台灣斑節水螳螂(Ranatra sp.)之生物學研究 Biology of Ranatra sp. (Hemiptera: Nepidae) in Taiwan




Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
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台灣斑節水螳螂(Ranatra sp.)之生物學研究

Biology of Ranatra sp. (Hemiptera: Nepidae) in Taiwan




研究生:吳金榮 Wu, Jun-Lrong


指導教授:陳仁昭、彭仁君

摘要

本論文研究斑節水螳螂Ranatra sp.之體型、發育時間、存活率、繁殖率、飢餓下的存活時間及捕食功能反應等生物學特性,以供天敵昆蟲生態及防治蚊子研究之參考。本研究之斑節水螳螂,在2000年於屏東地區採集,由陳萍萍博士鑑定疑為新發現種並加以命名為Ranatra incisa 但還未發表。首先,在恆溫箱15℃、20℃、25℃、30℃四種溫度下,以家蚊屬(Culex spp.)幼蟲飼育,卵期除15℃下,卵無法順利孵化外,在20℃下最長,達21.94±0.72天,在30℃下最短為7.0±0天,若蟲期,在20℃下,一齡若蟲無法進入二齡蟲期,在30℃下最短為25.67±0.69天,25℃下最長達31.77±0.69天。

比較斑節水螳螂的日齡別存活率,在25℃及30℃的雌、雄成蟲皆無太大差異,若蟲在孵化後的20天內死亡率最高,將同一溫度的雌雄蟲合併一起比較,30℃的班水螳螂存活期明顯較25℃的為長,斑節水螳螂雌蟲30℃下的生殖期要比25℃長,30℃下日齡別生殖率較穩定,而25℃下的日齡別生殖率起伏落差較大。

成蟲經過10天的正常供給食物(每日供給60-70隻孑孓)後再予以飢餓,則25℃下雌成蟲平均耐飢餓日數為51.7±9.0日,雄成蟲為47.7±11.0日,30℃下雌成蟲為30±5.0日,雄成蟲為23±7.0日。

30℃下成蟲食餌捕食量高於25℃,但同溫之下食餌捕食量則隨密度的增加而上升,在30℃下,成蟲在配對繁殖前,經24小時供給食餌後,在最低食餌密度為1隻時,雌蟲捕食率為94.7%,雄蟲為100%,在最高食餌密度為128隻時,雌蟲捕食率為56.4%,雄蟲為59.9%,呈第 II 型功能反應。

在30℃下,斑節水螳螂成蟲生殖前期平均每隻每日可捕食家蚊幼蟲(4-5齡期)74.3±15.8隻,相較於大肚魚(Gambusia affinis Baird and Givard)每日44.0隻、孔雀魚(Poecilia reticulate Peters)每日41.8隻高出甚多,顯示斑節水螳螂對蚊科之幼蟲防治潛力相當高。

關鍵字:蠍蝽科、水螳螂、發育、存活、繁殖、功能反應

Abstract

The biology of Ranatra sp. (Hemiptera: Nepidae) including body size, development time, survival rate, fecundity, durable time of starvation, and predaceous functional response was investigated in this study. The individuals of R. incisa identified and published as a new species by Dr. Ping-Ping Chen were collected in Ping-tung area at 2000. The development of Ranatra sp. were studied at 15℃, 20℃, 25℃, and 30℃ respectively by feeding the larvae of Culex spp. as food. All eggs failed to hatch at 15℃, and the 1st instar could not developing into 2nd at 20℃ instar. The egg period is 21.94±0.72days at 20℃, and 7.00±0.00 days at 30℃. The time spands in nymphal stages totally were 25.67±0.69 days at 30℃, and 31.77±0.69 days at 25℃ respectively.

Starvation treatment after fed (60-70 larvae Culex spp. each day) for 10 days, the adult durable time of starvation was 30±5.0 days for females and 23±7.0 days for male at 30℃; 51.7±9.0 days for females and 47.7±11.0 days for males at 25℃, respectively.

The age-specific survival rate curves of males and females similar to each other. The mortality increased within 20 days after egg hatched. The adult survival time at 30℃ was longer than that at 25℃. At 30℃ the reproductive was happened (observed) earlier and the period longer than that at 25℃. However, their age-specific fecundity rate curves were similar. The prey consumption of adult at 30℃ was higher than that at 25℃. However, the prey consumption of adult repides increased along with the increasing prey density at the same temperature. The percentages of preys killed by unpaired adults were 100% and 94.7% at prey density 1 ind/cup; 59.9﹪and 56.4﹪at prey density 128 ind/cup, respectively. According to the analysis, it is recognized as type II function response.



One unpaired adults of Ranatra sp. could eat (4th or 5th instar larvae of Culex spp.) 74.3±15.8 ind/day. Compare to both Gambusia affinis (Baird and Givard)(44.0) and Poecilia reticulate (Peters)(41.8) and that Ranatra sp. has high potential for controling mosquito ADP. in the fielol.

Key words:Nepidae, Water walking stick, development, survival, fecundity, functional response.






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