Rajiv gandhi university of health sciences




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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL,PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES ON

BARK OF

Ficus religiosa Linn
SYNOPSIS FOR
M.PHARM DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED TO

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES

BY
SAPNA M. NAKRANI

Department of Pharmacognosy


THE OXFORD COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
BANGALORE-78

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE

ANNEXURE-II

PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR DISSERTATION


1.

Name of the candidate and Address

Sapna M. Nakrani


The Oxford College of Pharmacy,

J.P. Nagar, Ist Phase,

Bangalore-560078.
PERMANENT ADDRESS:

52, Kalyan society,

Karamsad vidyanagar road,

Near shramjivi society,

Vallabh vidyanagar-388120

Gujrat.


2.

Name of the Institution

The Oxford College of Pharmacy, J.P.Nagar, Ist Phase,

Bangalore-560078.



3.

Course of study and subject

M.Pharma, Pharmacognosy




4.

Date of Admission

5th July 2007



5.

Title of the Topic

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL,PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES ON BARK OF Ficus religiosa Linn.






6.




Brief resume of the intended work:
6.1- Need for the study:

Ficus religiosa bark also known as Peepal, belongs to the family Moraceae. It is widely distributed in India- sub Himalaya forest, Bihar, Orissa, and West Bengal.

Ficus religiosa leaves contain proteins and amino acids1. Bark contains Bergaptan, bergaptol1, sterols, terpenoids, coumarins2 and tannins3.

The plant is recommended for anti-inflammatory and astringent activity1. Methanolic extract of stem bark showed acetylcholinstearase inhibitory effect4. Fruit extract of Ficus religiosa was found to be anti-tumor and antibacterial5. The plant also showed hypolipidaemic activity­6 and FER effect7. Research work was carried out for the removal of fluoride ion from fluorinated water by using bioadsorbants prepared from leaf of Ficus religiosa8.

Although a lot of emphasis has been done on the pharmacological activities, very less work has done with respect to Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on the bark of Ficus religiosa.

Therefore the aim of the present study is to carry out Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical studies of barks Ficus religiosa, and in vitro antioxidant activity of extracts / isolated compound




6.2 – Review of Literature:



  • The compounds isolated from Ficus species and biological activities of their extracts has been reported since many years, and the compounds isolated include coumarins, flavanoids, Anthocyanins,alkaloids, terpenoids,sterols and alkenes alkanols2.

  • The bark of Ficus religiosa were analysed for nitrogen solubility. Total phenolics, protein fraction, hydrolysable tannins, condensed tannins and in sacco dry matter digestibility (DMD) of free fodder3.

  • Methanolic and aqueous extract of stem bark of Ficus religiosa showed acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). The result indicated that methanolic extract to be more active with IC(50) value of 73.69 μg/ml than water extract4.

  • The fruit extract of various species Ficus were screened for bioactivity, where Ficus religiosa showed activity in the brine shrimp test (Artenia salina) which indicates toxicity. All the fruit extract also exhibited antitumor activity in the potato disc bioassay and, antibacterial activity5.

  • The comparative study of dietary fibers from the plant, Ficus religiosa predominating constituent cellulose and lignin, fed at the 10% dietary level to rats, induced of grater resistance to hyperlipidemia than cellulose. Dietary hemicellulose showed a significant negative correlation with serum and liver cholesterol and showed significant positive correlation with fecal bile acids.6


  • The isoproteinous diet containing 1% cholesterol and 10% fibres derived from plant (include Ficus religiosa) were fed to rats for 40 days. Effected on feed intake, weight gain, dry matter digestivity (DMD), true protein digestibility and feed efficiency ratio (FER) in weanling rats were reported.7

  • The research work was carried out for the removal of fluoride ion from fluorinated water by process of bio-adsorption using low cost bioadsorbants prepared from the leaf powder of Ficus religiosa8.

7.



6.3 - Objective of the Study:
The objective of the present studies is to collect the drug i.e. (Bark of Ficus religoisa) from CCRAS Bangalore and to carry out the pharmacognostical studies, extraction (Maceration / Soxhlet method) and isolation of the phytoconstituents from selected extract, based on phytochemical screening. And further characterization of isolated compounds by spectral analysis(UV,IR and NMR spectroscopy).The different extracts and / or isolated compounds would be studied for in vitro antioxidant activity( By using DPPH and Superoxide radical method).

Materials and Methods:

7.1 a) Source of Data:


Search on Medline and other Journals from The Oxford College of Pharmacy, RGUHS-Digital library.

b) Place of work: The Oxford College of Pharmacy, Bangalore.

7.2 Method of Collection of Data:


  • Collection - Authenticated samples of bark of Ficus religiosa from CCRAS, Bangalore.

  • Pharmacognostical study – T.S. and powder analysis for bark sample.

  • Extraction - Extracts of the drugs will be prepared using different solvents by maceration or by soxhlet method.

  • Isolation – Isolation of phytoconstituents will be done by using column chromatography or by fractionation method.

  • Identification and characterization - The isolated compounds will be identified using analytical methods like IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  • Anti-oxidant activity – The extracts and / or isolated compounds will be studied in vitro for antioxidant activity by DPPH method9 / superoxide radical method10.

7.3 - Does the study require any investigations or inventions to be

conducted on patients or other humans or animals?

If so, please describe briefly.

- Not applicable -

7.4 - Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in

case of 7.3?
- Not applicable -











Bibliography:

  1. Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda vol.3. Central council for research in Ayurveda and Siddha.

  2. Khan MSY, Javed K. Chemistry and Biological activities of the genus Ficus Medicinal and Aromatic plants abstracts,1999;21(3):377.

  3. Sharma RK, Singh B, Bhat TK. Nitrogen solubility, protein fraction, tannin and in sacco dry matter digestability of tree fodder of Shiwalik range. Ind J Animal Nutr. 2000; 17(1):1-7.

  4. Vinutha B, Prashanth D, Salma K, Sreeja SL, Pratiti D, Padmaja R et. al. Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinestearase inhibitory activity. J Ethanopharmacol 2007; 109(2):359-63.

  5. Mousa O, Vuokela P, Kiviranta J, Wahab SA, Hiltunen R, Vuorela H. Bioactivity of certain Egyptian Ficus species. J Ethanopharmacol 1994;41(1-2):71.

  6. Agarwal V, Chauhan BM. A study on composition and hypolipideamic effect of dietary fibers from some plant foods. Plant Foods Human Nutrition. 1988; 38(2):189-97.

  7. Agarwal V, Chauhan BM. Effect of feeding some plant foods as source of dietary fiber on biological utilization of diet in rats. Plant Foods Human Nutrition. 1989; 39(2):161-7.

  8. Jamode AV, Sapkal VS, Iamode VS, Sapkal RS. Bioadsorbants preapered from leaf powder of various plant for biosorption of fluoride from water. International Confrence on Modern Trends in Plant Science with special refrence to the role of Biodiverisity in Conservation, Amravati, MH. 2005; 88.

  9. Vani T, Rajani M, Sarkar S, Shishoo C. Antioxidant properties of the Ayurvedic formulation Triphla and its constituents. Int J Pharmacognosy. 1997;35(5):313-7.

  10. Beauchamp C, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase : Improved assays and an assays applicable to acrylamide gels. Anal Biochem. 1971; 44:276-7.




9.


Signature of Candidate




10.

Remarks of the Guide


Recommended




11.

11.1 Name and Designation of Guide

Mrs.Usha Gavani

Asst.Professor

Department of Pharmacognosy







11.2 Signature








11.3 Co-Guide

_





11.4 Signature

_





11.5 Head of the Department

Dr. Padmaa M. Paarakh


Professor and Head

Department of Pharmacognosy






11.6 Signature


12.

12.1 Remarks of the Chairman and

Principal



Forwarded to the University for scrutiny





12.2 Signature

Dr. Padmaa M. Paarakh

Principal

The Oxford College of Pharmacy,



J.P.Nagar, Ist Phase, Bangalore – 78.


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