Prokaryotes Bacteria – Shapes, sizes, blooms Heterotrophic Bacteria



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ENVI 121 – Fall 2005

Review Sheet - Second Exam

1I. Prokaryotes

  1. Bacteria – Shapes, sizes, blooms

    1. Heterotrophic Bacteria – Decomposers, nutrient cycling, dietary component

    2. Autotrophic Bacteria – Photosynthetic (photoautotrophic), chemosynthetic (chemoautotrophic)

    3. Cyanobacteria – Pigments, growth forms, characteristics, stromatolites, habitats (endolithic, epiphytic, endophytic), nitrogen fixation

II. Archaea



- Characteristics, decomposers, extremophiles (acidophiles, thermophiles, barophiles, psychrophiles)
III. Unicellular Algae

  1. Eukaryotes – Characteristics

  2. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) – Structure (frustules, test, spines), reproduction (asexual, sexual), blooms (including consequences), sediments (oozes), distribution

  3. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata/Pyrrophyta) – Structure (theca, flagella), trophic modes (autotrophic, heterotrophic, mixotrophic), red tides, distribution, zooxanthellae, Pfiesteria

  4. Other Algae

    1. Silicoflagellates (Chrysophyta) – Structure

    2. Coccolithophorids (Haptophyta) – Structure (coccoliths), sediments

    3. Cryptomonads (Cryptophyta) – Structure

IV. Protozoa



  1. Foraminifera – Test (structure, composition), forms (pelagic, benthic, calcareous, agglutinated), feeding (pseudopodia), sediments (oozes),

  2. Radiolaria – Test (structure, composition), feeding

  3. Ciliophora – Locomotion, feeding, habitats, lorica

V. Fungi


- Unicellular/Multicellular, heterotrophic, decomposers, symbiotic

VI. Multicellular Algae (Seaweeds, macroalgae)



  1. General Structure – Thallus, blade, stipe, holdfast, pneumatocyst, differences between algae and true plants

  2. Green Algae (Chlorophyta) – Distribution, structure, pigments, habitat, coralline forms, examples (familiar)

  3. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) – Distribution, structure, pigments, habitat, examples (familiar)

  4. Red Algae (Rhodophyta) – Distribution, structure, pigments, coralline forms, habitat, examples (familiar), flavor

  5. Life History – Life cycles, reproduction (asexual, sexual), spores, zoospores, haploid (gametophyte), diploid (sporophyte), life cycles (four), carposporophyte

  6. Economic Importance – Food source, Products (phycocolloids – algin, carrageenan, agar)

VII. Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)



  1. Characteristics – True leaves, stems, roots, challenges of life in sea water

  2. Seagrasses – Structure (rhizome, blade), habitat, ecological impostance, eelgrass, surf grass, turtle grass

  3. Salt Marsh Plants – Halophytes, characteristics of cord grass (Spartina) and pickleweed (Salicornia), salt marsh ecology (brief),

  4. Mangroves – Characteristics (prop roots, pneumatophores), distribution, reproduction (viviparity), ecology, functions

VIII. Invertebrates

    • General characteristics

IX. Porifera (Sponges)



    • Cellular organization, Diversity (encrusting, glass, boring, sclerosponges)

    1. Body Plan – Radial or irregular symmetry, ostia, osculum, pinacocytes, porocytes, choanocytes, spongin, spicules, amebocytes

    2. Feeding – Sessile, suspension feeders (filter feeders), pump water, ingest plankton and particles

    3. Reproduction – Asexual, sexual (hermaphroditic, internal fertilization, parenchymula, life cycle

X. Cnidaria



  1. Body Plan – Radial symmetry, true tissues, polyp, medusa, systems (nervous, digestive), incomplete digestive tract, body layers (epidermis, mesoglea, gastrodermis), nematocysts

  2. Hydrozoa – Characteristics, polyp specialization, reproduction, siphonophores, toxicity, feeding

  3. Scyphozoa – Medusa stage, size, swimming (bell), feeding

  4. Anthozoa – Most diverse, growth forms (solitary, colonial), feeding (septa), anemones, corals (stony – massive, branching, soft), precious corals, gorgonians (sea whips, sea fans), sea pens, sea pansies

  5. CubozoaSea wasps, box jellyfish, highly toxic

XI. Ctenophora



    • Radial symmetry, locomotion, ciliary combs, diet, prey capture, colloblasts, ecology (swarms)

    • Body forms (tentaculate - planktivores, lobate – eat other ctenophores)

XII. Platyhelminthes



    • Body shape, bilateral symmetry, cephalization, organs, organ systems, central nervous system, incomplete digestive system, three cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)

  1. Turbellaria – Characteristics (free-living), some commensal species

  2. Trematoda – Characteristics (parasitic), life cycles (vertebrate host, intermediate host)

  3. Cestoda – Characteristics (parasitic), structure

XIII. Nemertea



    • Complete digestive tract, circulatory system, trophic mode (proboscis), lifestyle (cryptic), distribution

XIV. Nematoda



    • Distribution, abundance, hydrostatic skeleton, locomotion (longitudinal muscles), distribution

XV. Other Worms



  1. Sipuncula (Peanut Worms) – Distribution, structure (unsegmented, introvert), behavior (cryptic), deposit feeding

  2. Echiura (Spoon Worms) – Distribution, feeding, ecology

  3. Pogonophora (Beard worms) – Structure, no mouth/gut, ecology, Vestimentifera

XVI. Annelida



    • Segmented, coelom, radial muscles, hydrostatic skeleton, locomotion

  1. Polychaeta – Parapodia, setae, gills, closed circulatory system, trochophore larva, lifestyle (free living, burrowing, tube dwelling), feeding (predator, deposit feeder, suspension feeder)

  2. Oligochaeta – Distribution, appearance, ecology

  3. Hirudinea (Leeches) – Distribution, appearance, feeding




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