!!


  1. Name and describe the two body forms of Order Sauricia

    1. Theropods – bipedal carnivores (e.g., Allosaurus, T-rex, velociraptor)

    2. Sauropods – largest terrestrial vertebrates, quadrupedal herbivores (comparable to elephants)




  1. What possible reasons explain why dinosaurs died out?

    1. Most likely reason for demise: major catastrophe (meteor) and subsequent environmental changes

    2. Geologically, at K/T boundary, huge spike in Iridium (similar concentration as what is found in meteors)

    3. 1990, remains of huge crater found in Yucatan (coincides with K/T)

    4. Subsequent fire, heat, and ‘impact’ winter would have been extreme and long-lasting (loss of plants, food, etc.)

    5. Extinction heavily impacted some groups, but not others

    6. Large ectotherms (e.g,. Dinosaurs) most affected: WHY?

    7. Heavy losses of phytoplankton and plants in N. Amer. (shorter-term loss elsewhere)

    8. Reduced food for herbivores, and thus for large carnivores

    9. Heavy loss of shelled organisms (e.g., mollusks) and their predators (Mosasaur dinosaurs)

    10. Omnivores, insectivores, and carrion eaters unaffected (birds, mammals, small reptiles)

    11. Vertebrates with ties to water unaffected (fish, amphibians, some aquatic/semi-aquatic reptiles: crocs and turtles)



  2. True / False Reptiles are Polyphyletic.

    1. False, Paraphyletic, birds and mammals are both derived from reptiles


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