|Proposed Grammar of Folksprak
I. Alphabet and Orthography
A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V Y
Consonants: B, D, H, K, L, M, N, P, S, T, V as in English. F as in English “fish”. G as in English “go”, never as in English “age”. J as in German J or English Y.
Vowels: Vowels are pronounced either long or short. A vowel is long when it is: a) stressed, and b) followed by no more than a single consonant. All other vowels are pronounced short. A long as in English “father”, short as in English “wasp”. E long as in English “ate”, short as in English “bet”. I long as in English “machine”, short as in English “sit”. O long as in English “old”, short as in English “broke”. U long as in English “tune”, short as in English “full”. Y long as in Swedish “dyr”, short as in Swedish “lyfta”.
There are also four diphthongs, AU, EU, AI and EI. AU as in German “Haus”. EU as in German “Europa”. AI as in English “aisle” or German “Mai”. EI as in Afrikaans “Mei” or English “May”.
Most words are stressed on the first syllable. Those beginning with unstressed prefixes, such as ge-, for-, fer-, be-, un-, etc. are stressed on the second syllable. Articles, conjunctions, prepositions and other function words are usually unstressed.
Articles: There is a definite and an indefinite article in Folksprak. The definite article is DE and the indefinite article is EN. The articles are both invariable.
Nouns: Nouns in Folksprak inflect for number and possessive case, but not for gender. Plural nouns end with –EN. The possessive, or genitive, case ends with –S.
Common Case mann mannen
Genitive Case manns mannens
Pronouns: The pronouns in Folksprak inflect for number, case, person and gender.
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
masc. fem. neut. refl.
Nominative Case ik du hi hir it --
Genitive Case min din his hirs its sin
Objective Case mig dig him hir it sig
Nominative Case vi ji dei
Genitive Case uns jurs deirs
Objective Case us ju deim
Adjectives: Regular adjectives in Folksprak come before their nouns. Many adjectives end with –IG or –LIG. They inflect for comparative and superlative degree, but not for gender, number or case. The comparative ends with –ER and the superlative ends with –EST.
Common Case de jung mann/de junger mann/de jungest mann
Genitive Case de jung manns hus/de junger manns hus/de jungest manns hus
Common Case de jung mannen/de junger mannen/de jungest mannen
Genitive Case de jung mannens hus/de junger mannens hus/de jungest mannens hus
A few adjectives are irregular in comparison, such as god/better/best.
Adjectives may also be used as nouns. Adjectives used as nouns may be formed from the positive, the comparative or the superlative.
de jung (the young one), de junger (the younger one), de jungest (the youngest one)
de jungen (the young ones), de jungeren (the younger ones), de jungesten (the youngest ones)
Verbs: Regular verbs in Folksprak inflect for tense, but not for person, number, voice or mood. Voice and mood are indicated by the use of auxilliary verbs. The infinitive ends with –E. The present tense (and the imperative mood) are indicated by the bare root. The past tense ends with –DE. The active participle ends with –ENDE, and the passive participle ends with –T. The future is formed using VILL + the infinitive. The perfect is formed using HAVE + the past participle. The passive is formed using VARE (to be) + the past participle.
infinitive present imperative preterite act. part. pas. part.
have hav hav! havde havende havt
future pres. perf. past perf. fut. perf. pres. pass pret. pass.
vill have hav havt havde havt vill have havt ar havt var havt
vill have havt
The verb VARE (to be) is irregular, but all other verbs in Folksprak are regular.
infinitive present imperative preterite future act. part.
vare ar var! var vill vare varende
pres. perf. past perf. fut. perf.
hav vart havde vart vill have vart
The various conditional moods are expressed using the modal auxilliary verbs plus the infinitive. DURFE (be allowed), KUNNE (to be able), MOGE (may, might), MOTE (must), SKULLE (should), VOLLE (want, intend). Ik durf have, ik kunn drinke, ik mog lese, ik mot lerne, ik skull singe, ik voll svimme.
Adverbs: Adverbs in Folksprak are formed in two ways, either as primary adverbs of place and time (i.e. her, der, nu, denn, alltid, oft, etc.) or as adverbs of manner, by adding the suffix –LIK to adjectives. (kald/kaldlik, stark/starklik, svak/svaklik) Adverbs inflect for comparison with the help of the words MER and MEST. Thus: svaklik/mer svaklik/mest svaklik ‘weakly, more weakly, most weakly’.
Numbers: There are both cardinal and ordinal numbers in Folkspraak.
tventig en tventig fyrst
tventig tve tventig tvede
tventig dri tventig dride
Word Order: The basic rules for Folksprak word order are 1) that the Subject may not be separated from the finite verb by any other word. 2) that the ordinary position for the verb in a declarative sentence is as second element and in imperatives or questions as the first element. 3) that the grammatical Subject must always come before any Objects.
Al (n) eel (D aal, E eel, G Aal, S ảl)
bad (n) bath (E bath, G Bad, S bad)
bringe (v) bring (E bring, G bringen, S bringa)
dag (n) day (E day, G Tag, S dag)
denke (v) think (E think, G denken, S tänka)
erd (n) Earth (E earth, G Erde, S jord)
ete (v) eat (E eat, G essen, S äta)
finde (v) find (E find, G finden, S finna)
folk (n) folk (E folk, G Volk, S folk)
ga (v) go (E go, G gehen, S gå
get (n) goat (E goat, G Geiz, S get)
hand (n) hand (E hand, G Hand, S hand)
have (v) have (E have, G haben, S ha)
is (n) ice (E ice, G Eis, S is)
jar (n) year (E year, G Jahr, S jar)
koke (v) cook (E cook, G kochen, S koka)
kyng (n) king (E king, G König, S kung/konung)
land (n) land (E land, G Land, S land)
lose (v) lose (E lose, G lösen, S förlora)
make (v) make (E make, G machen, S maka ‘move’)
mann (n) man (E man, G Mann, S man)
naht (n) night (E night, G Nacht, S natt)
oppne (v) open (E open, G öffnen, S öppna)
oven (n) oven (E oven, G Ofen, S ugn)
pennig (n) penny (E penny, G Pfennig, S peng ‘coin’)
ring (n) ring (E ring, G Ring, S ring)
skipp (n) ship (E ship, G Schiff, S skepp)
slape (v) sleep (E sleep, G schlafen)
tand (n) tooth (E tooth, G Zahn, S tand)
ul (n) owl (E owl, G Eule, S ugle)
vaske (v) wash (E wash, G waschen, S vaska)
vind (n) wind (E wind, G Wind, S vind)