Pteridophytes




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List of plant species occurring at Baker Prairie Natural Area - Updated 21 September 2011 - 257 taxa.
Scientific name Common name Strata Freq. Habitat Sources
PTERIDOPHYTES
Dennstaedtiaceae

Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern herb 2 A, C, D 1
Ophioglossaceae

Botrychium dissectum var. obliquum oblique grapefern herb 1 D 1
GYMNOSPERMS
Cupressaceae

Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana eastern red cedar tree, sap, shrub 3 A, C, D 2
Pinaceae

Pinus taeda * # loblolly pine sap 1 C, D 5
ANGIOSPERMS – Magnoliopsida (Dicots)
Acanthaceae

Ruellia humilis var. humilis fringeleaf petunia herb 4 A 1

Ruellia strepens limestone wild petunia herb 8
Aceraceae

Acer rubrum red maple sap, shrub 1 A 9
Anacardiaceae

Rhus aromatica fragrant sumac shrub 2 D 5

Rhus copallina winged sumac shrub 3 A 9

Rhus glabra smooth sumac shrub 3 A, B, C, D 3

Toxicodendron radicans eastern poison ivy vine, shrub 4 D, E 2
Apiaceae

Daucus carota * Queen Anne’s lace herb 4 A, D 1

Eryngium yuccifolium rattlesnake master herb 3 A 2

Osmorhiza longistylis sweet anise herb 1 D 5

Polytaenia nuttallii Nuttall's prairie parsley herb 3 A 1

Thaspium trifoliatum meadow parsnip herb 1 B 1

Zizia aptera meadow Alexanders herb __ __ 2

Zizia aurea golden Alexanders herb 4 A, B 2
Apocynaceae

Apocynum cannabinum hemp dogbane herb 4 A, C 1
Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia reticulata hairy Dutchman’s pipe herb 2 D 1
Asclepiaceae

Asclepias amplexicaulis clasping milkweed herb 1 A 1

Asclepias syriaca common milkweed herb 2 A, C 2

Asclepias tuberosa butterfly weed herb 2 A 1

Asclepias verticillata whorled milkweed herb 2 A 1

Asclepias viridiflora green comet milkweed herb 3 A, C, D 1
Asteraceae

Achillea millefolium common yarrow herb 3 A, C, D 1

Ambrosia artemisiifolia annual ragweed herb 8

Ambrosia bidentata lanceleaf ragweed herb 4 A 10

Antennaria neglecta field pussytoes herb 4 A, C 8

Antennaria plantaginifolia woman's tobacco herb 5 A, C 1

Artemisia annua sweet wormwood herb 1 __ 2

Astranthium ciliatum western daisy herb 2 A 1

Berlandiera betinicifolia Texas greeneyes herb 4 A, B 1

Brickellia eupatorioides false boneset herb 4 A, C 1

Centaurea stoebe subsp. micrantha * spotted knapweed hewrb 2 F 12

Conyza canadensis horseweed herb 2 A 10

Scientific name Common name Strata Freq. Habitat Sources

Coreopsis palmata stiff tickseed herb 5 A, B, C 1

Echinacea pallida pale-purple coneflower herb 4 A 1

Erigeron annuus eastern fleabane herb 4 A, C 3

Erigeron strigosus rough fleabane herb 4 A, C 1

Helenium autumnale common sneezeweed herb 4 A, B, C 2

Helianthus atrorubens rosinweed sunflower herb 2 B 1

Helianthus mollis ashy sunflower herb 5 A, C 1

Helianthus occidentalis western sunflower herb 3 A 1

Hieracium longipilum hairy hawkweed herb 3 A 1

Ionactis linariifolius flaxleaf whitetop aster herb 1

Krigia biflora twin-flowered dwarf dandelion herb 3 A 2

Leucanthemum vulgare * ox-eye daisy herb 4 A, C 1

Liatris aspera tall blazingstar herb 4 A 1

Liatris pycnostachya prairie button blazingstar herb 3 B 1

Packera aurea golden ragwort herb 2 B 2

Packera glabella butterweed herb 2 A 9

Parthenium integrifolium wild quinine herb 3 A 2

Prenanthes aspera rough rattlesnake root herb 1 A 1

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium sweet everlasting herb 5 A, B, C 1

Rudbeckia hirta black-eyed Susan herb 5 A, C 1

Silphium integrifolium rosin-weed herb 5 A, B, D 1

Silphium laciniatum compass plant herb 5 A, B, C 1

Solidago altissimas Canada goldenrod herb 4 A, C 4

Solidago gigantea giant goldenrod herb 3 B, C 4

Solidago nemoralis old field goldenrod herb 4 A, C 4

Solidago odora fragrant goldenrod herb 8

Solidago radula western rough goldenrod herb 8

Solidago rigida stiff goldenrod herb 5 A, C 1

Solidago speciosa showy goldenrod herb 4 A, C 1

Symphyotrichum anomalum manray aster herb 1 A 2

Symphyotrichum ericoides subsp. ericoides heath aster herb 2 C 6

Symphyotrichum oolentagiensis azure aster herb 1 A 9

Symphyotrichum patens late purple aster herb 5 A, C 1

Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pilosum hairy white oldfield aster herb 5 A, B, C 2

Symphyotrichum sericeum western silky aster herb 4 A, B 1

Symphyotrichum turbinellum smooth violet prairie aster herb __ __ 1

Taraxacum officinale * common dandelion herb 3 C 3

Tragopogon dubius * goat’s beard herb 3 A 1

Verbesina helianthoides gravelbeard herb 3 A, B 1

Verbesina virginica white crown-beard herb 8

Vernonia baldwinii Baldwin's ironweed herb 5 A, B, C 1
Berberidaceae

Podophyllum peltatum May apple herb 3 D 5
Bignonaceae

Bignonia capreolata crossvine herb 1 D 10
Boraginaceae

Lithospermum canescens orange puccoon herb 2 A 1
Brassicaceae

Barbarea vulgaris * garden yellowrocket herb 3 A, B, C, E 5

Lepidium campestre * field pepper weed herb 3 B, C 1
Campanulaceae

Lobelia spicata highbelia herb 4 A, B, C 1

Triodanis perfoliata var. perfoliata round-leaved Venus’ looking glass herb 3 A, B, C 2
Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera japonica * Japanese honeysuckle herb 3 D, E 5

Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis common elderberry shrub 2 B, E 5

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus coralberry shrub 2 D 5
Caryophyllaceae

Dianthus armeria * deptford pink herb 2 A, C 1

Silene regia royal campion herb 1 A, D 1
Scientific name Common name Strata Freq. Habitat Sources
Celtidaceae

Celtis occidentalis western hackberry tree, sap 3 D 5
Clusiaceae

Hypericum perforatum common St. John’s wort herb 3 A, C 1
Convolvulaceae

Convolvulus arevnsis * field bindweed herb __ __ 2

Ipomoea sp. morning glory herb 1 A 9
Cornaceae

Cornus drummondii rough-leaved dogwood shrub 3 D 5

Cornus florida flowering dogwood sap, shrub 2 D 5
Cuscutaceae

Cuscuta sp. dodder herb 2 B, D 1
Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia corollata flowering spurge herb 4 A, C 1

Croton glandulosa var. sepentrionalis tropic croton herb 3 A 12

Croton capitatus hogwort herb 3 A 10

Tragia cordata vine noseburn herb 1 A 1
Fabaceae

Albizia julibrissin * silktree sap 1 C 7

Astragalus crassicarpus var. trichocalyx ground plum milkvetch herb 2 A 1

Baptisia bracteata var. leucophaea long-bracted wild indigo herb 3 A, B, C 1

Cercis canadensis eastern red bud sap, shrub 2 D 5

Dalea candida white prairie clover herb 1 A 1

Dalea purpurea purple prairie clover herb 4 A, C 1

Desmodium canescens hoary tick trefoil herb __ __ 2

Desmodium ciliare tick trefoil herb 3 A 9

Desmodium sessilifolium sessileleaf tick trefoil herb 2 A 1

Galactia regularis milk pea herb 2 A 9

Gleditsia tricanthos honey locust tree, sap, shrub 2 D 5

Kummerowia striata * Japanese bushclover herb 1 A 9

Lespedeza capitata round-head bushclover herb 3 A, B 1

Lespedeza cuneata * Asian bushclover herb 3 C, D 2

Lespedeza virginica slender bushclover herb 2 A 7

Medicago lupulina * black medic herb 5 A, D 2

Mimosa quadrivalis var. nuttallii sensitive brier herb 2 A 1

Robinia pseudoacacia black locust sap, shrub 2 D 5

Stylosanthes biflora sidebeak pencilflower herb 3 A, C 1

Tephrosia virginiana Virginia goatsrue herb 4 A 1

Trifolium campestre * field clover herb 1 A, C 5

Trifolium pratense * red clover herb 3 B, C 2
Fagaceae

Quercus falcata southern red oak tree, sap 2 C, D 7

Quercus stellata post oak tree, sap 2 A, D 5
Gentianaceae

Gentiana puberulenta downy gentian herb 2 A 1

Sabatia angularis winged rosepink herb 3 A, B 1
Geraniaceae

Geranium carolineanum Carolina cranesbill herb 4 A, B, C 5
Grossulariaceae

Ribes missouriense Missouri gooseberry shrub 2 D 5
Lamiaceae

Lamium purpureum * purple deadnettle herb 4 C, D 5

Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa wild bergamot herb 3 A, B 1

Physostegia virginiana obedient plant herb 2 B 1

Prunella vulgaris subsp. lanceolata heal-all herb 4 A, B, C 1

Pycnanthemum albescens whiteleaf mountain mint herb 2 A, B 3

Scientific name Common name Strata Freq. Habitat Sources

Pycnanthemum tenuifolium slender mountain mint herb 4 A, B, C 1

Salvia azurea pitcher sage herb 4 A 1

Salvia lyrata lyreleaf sage herb 2 A, C 3

Teucrim canadense var. canadense Canada wood sage herb 1 B, D 1
Linaceae

Linum sulcatum grooved flax herb 2 A, C 1
Lauraceae

Sassafras albidum sassafras sap, shrub 4 A, B, C, D 5
Malvaceae

Callirhoe digitata var. digitata wine cup herb 3 A 1
Moraceae

Maclura pomifera * osage orange tree, sap, shrub 3 D 5

Morus rubra red mulberry sap, shrub 2 D 5
Onagraceae

Oenothera fruticosa narrowleaf evening primrose herb __ __ 1
Oxalidaceae

Oxalis stricta violet wood sorrel herb 2 D 1
Passifloraceae

Passiflora lutea yellow passion flower herb 8
Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca americana American pokeweed herb 2 B, C, D 5
Plantaginaceae

Plantago lanceolata * English plantain herb 3 C 3
Polemoniaceae

Phlox divaricata subsp. laphamii Lapham’s blue phlox herb 1 D 3

Phlox pilosa subsp. pilosa downy phlox herb 2 A 1
Polygalaceae

Polygala sanguinea purple milkwort herb 4 A 1
Polygonaceae

Rumex acetosella * common redsorrel herb 1 E 3
Portulaceae

Claytonia virginiana Virginia spring beauty herb 3 A, C 1
Primulaceae

Dodecatheon meadia Mead's shooting star herb 3 A, B 1

Lysimachia lanceolata var. lanceolata lance-leaf loosestrife herb 2 B, D 1
Ranunulaceae

Anemone caroliniana Carolina thimbleweed herb 2 B 1

Anemone virginiana tall thimbleweed herb 2 B 1

Delphinium carolinianum Carolina larkspur herb 2 A 1

Enemion biternatum eastern false rue-anemone herb 4 A, B 1

Ranunculus fascicularis early buttercup herb 5 A, B 1

Ranunculus micranthus rock crowfoot herb 2 A 5

Thalictrum thalictroides meadow rue herb __ __ 3
Rhamnaceae

Berchemia scandens rattan vine woody vine 1 D 10

Ceanothus americanus New Jersey tea herb 2 A, D 1
Rosaceae

Aphanes microcarpa * ladysmantle herb 1 A 9

Fragaria virginiana Virginia strawberry herb 5 A, B, C 1

Geum canadense white avens herb 2 D 5

Potentilla arguta prairie cinquefoil herb 2 A 11

Potentilla recta rough-fruited cinquefoil herb 2 A, C 1

Scientific name Common name Strata Freq. Habitat Sources

Potentilla simplex old-field cinquefoil herb 2 A, C 1

Prunus mexicana Mexican plum sap, shrub 1 D 5

Prunus serotina black cherry tree, sap, shrub 3 D 2

Pyrus calleryana * Bradford pear tree,sap 1 C 12

Rosa carolina/arkansana? Carolina rose shrub 5 A 1

Rosa setigera climbing rose shrub 2 A 1

Rubus flagellaris northern dewberry shrub 2 D 5

Rubus trivialis southern dewberry shrub 3 A, B, C, D 5
Rubiaceae

Galium aparine catchweed bedstraw herb 2 D 5

Galium pilosum hairy bedstraw herb 2 A 1

Galium virgatum southwest bedstraw herb 1 A 9

Hedyotis crassifolia star violet herb 4 A, B 1

Hedyotis purpurea mountain bluet herb __

Sherardia arvensis * blue field madder herb 2 B, C 1
Salicaceae

Salix humilis prairie willow shrub 1 A 1
Santalaceae

Commandra umbellata subsp. umbellata bastard toadflax herb 5 A, B, C 1
Scrophulariaceae

Buchnera americana American blue hearts herb 2 A, D 1

Castilleja coccinea scarlet Indian paintbrush herb 3 A 1

Nuttallanthus Canadensis/texanac Carolina blue toadflax herb 2

Pedicularis canadensis Canada lousewort herb 2 A, C 1

Penstemon digitalis smooth beardtongue herb 4 A 2

Penstemon tubiflorus whitewand beardtongue herb 3 A 1

Veronicastrum virginicum Virginia Culver’s root herb 1 B 1
Solanaceae

Physalis virginiana Virginia groundcherry herb 3 A 3

Solanum sp. horsenettle herb __ __ 2
Ulmaceae

Ulmus alata winged elm shrub, sap 2 D 7

Ulmus americana American elm tree, sap 2 D, E 5
Valerianaceae

Valerianella nuttallii Nuttall's corn salad herb 2 __ 1

Valerianella radiata beaked corn salad herb 5 A, B, C 3
Verbenaceae

Glandularia canadensis rose mock vervain herb 3 A, C 3
Vitaceae

Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper woody vine 3 D 5

Vitis cinerea graybark grape woody vine 3 D, E 2
Violaceae

Viola bicolor Johnny-jump-up herb 2 A, C 2

Viola pedata bird’s-foot violet herb 3 A 1

Viola pedatifida prairie violet herb 2 A 1

Viola sagittata arrow-leaved violet herb 4 A, B 1

Viola sororia var. sororia woolly blue violet herb 2 A 5
ANGIOSPERMS – Liliopsida (Monocots)
Agavaceae

Camassia scilloides Atlantic camus herb 3 B 1
Alliaceae

Allium canadense var. canadense meadow garlic herb 4 A, B, C 2

Allium vineale * domestic onion herb 3 A, B, C 3

Nothoscordum bivalve wild garlic herb 4 A, B, C 1
Scientific name Common name Strata Freq. Habitat Sources
Commelinaceae

Tradescantia ohiensis smooth spiderwort herb 3 A, B 1
Cyperaceae

Carex blanda eastern woodland caric sedge herb 3 D 5

Carex bicknellii caric sedge herb 2 B 11

Carex gravida heavy sedge herb 2 B 11

Carex meadii Mead's caric sedge herb 3 A 5

Scleria oligantha littleflower nutsedge herb 4 A 2
Hypoxidaceae

Hypoxis hirsuta hairy yellow star grass herb 3 A 1
Iridaceae

Nemastylis nuttallii Nuttall’s pleatleaf herb 1 D 1

Sisyrinchium albidum white blue-eyed grass herb 4 A, B 1
Juncaceae

Juncus sp. rush herb __ E 2

Luzula bulbosa bulbous woodrush herb 4 A, B, C 3
Liliaceae

Erythronium albidum white trout lily herb 2 A, D 1

Erythromium mesochoreum prairie trout lily herb 2 A 11
Melanthiaceae

Trillium pusillum var. ozarkanum Ozark wake robin herb 2 A 1
Orchidaceae

Calopogon oklahomensis tuberous grass pink herb 1 B 2

Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis southern slender ladies’ tresses herb 2 A 1
Poaceae

Agrostis hyemalis winter bentgrass herb 2 B, C 2

Andropogon gerardii big bluestem herb 3 A, B 1

Andropogon gyrans var. gyrans Elliott’s bluestem herb 3 A 1

Andropogon ternarius split-beard bluestem herb 2 C 2

Andropogon virginicus broomsedge bluestem herb 4 A, B, C 2

Aristida purpurascens arrowfeather three-awngrass herb 3 A, C 7

Bromus inermis * bromegrass herb __ __ 2

Danthonia spicata poverty oatgrass herb 2 A, D 2

Dichanthelium acuminatum hairy panicgrass herb 4 A 9

Dichanthelium commutatum variable panicgrass herb 2 A 9

Dichanthelium oligosanthes Scribner's rosettegrass herb 3 A,C 2

Digitaria cognata Carolina crabgrass herb __ __ 2

Digitaria sanguinalis * hairy crabgrass herb 3 C 2

Elymus canadensis Canada wild rye herb 2 A 2

Elymus villosus hairy wild rye herb 3 D 5

Eragrostis spectabilis purple lovegrass herb 3 A, C 2

Hordeum pusillum * little barley herb 3 A, C 2

Koelaria macrantha prairie June grass herb 2 A 10

Panicum anceps beaked panicgrass herb 4 A, B, C 2

Panicum virgatum switchgrass herb 5 A, B, C 1

Paspalum setaceum thin paspalum herb 3 A 10

Poa pratensis * Kentucky bluegrass herb 3 A, C 2

Schedonorus arundinaceas * tall fescue herb 5 A, B, C, D 2

Schizachyrium scoparium little bluestem herb 5 A, B, C 2

Setaria pumila * yellow bristlegrass herb 4 A, B, C 2

Setaria parviflora marsh bristlegrass herb 4 A, B, C 4

Sorghastrum nutans Indian grass herb 5 A, B, C 1

Sporobolus clandestinus hidden dropseed herb 2 A 10

Sporobolus heterolepis prairie dropseed herb 3 A, C 7

Tridens flavus var. flavus tall purpletop herb 3 A, C 2

Tridens strictus narrow redtop herb 2 A, C 7

Tripsacum dactyloides eastern gamagrass herb 3 A, B, C 1

* = non-native species (28/257 = 10.9-%)

# = extirpated
Strata

tree: > 5 in dbh and > 20 ft tall

sapling: 0.4 to < 5 in dbh and > 20 ft tall

shrub: usually 3 to 20 ft tall; multi-stemmed, brushy shrubs small trees and saplings

woody vine: vines that are woody

herb: graminoids, forbs, ferns, fern allies, herbaceous vines, tree seedlings


Habitat Frequency

A = Dry - mesic prairie 5 = abundant

B = Mesic prairie (drainages) 4 = common

C = Successional old field 3 = occasional

D = Fencerows/woodland 2 = infrequent

E = Pond 1 = rare

F = Ruderal
Sources

1 = Bill Shepherd, 16 August 1994.

2 = Doug Ladd, 13 October 1995.

3 = Burnetta Hintertheur and Scott Simon, 21 May 1997.

4 = Scott Simon and Cheryl Satterfield, 29 August 1997.

5 = Scott Simon and Page Shurgar, 19 April 21 1999.

6 = Old field monitoring, June 1999.

7 = D. Zollner and Scott Simon, 5 and 8 October 2001 burn.

8 = Scott Simon, early 2002.

9 = Monitoring west side, 27 August 2002.

10 = Monitoring, 11-13 August 2004.

11 = Theo Witsell inventory and monitoring 2006.



12 = Jason Milks, Mike Melnechuk, and D. Zollner September 2011 monitoring.
Nomenclature according to: Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Arkansas. Arkansas Vascular Flora Committee, 2006.





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