Phylum: Nematoda Classes: Enopila, Chromadoria, Rhabditia, Spiruria, Diplogasteria Genus

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Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Nematoda

Classes: Enopila, Chromadoria, Rhabditia, Spiruria, Diplogasteria

Genus: Nematode

Species: Roundworm

  • By diffusion (thus restricting size, though pseudocoelom helps overcome this). Some parasitic nematodes have a form of hemoglobin in the body fluids. Both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism is common.


  • A roundworm has an anus at its rear end and a series of excretory tubes that end in an excretory pore.


  • Most are gonochoristic (dioecious) with varying degrees of sexual dimorphism (males usually smaller and with pronounced curvature posteriorly. Fertilization is internal. Double-layered shell is formed around zygotes, which are then released. In some hermaphroditic forms the same organ produces both eggs and sperm (ovotestis), but sperm production precedes egg production ("protandry"). Development of zygote is direct, though juvenile (nonreproductive) forms are called "larvae”.


  • Symmetrical


  • Saltwater, freshwater, soil

Interesting Facts

  • A roundworm has no skeleton.

Nervous System

  • Cerebral ganglion ("brain") is circumesophageal nerve ring with most of the sensory nerve bodies. Many sensory fibers project anteriorly. Posteriorly, main trunk is in ventral epidermal cord, both motor and sensory nerves. Dorsal nerve trunk is motor, lateral trunks are sensory. All trunks bear ganglia. Many spp. show a "ladder system" of commissures connecting trunks.


  • Digestive tract is complete, with specialized regions: anterior mouth, muscular and glandular pharynx (esophagus), long, straight midgut (intestine), rectum, and ventral anus. Phanyngeal glands (and possibly midgut cells) secrete digestive enzymes, midgut cells have microvilli for absorption.


  • No special system. Fluids circulated in pseudocoelom by body movements.


~frogs, toads, etc.~

Class: Amphibian

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chrodata

Genus: Ichthyophis

Species:, Frogs, Toads, Salamanders


  • An amphibian takes in oxygen through the skin. It then goes through the bloodstream directly. On land amphibians use lungs.


  • An amphibian has a thin skin that is moist.


  • An amphibian reproduces sexually. The eggs are fertilized outside of the mothers’ body. The mother lays the eggs which are in a jellylike layer. The father immediately comes by and fertilizes them. The frog's eggs are black and white. The young frog is called a tadpole and it hangs on to plants.


  • Bilateral


  • Ponds, creeks, land, oceans

Interesting Facts

  • The word ‘amphibian’ is derived from the Greek word ‘amphibios’, which means a double life.

Nervous System

  • They have a normal nervous system. It uses nerves around their body.


  • Amphibians have a digestive system with a stomach and intestines. Same as humans.


  • An amphibian is cold-blooded, so their blood is the same temperature as the air.



Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Classes: Spider, Fly, Butterfly, Etc.

Genus: Genera

Species: Bugs


  • Bugs take in air through their mouths


  • Bugs remove waste by excreting them out of a hole in their body


  • They lay eggs after asexual or sexual reproduction


  • Symmetrical and Asymmetrical


  • Everywhere

Interesting Facts

    • There are millions of different types of bugs

    • There are over 10 billion bugs on Earth

Nervous System

  • An insect nervous system consists primarily of a brain and a nerve cord.


  • Bugs digest in the same way of humans. They consume their food, and then it travels through the body while being broken down and then they excrete the wastes.


  • Bugs don’t have veins, so they don’t really circulate things around the body.



Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Classes: Medusae / Polyps

Genus: Stauromedusae, coronatae, semaeostomeae, rhizostomae

Species: Jelly Fish / Sea Cucumbers / Sea Urchins


  • Because their skin is so thin on the body and tenticles that the oxygen flows through their body and goes through to its vital organs, carbon dioxide is removed the same way. They breathe with their entire bodies


  • Jelly fish have a single opening digestive track. That mean whatever goes in has to come out the same way


  • Polyps reproduce by asexual budding

  • Medusae reproduce by sexual formation of gametes

  • Jellyfish are able to reproduce asexually or sexually during different parts of their life cycle


  • Cnidarians are radially or biradially symmetric


  • The Ocean

Interesting Facts

  • Cnidarian bodies have two or sometimes three layers

Nervous System

  • Jellyfish don’t have a brain or nervous system



Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Porifera

Classes: Agelas conifera / Aplysina archeri / Aplysina fistularia

Genus: Neocladia / Latruncullia

Species: Calcarea /Demospongiae / Hexactinellida

  • A sponge takes in water through its pores and in more advanced forms, with canals that move the water to all throughout the sponge. Then the oxygen from the water is used


  • A sponge has carbon dioxide and other wastes removed as the water moves in and out through the pores


  • They can reproduce sexually and asexually

  • Sexual reproduction takes place in the mesohyl

  • Male gametes are released into the water by a sponge and taken into the pore systems of its neighbors in the same way as food items

  • Spermatozoa are "captured" by collar cells, which then lose their collars and transform into specialized, amoeba-like cells that carry the spermatozoa to the eggs



  • Moderately exposed reefs

  • The sea, some in freshwater

Interesting Facts

  • There are over 5000 species of sponges

  • They have cellular-level organization

  • They have a system of ostia (pores) and canals

Nervous System

  • A sponge has a very low level reaction to the world around it and does not have a brain per se


  • A sponge takes in food via the water that flows through the pores


  • A sponge has water flow in through the pores. The water contains the food and oxygen the sponge needs


~Lizards, snakes, etc.~

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Classes: Reptilia

Genus: Chelonia, Vertebrata

Species: Snake, Lizard


  • A reptile breathes through a trachea and lungs, including the baby reptiles.


  • A reptile is cold blooded. It is covered with scales. It has kidneys and ureters to get rid of liquid wastes. Snakes can molt or shed their skin.


  • A reptile reproduces sexually with the female's eggs being fertilized by the male internally. The eggs, which have a leathery surface, are then carefully deposited.


  • A reptile has bilateral symmetry.


  • Desert, forest, jungle, ponds, lakes, grassland

Interesting Facts

  • Reptiles are cold-blooded.

  • A spitting cobra spits venom into prey/enemies eyes to blind them and then bites/eats them.

Nervous System

  • A reptile has a brain and nervous system. It has eyes, can sense sound.



  • A reptile has a heart that pumps fluid around the body.


~eagle, hawk, etc.~

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Classes: Aves

Genus: Protoavis

Species: Eagle, hawk, blue jay, pigeon, sparrow, etc.


  • Birds have lungs, but they also have air sacs. Depending upon the species, the bird has seven or nine air sacs.


  • Birds excrete out of an opening in the rear end of their bodies.


  • Birds lay eggs that then hatch and leave the nest once they are ready.


  • Bilateral symmetry


  • Beaches, grassland, desert, lakes (water areas)

Interesting Facts

Nervous System

  • They have a central nervous system and a peripheral nervous system.


  • They have a 2 chambered stomach. The parts are the gizzard and the proventriculus.


  • Warm-blooded. Strong heart that pumps blood to all parts of the body through veins.

Final Review
1. Both have a true coelom (body cavity). They also have a similar larval stage.

2. Gills, fins, eyes on the side of the face, scales, live in water.

3. They both hatch from eggs. They have ancient genes that the dinosaurs had.

4. Cnidarians have a nervous system, while echinoderms have a minimal nervous system. Cnidarians have more complex nerves.

5. Pulmonary vein.

6. Underwater plants.

7. Extracellular digestion

8. Snakes

9. The birds’ eggs are all white, while reptile eggs are brown.

10. The heart.

11. Medusa’s swim around, while polyps are sessile.

12. They use food sorting organs near the mouth.

13. Tiny, shrew-like mammals.

14. The abdomen movement.

15. They filter water.

16. Inhaling or eating.

17. Annelids are segmented while roundworms aren’t.

18. Locomotion, respiration, and feeding.

19. An open circulatory system with one heart.

20. Tunicates and Lanceletes.

21. Free-living round worms adapted to the world, while parasitic roundworms evolved to live in the bodies of hosts.

22. Nitrogenous wastes are excreted as uric acid in lizards and have a cerebrum that is well developed.

23. Osteichthyes’ leave the best fossils.

24. Adult frogs have lungs to breathe.

25. Mollusks have blood in the sinuses of the open circulatory system.

26. The only continent where you can find a wild mammal with a cloaca is parts of South America.

27. Frogs have the best developed pelvic girdle.

28. Spinal cord = vertebrate.

29. The dorsal blood vessel of an earthworm functions like a heart because it beats and pumps blood through the body.

30. Carnivorous birds have hooked bills and talons on their feet.

31. Annelids have a closed circulatory system, hydrostatic skeleton, and nephridia.

32. A gastrovascular cavity is a digestive sac with one opening. A complete digestive tract has 2 openings in between its digestive tubes while the gastrovascular cavity does not.

33. There are a lot less chordates presently then there were a long time ago.

34. Nautiluses have the most tentacles of all mollusks.

35. Insects are classified as Insecta.

36. Larval tunicate resemble adult tunicate, because neither have a spine.

37. The niche of parasites is the host body.

38. Cows and their relatives have a stomach chamber called the rumen, in which swallowed food is stored to be processed. The rumen contains symbiotic bacteria that digest the cellulose of most plant tissues. Then the grazer regurgitates the food from the rumen into its mouth. The partially digested food is chewed and swallowed again. After several cycles, it moves through the rest of the stomach and into the intestines.

39. Snakes use their tongues to smell the air and find prey.

40. At the end of the Cambrian period there were 3 great extinctions.

Birds evolved from dinosaurs and not reptiles because in the dinosaur era there winged dinosaurs. They couldn’t be reptiles because reptiles don’t have wings, legs, and beaks like birds.

The difference between a nymph and larvae is that a nymph is the juvenile stage a Cicada goes through before its final molt into an adult. It does not require metamorphosis and larvae goes under indirect development known as metamorphosis.

Pharyngeal pouches develop gills in water creatures while they help with respiration in land animals.

Order of reptile flexibility in vertebral column is the Ophiomorpha (or serpent form), represented by the Blind-worms, in which limbs are wanting and the body is snake-like; the Urodela or Tailed Amphibians, including the Newts, Proteus, Siren, etc; the Anoura, or Tailless Amphibia, represented by the Frogs and Toads; and the Labyrinthodontia, which includes the extinct forms known as Labyrinthodons.

An open circulatory system is good for a bivalve because they are mainly sedentary, while squids have relatively low oxygen needs, and bivalves have high oxygen needs.

Most of parasitic flatworms don’t need a complex digestive system because they take nutrients from other organisms.

Insects are successful in evolution because there are so many different species that mate with each other. Because of their great diversity insects provide an understanding of the adaptability of animal systems and biological mechanisms that survive the physical and biological challenges necessary to exist in these environments.

The group that has no tarsiers, but includes gibbons and humans is Homindae.

The tentacle is a modification for arms. The movable modification of the soft body. Tentacles surround the mouth and are sometimes covered in sucker discs.

The characteristic of the phylum cnidarian are radically symmetrical, contain internal cavity and a mouth, simple nervous system, different forms of medusa and polyp, mostly carnivorous unless they are filter feeders.

The general life cycle of a amphibian is:

They spend a proportion of their life cycle in aquatic ecosystems and the other portion of their life cycle in terrestrial ecosystems.

Among species, they vary in the proportion of time they spend in aquatic and terrestrial environments during their life cycle.

They have a diverse assemblage of parasites comprised of both phylogeneticaly related and unrelated groups as well as host specific and generalist species.

The volume of the chest cavity of a chordate is highest with air and lowest without air.

The functions that would be affected if an animals medulla oblongata was damaged would be the medulla oblongata, which is a structure found in the brains of vertebrate animals (including humans). This structure controls a number of autonomic functions like respiration and blood pressure which makes it a very critical part of the brain. Damage to the medulla oblongata can be fatal because the patient would be unable to swallow, breath or perform basic functions without help.

Echinoderms are like vertebrates because they both are Deuterostomes, which means that the first embryonic opening is the anus and the mouth is second.

The 2 dinosaur classifications are Saurischia and Ornithischia which are as closely related to each other because they both are connected to the extinct pterosaurs and modern crocodiles.

Aquatic organisms excrete ammonia.

If a flatworm’s flame cell stops working then they stop digestion and they can no longer excrete their wastes.

Convergent evolution occurs in mammals because it describes the same biological trait (like DNA).

Sponges play a big role in the primary productivity in reefs because they play an extremely important role in the nutrient cycle of coral reefs because they live in them.

Arthropods have 3 germ layers, no coelom, and are bilaterally symmetric.

63. The jelly-like layer between the gastroderm and the epidermis in hydra is called the mesoglea.

64. Fish use odor to detect a predator.

65. The primary body form of scyphozoans is its bud.

67. Arthropods have an exoskeleton, an open circulatory system, and a digestive tract.

68. You can contract trichinosis disease when you eat pork or pork products that contain the live worms which are round and too small to see.

69. A vertebrate maintains its body heat by using their circulatory system to pump blood around their body.

71. Reptiles have scales, so an animal with scales is a reptile.

72. Birds = feathers; mammals = hair or fur.

Birds = porous, hollow bones; mammals = dense and solid bones.

Birds = wings; mammals = hands or paws or hooves.

Birds = lay eggs; mammals = carry their young in a womb or pouch. Mammals feed their young with milk from mammary glands; birds feed their young by regurgitating partially digested material.

73. Navigation birds find there way by landmarks.

75. An omnivore has a larger digestive tract than a carnivore or herbivore.

76. Olfactory systems serve a crucial role in mate selection, kin recognition, avoiding predators, finding food, navigation and homing in a large proportion of invertebrate and vertebrate species.

78. A flat worm doesn’t have a coelom or cephilization.


~humans, dogs, etc.~

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Classes: Mammalia

Genus: Peludo

Species: Dogs, Cats, Humans


  • Through their mouths. The oxygen goes to the lungs and the blood.


  • They excrete the wastes of the food they eat.


  • They reproduce sexually and do not lay eggs, they get pregnant.


  • Mammals have Bilateral symmetry


  • Everywhere on earth.

Interesting Facts

  • Mammals are the smartest animals.

  • They can communicate to one another.

Nervous System

  • There is a central nervous system and a bunch of nerves around the body.


  • They digest their food by it going down the esophagus, intestines, and into the stomach.


  • Blood is circulated through the body by the heart through veins and arteries.



Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Annelida

Classes: Polychaeta, Aelosomata

Genus: Halosydna

Species: Leeches, earthworms, night crawlers, etc.


  • Respiration occurs through diffusion.


  • Annelids have one pair of nephridia per segment for excretion.


  • Bilateral


  • Annelids are the first to have a closed system of blood vessels -- making pumping more efficient.


  • Marine worms are filter feeders or scavengers. Earthworms squeeze organic material out of the earth. The digestive systems for all three classes are well-developed and use division of labor.

Interesting Facts

  • They were the first animals to evolve a complete coelom


  • The ocean

Nervous System

  • Members of this phylum have a simple brain located in the anterior end with ganglia in every segment. They can sense light, moisture, and chemicals.



~Sea creatures~

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Classes: Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, Crinoidea, Holothuroidea

Genus: Luidia, Psilaster

Species: Starfish, sea lilies, feather stars, sea urchins


  • A Echinoderm uses some of the bumps or spines on its surface to take in oxygen. It has a gill structure to take in the oxygen. It has a poorly developed respiratory system.


  • A Echinoderm has a simple excretory system.


  • A Echinoderm has radial symmetry.

Interesting Facts

  • They can regenerate body parts.

Nervous System

  • A Echinoderm has eyespots which can detect light. Their eyespots are not as sharp as human eyes. It generally has a poorly developed nervous system.


  • A Echinoderm has water pumped through its body as part of its very simple circulation system.


  • A Echinoderm is a male or female. The males and females discharge their eggs and sperm into the water where they are fertilized. A female can release one hundred million eggs at once. If a piece of certain echinoderms is chopped off, a new piece or even a new echinoderm can regrow.


    • Ocean


  • A Echinoderm has a mouth and stomach area. Some have a mouth on the bottom and an anus on the top. Starfish can actually turn their stomachs outside of their body and insert it into its prey's such as a clam. Echinoderms have a relatively big gut area.

Chapter 29 Outline

  1. Origin of the Invertebrates

    1. The Ediacaran fossils showed the first signs of invertebrates.

    2. Ediacaran fossils were made of soft tissues that absorbed nutrients from surrounding water.

    3. They were made of soft tissues that absorbed nutrients from the surrounding water.

  1. Invertebrate Phylogeny

    1. Many of these features, which have persisted up to modern times, evolved in animals of the Cambrian Period.

    2. These features include tissues and organs, patterns of early development, body symmetry, cephalization, segmentation, and the formation of three germ layers and a coelom.

    3. They have 3 germ layers.

  1. Evolutionary Trends

    1. Modern sponges and cnidarians have little internal specialization.

    2. They carry out essential functions using individual cells or simple tissues.

    3. More complex animals, such as mollusks and arthropods, have organ systems.

  1. Feeding and Digestion

    1. Complex animals break down food using extracellular digestion.

    2. The simplest animals break down food primarily through intracellular digestion, but more complex animals use extracellular digestion.

    3. Invertebrates have a variety of digestive systems.

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