Prokaryotes Bacteria – Shapes, sizes, blooms Heterotrophic Bacteria




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ENVI 121 – Fall 2005

Review Sheet - Second Exam

1I. Prokaryotes

  1. Bacteria – Shapes, sizes, blooms

    1. Heterotrophic Bacteria – Decomposers, nutrient cycling, dietary component

    2. Autotrophic Bacteria – Photosynthetic (photoautotrophic), chemosynthetic (chemoautotrophic)

    3. Cyanobacteria – Pigments, growth forms, characteristics, stromatolites, habitats (endolithic, epiphytic, endophytic), nitrogen fixation

II. Archaea



- Characteristics, decomposers, extremophiles (acidophiles, thermophiles, barophiles, psychrophiles)
III. Unicellular Algae

  1. Eukaryotes – Characteristics

  2. Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) – Structure (frustules, test, spines), reproduction (asexual, sexual), blooms (including consequences), sediments (oozes), distribution

  3. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata/Pyrrophyta) – Structure (theca, flagella), trophic modes (autotrophic, heterotrophic, mixotrophic), red tides, distribution, zooxanthellae, Pfiesteria

  4. Other Algae

    1. Silicoflagellates (Chrysophyta) – Structure

    2. Coccolithophorids (Haptophyta) – Structure (coccoliths), sediments

    3. Cryptomonads (Cryptophyta) – Structure

IV. Protozoa



  1. Foraminifera – Test (structure, composition), forms (pelagic, benthic, calcareous, agglutinated), feeding (pseudopodia), sediments (oozes),

  2. Radiolaria – Test (structure, composition), feeding

  3. Ciliophora – Locomotion, feeding, habitats, lorica

V. Fungi


- Unicellular/Multicellular, heterotrophic, decomposers, symbiotic

VI. Multicellular Algae (Seaweeds, macroalgae)



  1. General Structure – Thallus, blade, stipe, holdfast, pneumatocyst, differences between algae and true plants

  2. Green Algae (Chlorophyta) – Distribution, structure, pigments, habitat, coralline forms, examples (familiar)

  3. Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) – Distribution, structure, pigments, habitat, examples (familiar)

  4. Red Algae (Rhodophyta) – Distribution, structure, pigments, coralline forms, habitat, examples (familiar), flavor

  5. Life History – Life cycles, reproduction (asexual, sexual), spores, zoospores, haploid (gametophyte), diploid (sporophyte), life cycles (four), carposporophyte

  6. Economic Importance – Food source, Products (phycocolloids – algin, carrageenan, agar)

VII. Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)



  1. Characteristics – True leaves, stems, roots, challenges of life in sea water

  2. Seagrasses – Structure (rhizome, blade), habitat, ecological impostance, eelgrass, surf grass, turtle grass

  3. Salt Marsh Plants – Halophytes, characteristics of cord grass (Spartina) and pickleweed (Salicornia), salt marsh ecology (brief),

  4. Mangroves – Characteristics (prop roots, pneumatophores), distribution, reproduction (viviparity), ecology, functions

VIII. Invertebrates

    • General characteristics

IX. Porifera (Sponges)



    • Cellular organization, Diversity (encrusting, glass, boring, sclerosponges)

    1. Body Plan – Radial or irregular symmetry, ostia, osculum, pinacocytes, porocytes, choanocytes, spongin, spicules, amebocytes

    2. Feeding – Sessile, suspension feeders (filter feeders), pump water, ingest plankton and particles

    3. Reproduction – Asexual, sexual (hermaphroditic, internal fertilization, parenchymula, life cycle

X. Cnidaria



  1. Body PlanRadial symmetry, true tissues, polyp, medusa, systems (nervous, digestive), incomplete digestive tract, body layers (epidermis, mesoglea, gastrodermis), nematocysts

  2. Hydrozoa – Characteristics, polyp specialization, reproduction, siphonophores, toxicity, feeding

  3. Scyphozoa – Medusa stage, size, swimming (bell), feeding

  4. Anthozoa – Most diverse, growth forms (solitary, colonial), feeding (septa), anemones, corals (stony – massive, branching, soft), precious corals, gorgonians (sea whips, sea fans), sea pens, sea pansies

  5. CubozoaSea wasps, box jellyfish, highly toxic

XI. Ctenophora



    • Radial symmetry, locomotion, ciliary combs, diet, prey capture, colloblasts, ecology (swarms)

    • Body forms (tentaculate - planktivores, lobate – eat other ctenophores)

XII. Platyhelminthes



    • Body shape, bilateral symmetry, cephalization, organs, organ systems, central nervous system, incomplete digestive system, three cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)

  1. Turbellaria – Characteristics (free-living), some commensal species

  2. Trematoda – Characteristics (parasitic), life cycles (vertebrate host, intermediate host)

  3. Cestoda – Characteristics (parasitic), structure

XIII. Nemertea



    • Complete digestive tract, circulatory system, trophic mode (proboscis), lifestyle (cryptic), distribution

XIV. Nematoda



    • Distribution, abundance, hydrostatic skeleton, locomotion (longitudinal muscles), distribution

XV. Other Worms



  1. Sipuncula (Peanut Worms) – Distribution, structure (unsegmented, introvert), behavior (cryptic), deposit feeding

  2. Echiura (Spoon Worms) – Distribution, feeding, ecology

  3. Pogonophora (Beard worms) – Structure, no mouth/gut, ecology, Vestimentifera

XVI. Annelida



  1. Polychaeta – Parapodia, setae, gills, closed circulatory system, trochophore larva, lifestyle (free living, burrowing, tube dwelling), feeding (predator, deposit feeder, suspension feeder)

  2. Oligochaeta – Distribution, appearance, ecology

  3. Hirudinea (Leeches) – Distribution, appearance, feeding



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