Red Alder: Alnus rubra




Дата канвертавання19.04.2016
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Field Guide for the Trees of Discovery Park

Compiled by: Katrina Anderson



Red Alder: Alnus rubra


Brown cones with nutlets.



Toothed edged of leaves, slightly roll under.



  • General Description: Deciduous tree with grayish bark, sometimes with white patches of lichens. Leaves alternate down branch, elliptic in shape and have edges with teeth that roll under slightly. Clusters of cones remain on tree all year, brown in color with oval winged nutlets.

  • Field Notes: Tall and skinny tree with toothed leaves. Observed in areas with lots of sun exposure. Leaves used to identify were found on the forest floor, leaves on the trees tended to be high up.

  • Taxonomy:

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Considered the best fuel for smoking fish, especially salmon.

    • Valued highly by natives for its medicinal properties, especially its strong antibiotic properties.

  • Sources:

    • Identification and facts:

      • Pojar and Mackinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. 2004

    • Taxonomy:

      • Zipcodezoo.com


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Mature cones with scales turning upward.
estern Red Cedar: Thuja plicata


Scaly needles



  • General Description: Large coniferous tree with fibrous bark that tears off in strips. Scaly needles that are yellow-green that turn brown as they die. Seed cones have 8-12 scales that when mature turn brown and scales turn upward.

  • Field Notes: Tree has scaly needles and bark hat is in strips. Cones too high to see. Observed in areas with other coniferous trees and generally shady parts of the forest.

  • Taxonomy:

    • Kingdom - Plantae

    • Phylum - Pinophyta

    • Class - Pinopsida

    • Order - Pinales

    • Family - Cupressaceae

    • Genus - Thuja

    • Species - Plicata

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Used by Natives to make everything from boats to clothes, and used to treat ailments.

    • Believed to have power so strong that one could gain strength just by standing with their back to the tree.

  • Sources:

    • Identification and facts:

      • Pojar and Mackinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. 2004

    • Taxonomy:

      • Zipecodezoo.com



Big Leaf Maple: Acer macrophyllum

5-lobed leaves

V-shaped seedlets



  • General Description: Large deciduous tree with brown grooved bark. Leaves have five lobes, are green and can be up to 30 cm in width exuding a white sticky juice when leaf stalk is cut from branch. Leaves turn yellow to brown in autumn and fall from the tree. Seedlets of the big leaf maple are v-shaped.

  • Field Notes: Tree has many yellow five-lobed leaves at its base. This brown bark with some grooves. Observed in areas with other coniferous trees, most commonly Douglas Fir.

  • Taxonomy:

    • Kingdom - Plantae

    • Phylum - Magnoliophyta

    • Class - Magnoliopsida

    • Order - Sapindales

    • Family - Aceraceae

    • Genus – Acer

    • Species - Macrophyllum

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Has capacity to carry more moss on its bark than any other tree in the Pacific Northwest region.

    • Used by the Saanich people to treat sore throats and leaves were rubbed on men’s faces at puberty to prevent the development of whiskers.

  • Sources:

    • Identificiation and facts

      • Pojar and Mackinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. 2004

    • Taxonomy:

      • www.gardenguides.com

Pacific Madrone: Arbutus menziesii


Peeling bark, older red bark peeling revealing chartreuse younger bark




Dark evergreen leaves, leathery feel and orange berries.



  • General Description: Deciduous tree with evergreen leaves. Leaves are dark green, shiny and oval in shape. Leaves have no teeth and have a leathery feel to them. Orange berries grown on the tree in fall and white flowers in the spring. Tree bark turns brownish-red and begins to peel as it ages. Younger bark is brown.

  • Field Notes: Large deciduous tree with peeling bark revealing rust colored trunk. Dark shiny green leaves still on tree. Tree observed in sunny and drier areas of the park.

  • Taxonomy:

    • Kingdom - Plantae

    • Phylum - Magnoliophyta

    • Class - Magnoliopsida

    • Order - Ericales

    • Family - Ericaceae

    • Genus - Arbutus

    • Species - Menziesii

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Bark and leaves used by Native peoples to treat colds, tuberculosis, upset stomachs and as a post-childbirth contraceptive.

    • Named Madrona by Father Juan Crespi, after the Spanish word “madrono” meaning strawberry tree due to its resemblance to the strawberry tree of the Mediterranean.

  • Sources:

    • Identification and facts:

      • Pojar and Mackinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. 2004.

    • Taxonomy:

      • Zipcodezoo.com


Grand Fir: Abies grandis

Flat needles in two horizontal rows

Cones beginning to open up



  • General Description: Large coniferous tree with grayish bark. Bark has blisters when young but becomes grooved with age. Needles are dark green and flat. They alternate on the branch in two horizontal rows. Differentiated from other firs in that spray of needles is so broad that both the both upper and lower sides of the branches can be seen. Cones are brown and stand erect near the crown of the tree. They begin to fall apart in autumn.

  • Field Notes: Coniferous tree with grooved bark. Flat green needles horizontally arranged on branch, both sides of branch visible. Observed in areas around Douglas Firs.

  • Taxonomy:

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Thin barked like most true fir trees and thus sensitive to fires.

    • Served many purposes for Natives, one being the application of pitch to create better grips on oars and bows.

  • Sources:

    • Identification and facts:

      • Pojar and Mackinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. 2004.

    • Taxonomy:

      • Zipcodezoo.com

Douglas Fir: Pseudotsuga menziesii

Flat needles spirally arranged.

Mature cone:

Papery scales



Three-forked bracts



  • General Description: Large coniferous tree with thick, deeply grooved brown bark. Flat, point-tipped, yellow-green needles arranged spirally. Cones are green when young but turn reddish brown as they mature with papery scales with three-forked bracts.

  • Field Notes: Coniferous tree with thick and grooved bark. Needles are arranged in a spiral. No cones visible to identify. Observed all over the park, one of the prominent coniferous trees.

  • Taxonomy:

    • Kingdom - Plantae

    • Phylum - Tracheophyta

    • Class - Magnoliopsida

    • Order - Rosales

    • Family - Rosaceae

    • Genus - Pseudotsuga

    • Species - Menziesii

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Not related to the true fir family.

    • Has two subspecies Coastal (menziesii) and Interior (glauca), the latter does not live in the coastal regions of the Pacific Northwest.

  • Sources:

    • Identification and facts:

      • Pojar and Mackinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. 2004.

    • Taxonomy:

      • Zipcodezoo.com


Noble Fir: Abies procera

Flat needles pointed upward revealing branch

Large shaggy cones



  • General Description: Conical coniferous tree with grey bark that has resin blisters when young and plates as it matures. Needles are blue-green and are four sided. Needles point upward, exposing the bottom of the branch. Seed cones are large and shaggy with scales mostly hidden.

  • Field Notes: Large coniferous tree with blue green needles. Needles all point the same way, exposing one side of the branch. Bark is grey with blisters. Observed in the park along a pathway.

  • Taxonomy:

    • Kingdom - Plantae

    • Phylum - Tracheophyta

    • Class - Pinopsida

    • Order - Pinales

    • Family - Pinaceae

    • Genus - Abies

    • Species - Procera

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Of all the true fir trees, the Noble Fir reaches the greatest overall size.

    • Noble firs were used to build the frames of the R.A.F. Mosquito planes in World War II.

  • Sources:

    • Identification and facts:

      • Pojar and Mackinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. 2004.

    • Taxonomy:

      • Zipcodezoo.com


Gary Oak: Quercus garryana

Lobed green leaves

Young acorns with rough “caps”


  • General Description: Deciduous tree with grey bark that has deep ridges. Leaves are dark green, have round lobes and alternate down the branch. In autumn they turn yellow to brown and fall from the tree. Tree has edible acorns that are green when young and turn brown as they mature with have rough brown “caps.”

  • Field Notes: Deciduous tree with lobed yellow leaves alternating down branch. Tree has acorn fruits. Observed in an open area of the park, un-forested.

  • Taxonomy:

    • Kingdom - Plantae

    • Phylum - Magnoliophyta

    • Class - Magnoliopsida

    • Order - Fagales

    • Family - Fagaceae

    • Genus - Quercus

    • Species - Garryana

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Garry oak bark used by Natives as part of a “4 barks” medicine to treat tuberculosis.

    • Generally a tall tree but often grows short or crooked on rocky terrains.

  • Sources:

    • Identification and facts:

      • Pojar and Mackinnon. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. 2004.

    • Taxonomy:

      • Zipcodezoo.com

English Holly: Ilex aquifolium

Prickly leaves alternating down branch

Holly berries



  • General Description: Non-native tree, native to Great Britain. Tree has dark evergreen leaves that alternate down the branch. Leaves have sharp toothed edges and the tree often bears red berries.

  • Field Notes: Short tree, almost shrub-like with prickly dark green leaves. Observed along the path in a forest primarily composed of young Big Leaf Maples.

  • Taxonomy:

    • Kingdom - Plantae

    • Phylum - Magnoliophyta

    • Class - Magnoliopsda

    • Order - Celastrales

    • Family - Aquifoliaceae

    • Genus - Ilex

    • Species - Aquifolium

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Holly thrives in humidity and is frost sensitive. Prefers temperate climates.

    • The leaves of the holly tree have long been a nutritious snack for cows, and were often collected in winter to as fodder for them.

  • Sources:

    • Identification and facts:

      • www.the-tree.org.uk

    • Taxonomy:

      • Zipcodezoo.com

Horse Chestnut: Aesculus hippocastanum

Large compound leaf with seven scales

Spiky fruit



  • General Description: Non-native tree, native to the Balkan mountains in Southeast Europe. Deciduous tree with large compound leaves that palmate with seven blades opposite one another. Leaves turn yellow-orange in fall. Seeds protected in leathery capsule with spikes with smooth seed inside.

  • Field Notes: Deciduous tree, large compound leaves with seven blades. Observed in un-forested area of park, so probably planted there.

  • Taxonomy:

    • Kingdom - Plantae

    • Phylum - Magnoliophyta

    • Class - Magnoliopsida

    • Order - Sapindales

    • Family - Hippocastanaceae

    • Genus - Aesculus

    • Species - Hippocastanum

  • Interesting Facts:

    • Leaves can grown to be as large as 10 inches long.

    • The fruits of the horse chestnut are the spiniest of all the trees in the genus Aesculus.

  • Sources:

    • Identification:

      • Arborday.org

    • Taxonomy and Facts:

      • Zipcodezoo.com


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