Regional biogeography




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REGIONAL BIOGEOGRAPHY

Terrestrial Zoogeography

[The taxa listed are 'characteristic' not endemic unless so listed. Often they occur in more than a single region

The distributions given here are for modern distributions and do not take into account areas where the group is now extinct]



REALM

Region


Subregion
I. ARCTOGAEA

A. Palaearctic: Eurasia including Iceland, Canary Islands, North Africa, Korea and
Japan)

Mammals: 28 families – 4 shared with Nearctic and 4 with Ethiopian.


Two endemic families: Spalacidae and Seleviniidae – both myomorph rodents

Birds: 69 breeding families, one endemic family - Prunellidae

Reptiles: few – no endemic families

Amphibians: many urodeles

Fish: Dominant family is carp (shared with Nearctic and Ethiopian),
salmon, pike, perch, sticklebacks
Subregions: European; Mediterranean; Siberian; Manchurian
B. Nearctic; North America (Including Florida and California peninsulas),
Greenland and the Mexican Plateau

Mammals: 4 families shared with Palaearctic, 4 with Neotropical. Four endemic families


3 rodents (pocket gophers, pocket mice, sewellel) and the pronghorn

Birds: 1 endemic family Meleagrididae – Wild turkey

Reptiles: Snapping and musk turtles and terrapins, garter and rattlesnakes,
gila monster endemic

Amphibians: ambystomid axolotl, Ascaphus – a primitive anuran


(related to Liopelma of New Zealand)

Fish: Holostean garpike and bowfin, Bass restricted to North America.

Subregions: California; Central Mountains; Eastern; Subarctic
C. Palaeotropical

1. Ethiopian Africa, south of the Sahara


Mammals: 14 endemic families – no cervids or ursids
Birds: 9 endemic families e.g. ostrich, Guinea fowl, secretary bird
Fish: lungfish – Protopterus, also cichlids, mormyrids and polypterids
Subregions: East African; West African; South African; Mascarene

2. Oriental


Mammals: 9 endemic genera, e.g. Panda, flying lemurs (also in Mascarene), gibbons
Birds: 2 endemic families
Reptiles: 1 endemic family, Gavials
Fish: Catfishes and carps common
Subregions: Indian; Ceylonese; Indo-Chinese; Malayan
II NEOTROPICAL
Neotropical: South and Central America and the Antilles
Mammals: 32 families excluding bats; 16 endemic families, 1 endemic (almost) order -
edentata
Birds: 2 endemic orders = 50% of the families are endemic, 86 families
Reptiles: Anacondas; Caimans are endemic
Amphibians: Mostly Anurans
Fish: Lungfish is Lepidosiren, Characins, Gymnotids
Subregions: Chilean mountains; Brazilian forest; Mexican coastal lowlands;
West Indian
III AUSTRALIAN

Australian: Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania (not New Zealand)
Mammals:9 families (8 are endemic (only 1 is placental) 6 marsupial families and 2
monotreme families
Birds: 58 families 15 are endemic e.g. Cassowaries, Bowerbirds
Reptiles: 1 endemic turtle
Amphibians: No urodeles, no toads
Fish: Lungfish is Neoceratodus; primary division freshwater fishes generally absent


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