: EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC & ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SOLANUM MELONGENA LINN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
Brief resume of the intended work
6.1 Need for study: Pain is an unpleasant sensation and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage.(1) The pathophysiology of pain involves two components, peripheral nociception & central mechanism. There are two main classes of pain – integumental pain & visceral pain.(2) Pain is an unpleasant sensation , but on the whole it is usually beneficial to man (or animal). It is mainly a protective mechanism for the body, occurs in the individual to react and to remove the pain stimulus.(3)
Inflammation is a normal, protective response to tissue injury caused by physical trauma, noxious chemicals, or microbiologic agents. Inflammation is the bodies efforts to inactivate or destroy invading organism, remove irritants and set the stage for tissue repair. When healing is complete, the inflammatory process usually subsides.(4)
With the easy availability of the analgesic & anti inflammatory drugs we are facing a new era of people presenting with symptoms of analgesic abuse. With the development of more and more synthetic drugs which have their unique adverse effects, it is high time that attention should be turned to the possible remedies that may be found among indigenous herbal plants. This has accelerated the global effort to harvest those medicinal plants that have substantial beneficial effects with least adverse effects.
Solanum melongena (Brinjal) has been used in the Indian medicine. Various parts of the plant are useful in the treatment of inflammatory condition, cardiac debility, neuralgia, ulcers of the nose, cholera, bronchitis, and asthma.(6) Solanum melongena is also having other activities like Antioxidant,(7) Analgesic & Antipyretic,(6) Hypolipidemic,(8) CNS depressant(10) activities which have been reported.
Habitat: Solanum melongena is a species of solanum. It is cultivated throughout India. The plant is an erect or suffrutescent , herbaceous, armed or nonarmed, perennial. Leaves are simple , large, entirelobed. Flowers are blue in clusters of 2-5. The fruits are large , white, yellow, green, or dark purple berries of different shapes capped with thick calyx, and contains many seeds. Seeds are yellow or cream coloured, discoid in shape.(5)
Constituents: The leaves contains flavinoids, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids.(6) Crown of fruit contains alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols, fats & oils, tannins, flavinoids, proteins, and carbohydrates.(11)
Properties and medicinal uses: Its medicinal properties are testified in various scriptures. Roots, leaves, & unripe fruits are having medicinal uses. The roots are laxatives, analgesics, cardiotonic, & are useful in inflammation, neuralgia, cardiac debility, & ulcer nose. The leaves are sialagogue, narcotic, anti herpetic, and are useful in cholera, bronchitis , asthma, odontalgia, & fever. Unripe fruits are bitter, acrid, sweet, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, & haematinic.(5) Various parts of the plants are having hypolipidemic,(7) CNS depressant,(9) antioxidant (10) actions.
This plant is having analgesic,anti inflammatory property due to the presence of alkaloids, flavinoids, tannins, and steroids.(6)
The extracts of Solanum melongena will be used for the present study with the following objectives
To evaluate the analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn in experimental animals
To evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn in experimental animals
Materials and methods
source of data
The data will be collected from animal experiments and the various parameters will be considered for the study. The methods employed in this study are a. Evaluation of analgesic activity by -Inducing writhing by giving Intra peritoneal injection of Acetic acid 0.7% in mice (10ml/kg) (peripheral analgesic activity). (6) -Using tail flicking method in rats (central analgesic activity).(12)b. Evaluation of anti inflammatory activity by -Measuring paw edema induced by 0.05ml of 1% carrageenan in normal saline solution in 0.2M carbonate buffer intra dermal injection on the plantar aspect of the hind paw in rats, using plethysmometer(acute).(13)
For analgesic experiments the animals will be divided into: -For acetic acid induced writhing test: GroupI : Control mice will be treated with 0.5ml of normal saline GroupII : Standard mice will be treated with aspirin 10mg/kg body Weight.(14) GroupIII : Mice will be treated with extract of Solanum melongena Linn. GroupIV : Mice will be treated with extract of Solanum melongena Linn. GroupV : Mice will be treated with extract of Solanum melongena Linn. -For tail flicking method: GroupI : Control rats will be treated with 0.5ml of normal saline. GroupII : Standard rats will be treated with aspirin 100mg/kg body weight(15). GroupIII : Rats will be treated with extract of Solanum melongena Linn . GroupIV : Rats will be treated with extract of Solanum melongena Linn. GroupV : Rats will be treated with extract of Solanum melongena Linn For anti inflammatory experiments: -Carrageenan induced paw edema: Group l : control rats will be treated with 0.5ml of normal saline. Group ll : Standard rats will be treated with aspirin 100mg/kg body –weight(15). Grouplll : Rats will be treated with extract of Solanum Melongena Linn. Group lV : Rats will be treated with extract of Solanum Melongena Linn. Group V : Rats will be treated with extract of Solanum MelongenaLinn. Materials: Animals : 33 swiss albino mice of either sex , 60 wistar albino rats of either sex Drugs : Normal saline, Aspirin, 0.7% Acetic acid, 1% Carrageenan. Herbs : Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Instruments : Analgesiometer, Plethysmometer, Insulin syringe, Beaker, Glass jars, Stop watch, Glass rod, Marking pen.
7.2 Methods of collection of Data (including sampling procedure, if any):
A. For evaluation of Analgesic activity:
a. Acetic acid induced writhing: 30 albino mice of either sex weighing 25-30gm will be randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each. Group I will receive Normal saline(0.5ml), group II will receive Aspirin (10 mg/kg b. w)(14), Group III, IV, V will receive different dosages of aqueous extract of S.melongena leaves intra peritoneally. All animals will receive intra peritoneal injections of 0.7% acetic acid(10ml/kg). Number of writhings will be counted in between 5 & 20 min after acetic acid injection.
b. Tail flicking method: 30 albino rats of either sex weighing 150-200gms will be randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each. Group I will receive Normal saline (o.5ml), Group II will receive Aspirin (100mg/kg b. w)(15), Group III, IV, V will receive aqueous extract different dosages of S.melongena leaves Intra peritoneally. Tail flicking method will be analysed by using analgesiometer.
B. For Anti inflammatory experiments:
a. Carrageenon induced paw edema: 30 albino rats of either sex weighing 150-200 gms will be randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each. Group l will receive Normal saline (o.5ml), Group II will receive Aspirin (100mg/kg b. w)(15), Group III, lV, V will receive aqueous extract different dosages of S.melongena leaves Intra peritoneally. All the animals will receive 0.05ml of 1% carrageenan in normal saline solution in 0.2M carbonate buffer injection intradermally in the planter aspect of the hind paw ½ hr after the drug treatment. The paw edema will be measured by using plethysmometer, 1hr, 3hr, 5hrly after Carrageenan injection.
Statistical Evaluation: The collected data will be Evaluated by one way ANOVA followed by Newmann Keul’s Post Hac Test
7.3 Does the study require any investigation or intervention to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals? If so please describe briefly.
- Yes , the above study requires investigation to be carried out in albino rats & albino mice by adopting the terms prescribed by CPCSEA guidelines.
7.4 Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.4?
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Signature of the Candidate
Remarks of the Guide: Drugs used to reduce pain and inflammation are having more adverse effects like gastric irritation (NSAIDS), Na and water retention (steroids) , drug dependence (opoid analgesics) along with abuse liabilities. So this becomes necessary to find a drug which is more effective with minimum side effects from naturally available plant sources.
Hence one such approach for the search of an effective and safer drug from the extract of Solanum melongena has been under taken.