Rare habitats in the romanian carpathians




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RARE HABITATS IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS


3230 (Pal. Class.: 24.223 x 44.111) Alpine rivers and their lingneous vegetation with Myricaria germanica

Description: This habitat type is edified by pioneer species from mountaineous stream and river beds. The river bed gravel, rich in gravel, sand and fine silt, is colonized by Myricaria germanica and other pioneer species characteristic for gravel and sand banks.

Characteristic species: Myricaria germanica, Salix purpurea, Salix elaeagnos, Salix daphnoides, Alnus incana, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Epilobium dodonaei.

Distribution: On the banks of rivers with natural hydro-morphodynamics (erosion and deposition processes) from the foothills i.e. the montane and sub-montane level of Carpathians (Făgăraş, Ţarcu, Godeanu, Cernei, Apuseni, Ceahlău, Rarău, Maramureşului Mountains, etc.).

Management: In natural conditions, management measures are not necessary. Restrictions and interdictions/bans are necessary according to the existing threats.

Main impact factors: River bank reinforcement, rectification and bed stabilisation (stones, concrete), gravel and sand exploitation, other hydrotechnical constructions, eutrophication.
3240 (Pal. Class.: 24.224 x 44.112) Alpine rivers and their ligneous vegetation with Salix elaeagnos

Description: This habitat type of ligneous vegetation occurs on gravelbanks of streams and rivers of the montane levels, frequently strongly connected with groups/galleries of Grey Alder (Alnus incana).

Thickets or woods edified by Salix elaeagnos and other accompaning willow species as well as Hippophae rhamnoides, Alnus incana, Betula ssp. on gravelbanks of streams with an alpine, summer-high flow regime. The habitat type occurs in the streams and rivers of the montane levels and reaching the foothills of Carpathians, the piedmont and depressions on the edge of the mountains, and in the Sub-Carpathian area.



Characteristic species: Salix elaeagnos, Salix daphnoides, Salix purpurea, Hippophae rhamnoides

Distribution: It appears in Muntenia and Oltenia Sub-Carpathians, isolated

Management: Restrictions will be applied according to the antropic influence.

Main impact factors: River bank reinforcement and stabilisation (stones, concrete), turning river beds into canals using concrete, construction of dams, weirs and hydroelectric power plants, eutrophication.
4030 (Pal. Class.: 31.2) *European dry heaths

Subtype 31.21: Submontane Vaccinium-Calluna heaths



Description: These mesophile or xerophile heaths collonize occurs frequently on siliceous, podsolic soils in moist Atlantic and sub-Atlantic climates of plains in Western, Central and Northern Europe. The subtype mentioned above being is reprezented also in montane submontane areas of the Carpathians

Characteristic species: Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Genista sagittalis, etc.

Distribution: In Apuseni Mountains, as well as in Vrancei and Gurghiului Mountains.

Management: Usually, this type of habitat needs management measures, as it developes over a long period of time as a result of certain human activities. The traditional land use on this habitat was sheep pastoring. Without management it would enter in succession developing into with bushes stades, which on their turn and after a long period of time are replaced by an acidophilous oak durmas/holm(oak-beach)-forest would take its place. It should be managed through intense extensiv pastoring of sheep (mowing sheep farming), from case to case goats, even cattles bovines as an exception. Bush extractions are done locally and should be atentively analysed. Their burning, as it’s done in certain areas, is not recommended.

Main impact factors: Abandoning the use of this type of habitat or change of use. Reforestation, grubbing and use as farmland, soil manuring, especially with nitrogen, invasion of neophytes.
4060 (Pal. Class. 31.4) Alpine and subalpine heaths

Description: This type of habitat encloses small shrub formations bushes from of the alpine and subalpine levels edified by species from Ericaceae family, as well as Dryas octopetala, dwarf junipers Juniperus nana, being found in all mountains in Eurasia.

Characteristic species: Vaccinium ssp., Rhododendron, Bruckenthalia spiculifolia, Loiseleuria procumbens,

Distribution: In the Carpathians, this type of habitat is well developed and represented by small alpine and subalpine shrubs, diferentiated in more subtypes.

Subtype 31.41 –Alpide dwarf ericoid wind heaths. Loiseleurio-Vaccinion. Very low shrubs, with a single stratum edified by Trailing azalea Loiseleuria procumbens, prostrate Vaccinium ssp., accompanied by lichens on the alpine level of Carpathians (Fagaras Mountains, Retezat, Parang);

31.44 – High mountain Empetrum-Vaccinium heaths. Empetro-Vaccinietum uliginosi.

These dwarf heaths are dominated by Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium uliginosum, Vaccinium gaultherioides, Vaccium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea, lichens such are Cetraria islandica, different species of Cladonia and are located in the subalpine level of Carpathians. The habitate type occurs very rare.

31.46 – Brukenthalia heaths- edified by small shrubs of Brukenthalia spiculifolia, occuring as very characteristic in the Carpathians.

Subtype 31.47 Alpide bearberry heaths of Mugo-Rhodoretum hirsuti type (respectively, in the Carpathians, Rhodoretum kotschyi/myrtifolii), Juniperion nanae and mats of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Small thickets edified by shrubs of kinnikinnick and pinemat manzanita of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, which are located in the montane to subalpine level in the Scăriţa-Belioara Mountains, part of the Apuseni Mountains and in the Bucovinei Mountains/North-Eastern Carpathians.



Management: Restrictions will be applied according to the existing impact.

Main impact factors: Leisure and touristic activities (building of ski slopes), intensive pasturing and collection of Arctostaphylos, as a medicinal plant.
4070 (Pal.Class.: 31.5) *Bushes with Pinus mugo and Rhododendron hirsutum (Mugo-Rhododenretum hirsuti)

Description: This type of habitat eidifed by shrubs of with Mountain Pine or Mugo Pine (Pinus mugo) and Carpathian Kotschy Alpenrose (Rhododendron myrtifolium or Rh. Kotschyi) can be found in the highest mountains of the Carpathians on the subalpine level. Unlike the Alpes, where the edifying species is Rhododendron hirsutum, in the Carpathians we have R. myrtifolium (Rhododendron kotschyi), a vicariant species, edifying well defined communities.

Characteristic species: Rhododendron myrtifolium, Pinus mugo, Calamagrostis villosa, Homogyne alpina and others.

Distribution: Bushes of Rhododendron kotschyi and Pinus mugo can be found in the subalpine level of the Southern Carpathians (Fagaras mountains, Retezat, Parang, Tarcu-Godeanu).

Management: In natural locations of the type of habitat, management measures are not needed, because the subalpine shrubs level is their typical habitat. In the case that this habitat spread in an area of cut spruce forests and we want to maintain this habitat, extensive grazing has to be applied in order to prevent succession.

Main impact factors: Intensive sheep pasturing, Mugo Pine and Carpathian Kotschy Alpenrose clearing, intensive use of the area for winter sports (ski slopes), harvesting the Carpathian Kotschy Alpenrose flowers (used for syrup) together with the shoots of Pinus mugo used for its aromatic oils.
4080 (Pal. Class.: 31.622) Sub-Arctic Salix spp. scrub

Description: The boreo-alpine habitat type occurs along the stream and river valleys of the montane levels.

Characteristic species: Salix silesiaca, Salix bicolor and others.

Distribution: In the Carpathians it is characterized by the following subtype:

Subtype 31.6215 Hercynio-Carpathian willow brush

Subalpine, alpine and occasionally montane, Salix (Salix silesiaca, Salix bicolor) dominated brushes and low scrubs of the Carpathians. Salix bicolor thicks are rare and can be found in Sebeşului Mountains (Tărtărău and Oaşa), while the Salix silesiaca brushes are spreat throughout all Carpathians.

Management: It doesn’t need any special management actions.

Main impact factors: Dams and weirs constructions, River bank reinforcement, touristic facilities (cottages and access roads).
6170 (Pal. Class.: 36.41 - 36.45) Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands

Description: Can be found in all high mountains of Europe, on base-rich soils.

Characteristic species: Dryas octopetala, Gentiana nivalis, Astragalus alpinus, Aster alpinus, Draba aizoides, Polygala alpestris, alpine species of Carex, etc.

Distribution: In the Carpathians, this habitat type is represented by two of its subtypes, as follows:

Subtype 36.42 Wind edge naked-rush swards

Meso-xerophile, relatively closed and unsculptured swards of Kobresia myosuroides (Elyna myosuroides) forming on deep, fine soils of protruding ridges and edges exposed to strong winds in the alpine and nival levels of the Carpathians (Southern Carpathians, e.g. Făgăraş, Bucegi Mountains). The characteristical species are Dryas octopetala, Oxytropis carpatica, Draba aizoides, Erigeron uniflorus, Dianthus gelidus, Elyna myosuroides, Carex atrata, Carex capillaris, Carex curvula, Carex rupestris.

Management: In the case that this habitat spread in an area of cut spruce forests and we want to maintain this habitat, extensive grazing has to be used in order to prevent succession. In the Carpathians the type of habitat occurs only on the alpine level, in natural places, where management is not necessary.

Main impact factors: Intensive tourism (winter sports, down treading of vegetation, alpine climbing).
6410 (Pal. Class.: 37.31) Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils (Molinion coeruleae)

Description: Meadows edified by Molinia caerulea occur in the Carpathian area on the low montane levels, on piedmonts and terraces on the food of Carpathians, the Sub-Carpathians and inner Carpathian Depressions on sites with changing wetness and more or less nutrient poor soils (nitrogen, phosphorus). They are the result of an extensive use of one late mowing in the year or are corresponding to deteriorated stages of drained peat bogs.

Distribution: The habitat is widely spread in Maramureş, Apuseni Mountains, Gheorgheni/Giurgeu, Ciuc, Baraolt Depressions, etc. Represented by the following subtypes:

Subtype 37.311 Meadows on neutro-alkaline to calcareous soils with changing wetness due to a fluctuating ground water table and is relatively rich in species (Eu-Molinion). The soil is sometimes peaty and becomes dry in summer time.



Characteristic species: Molinia coerulea, Dianthus superbus, Colchicum autumnale, Inula salicina, Silaum silaus, Sanguisorba officinalis, Serratula tinctoria, Tetragonolobus maritimus, Galium boreale, Ranunculus polyanthemos, Gentiana pneumonanthe, Juncus atratus, Iris sibirica, Betonica officinalis, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Selinum carvifolia, Peucedanum rochelianum (the last species in Banat and Southern Transylvania); In some regions, Molinia communities are strongly connected to Nardetalia communities.

In river valleys/water meadows there is a transition to the community of type Cnidion dubii (e.g. Lower Cibin valley, Lower Sadu Valley). In Inner-Carpathian Depressions and river terrace Narcissus radiiflorus grows, some of the areas where it appears being protected (Maramureşului, Făgăraşului and Caransebeş Depressions). All Molinia meadows with narcissus should be protected.



Subtype 37.312 Meadows on more acid soils of the Junco-Molinion

Characteristic species: Viola persiciflora, Viola palustris, Galium uliginosum, Crepis paludosa, Juncus conglomeratus, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Inula britannica, Lotus uliginosus, Potentilla erecta, Carex pallescens and other.

Management: Use of traditional mowing in autumn once of the year or all two years. This type of management where used in the past, and the low quality hay has been used as bedding material in barns. With the modernisation of cattle breeding the Molinia type meadows where partly abandoned. In this case to maintain the habitat a conservative management is needed, because otherwise the habitat enters in succession and will disappear in short time.

Main impact factors: Drainage, abandonment of use and entering in succession with bushes stades, in other places the intensification of use by increasing mowing frequency and period of mowing, fertilisation, change of use from meadows to arable land, invasion of adventive species (ex. Rudbeckia laciniata, Solidago canadensis), collecting of decorative species (ex. Narcissus radiiflorus, Iris sibirica, orchid species and other species).
6440 (Pal. Class.: 37.23) Alluvial meadows of river valleys of the Cnidion dubii

Description: Alluvial meadows with natural flooding regime belonging to the Cnidion dubii alliance, under continental to subcontinental climatic conditions.

Distribution: A very scarcely found habitat in Romania (ex. Giurgeului/Gheorgheni Depression). The habitat type existed in the past also in the Depression of Sibiu, in the flooded areas of some tributaries of the Cibin river (Ruscior, Stramb), but due to drainage and tarnsformation into agricuktural lands it disappeared. Single species caharcteristic for the habitat type can be still found ind the Ruscior Valley (Clematis integrifolia, Gratiola officinalis, Scutellaria hastata).

Characteristic species: Cnidium dubium, Viola persicifolia, Scutellaria hastifolia, Allium angulosum, Gratiola officinalis, Carex praecox, Clematis integrifolia, Juncus atratus, Lythrum virgatum and others.

Management: Use of traditional mowing in autumn once of the year with biomass taking out (hay or bedding material for livstocks in the barns) or mowing every two-three years with conservative goals. No fertilizers have to be used.

Main impact factors: Drainage, lowering of the ground water table, change of the hydrological dynamics by cutting of the floodplains from the river i.e. stream dynamics and change of the flooding regime, intensive mowing or grazing, fertilizers usage, forestry works, invasion of neophytes. Because of the small areas, in case of faulty management, the threats can become species from neighbouring areas. Their rarity offers an extremely high conservative interest.
6450 (Pal. Class.: -) Northern boreal alluvial meadows

Description: Along large rivers with placid river sections which are frozen every winter, the type is affected by flooding in spring. The traditional management as hay meadows has usually ceased. The habitat type includes areas that are not yet severely overgrown with trees and bushes.

Includes some types of vegetation that vary according to humidity, depending on the dynamics with repeaded floods and the related erosion and deposition processes. These are meadows with Equisetum fluviatile, Calamagrostis, Phalaris, Deschampsia caespitosa, alluvial meadows with high plants and dry alluvial meadows.



Distribution: Small areas along peat bogs (Giurgeului Depression, Baraolt Mountains, Upper Ciuc hydrographic basin, Suceava river hydrographic basin).

Characteristic species: Carex diandra, Carex canescens, Equisetum limosum, Saxifraga hirculus, Valeriana simplicifolia, Menyanthes trifoliata, Deschampsia caespitosa, Galium boreale, Molinia coerulea, Nardus stricta, Phalaris arundinacea, Salix triandra, Solidago virgaurea, Thalictrum simplex, Trollius europaeus.

Management: Restrictions or interdictions according to the impact factors.

Main impact factors: Drainage, lowering of the groundwater level, change of the hydrological dynamics, deforestation, invasion of neophytes.
7110 (Pal. Class: 51.1) *Active raised bogs

Description: The habitat type is represented by acid, ombrotrophic bogs, poor in mineral nutrients, sustained mainly by rainwater with a water level higher than in the surroundings. The perennial vegetation is dominated by hummocks of Sphagnum species allowing for the growth of the bog (ord. Erico-Sphagnetalia magellanici, Scheuchzeretalia palustris p., Utricularietalia intermedio-minoris p., Caricetalia fuscae p.). The term of “tinov” (Romanian language) corresponding to the term of raised peat bog, comes from the fact that there is a large big area of peat-generating vegetation. It includes also the ones where there is a temporary interruption of growth (due to a fire, for example) or that have a dryer period due to the climate regime.

Distribution: Eastern Carpathians (Maramureşului, Oaş-Gutâi Mountains, Dorna area, Călimani and Harghita Mountains) and Southern Carpathians (Bucegi, Sebeşului Mountains) and Apuseni Mountains (Someş waterhead, Vlădeasa and other).

Characteristic species: Andromeda polyfolia, Carex pauciflora, Cladonia ssp., Drosera rotundifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum, Vaccinium oxycoccus, Sphagnum magellanicum and other species of Sphagnum, Carex fusca, Carex limosa, Eriophorum gracile, Rhynchospora alba, Scheuchzeria palustris and other.

Management: In natural conditions, management measures are not necessary. Restrictions and interdictions/bans are necessary according to the existing threats.

Main impact factors: Drainage of the bog, exploitation of peat leading to the decomposition of peat deposit and destruction of the habitat; eutrophication, diffuse pollution from the border of the peat bog, atmospheric pollution, forest plantation, bad management of tourism.
7120 (Pal. Class.: 51.2) Degraded raised bogs still capable of natural regeneration

Description: Exist raised bogs where has been a disruption of the natural hydrological regime of the peat body by anthropogenic interventions. As a consequence of the human impact a surface desiccation and a species change or a species loss took place. The vegetation in these bogs is still represented by species typical for raised bogs, but the relative abundance of individual species is different.

Distribution: In Romania, such peat bogs partially exploited can be found in Apuseni Mountains, Maramureşului Mountains, Poiana Ştampei area, etc.

Management: Restoration of the naturale hidrological conditions, fullfilling of the drainage canals, creation of buffer zones, stopping the eutrophication process in cases if around the peat area exists intensive land use and diffuse pollution from agricultural area, elimination of bush vegetation if a succession process with ligneous vegetation evolution exists; stopping the grazing on the border of the peat bog, guiding the touristic activities around the peat bogs area.

Main impact factors: Drainage, intensification of peat exploitation in a way that a regeneration is no further possible, eutrophication, diffuse pollution, grazing on the border of the peat bog, tourism, down treading of vegetation, mineralization.
7150 (Pal. Class.: 54.6) Depression on peat substrates of the Rhynchosporion

Description: The habitat type is represented by pioneer communities of humid exposed peat or sometimes sand edified by the species Rhynchospora alba. Rhynchospora fusca, Drosera intermedia, Drosera rotundifolia, Lycopodiella inundata, forming on stripped areas of raised bogs and also on natural seeping areas of wet heaths and bogs, in flushes and in the fluctuation zone of oligotrophic pools with sandy, slightly peaty substratum. The habitat type is closely related to those of shallow bogs depressions and transition mires.

Distribution: Apuseni Mountains (along the upper Someşul Cald) and Făgăraş Depression (Arpaşu de Sus).

Characteristic species: Rhynchospora alba, Drosera intermedia, Drosera rotundifolia, Lycopodiella inundata and others.

Management: In natural conditions, management activities are not needed.Depending on the existing impact and worcening of the ecological conditions of the habitat it is needed to apply interdiction such are the stop of drainage and peat exploitation, changes in the management of touristic activities.

Main impact factors: Drainage, exploitation of peat, eutrophication, use as grassland or for agricultural purposes, forest plantation, use for leisure.
7210 (Pal. Class.:53.3)* Calcareous fens with Cladium mariscus and species of the Caricion davallianae

Description:The habitat type is represented by beds of Cladium mariscus in the emergent-plant zones of lakes, fallow lands or succession stage of extensively used wet meadows in contact with the vegetation of the Caricion davallianae alliance or with species of the Phragmition alliance.

Distribution: Habitat with reduced areal (ex. Hărman, Stupini, Prejmer in the Bârsei Depression/ Braşov County and Valea Morii/Cluj County).

Management: in natural conditions management activities are not needed; in dependence of impacts a conservation management is needed: stop of drainage of water extraction for stabilisation of the groundwater table, stop of eutrophication, stop of grazing.

Main impact factors: drainage, water extraction and lowering of the groundwater table, eutrophication, intensification of pasturing.
7230 (Pal. Class.: 54.2) Alkaline fens

Description: Are wetlands types mostly represented by peat- or tufa producing small sedge and brown moss communities, developed on soils permanently waterlogged, with a soligenous or topogenous baserich, often calcareous water supply. The water table is at the substratum or slightly above or below of it. The peat formation is, when it occurs infra-aquatic. The small sedges dominating the mire communities are characteristic for the Caricion davallianae alliance with carpets of brown mosses.

Distribution: Habitat occuring in Giurgeu, Ciuc, Dorna, Bârsei Depressions and others.

Characteristic species: Schoenus nigricans, Schoenus ferrugineus, Eriophorum latifolium, Carex davalliana, Carex flava, Carex lepidocarpa, Carex hostiana, Carex panicea, la care se adaugă Juncus subnodulosus. From the rich herbaceous flora have to be mentioned Tofieldia calyculata, Dactylorhiza incarnata, Epipactis palustris, Primula farinosa, Swertia perennis.
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