Phylogeny references




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Figure 1: Phylogeny used for GLS analyses as obtained from Arnaiz-Villena et al. 1998, 1999, 2001; Barker et al. 2001; Tielemann et al. 2003; Hall & Tullberg 2004; Klicka et al. 2005). Fringilla coelebs (indicated by an asterix) belongs to the Fringillidae.

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Phylogeny references:

Arnaiz-Villena, A., Alvarez-Tejado, M., Ruiz-del-Valle, V., Garcia-de-la-Torre, C., Varela, P., Recio, M. J., Ferre, S. & Martinez-Laso, J. 1998. Phylogeny and rapid northern and southern hemisphere speciation of goldfinches during the miocene and pliocene epochs. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 54, 1031-1041.

Arnaiz-Villena, A., Alvarez-Tejado, M., Ruiz-del-Valle, V., Garcia-de-la-Torre, C., Varela, P., Recio, M. J., Ferre, S. & Martinez-Laso, j. 1999. Rapid radiation of canaries (Genus Serinus). Mol. Biol. Evol. 16, 2-11.

Arnaiz-Villena, A., Guillén, J., Ruiz-del-Valle, V., Lowy, E., Zamora, J., Varela, P., Stefani, D. & Allende, L. M. 2001. Phylogeography of crossbills, bullfinches, grosbeaks, and rosefinches. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58, 1159-1166.

Barker, F. K., Barrowclough, G. F. & Groth, J. G. 2001. A phylogenetic hypothesis of passerine birds: taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data. Proc. R. Soc.Lond. B 269, 295-308.

Hall, K. S. S. & Tullberg, B. S. 2004. Phylogenetic analyses of the diversity of moult strategies in Sylviidae in relation to migration. Evol. Ecol. 18, 85-105.

Klicka, J., Voelker, G. & Spelman, G. M. 2005. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the ‘‘true thrushes’’ (Aves: Turdinae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 34, 486-500.

Tieleman, B. I., Williams, J. B. & Bloomer, P. 2002. Adaptation of metabolism and evaporative water loss along an aridity gradient. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270, 207-214.


Table 1: Within-species repeatability of morphometric sperm traits including two to 15 males per species for each of 27 species. F values of the one-way anova are given with the degrees of freedom between (df1) and within groups (df2) and the coefficient of sample size n0.





repeatability within species

ejaculate traits

Fdf1, df2

r

n0

p

head length

80.6226,136

0.93

5.94

<0.0001

midpiece length

993.4526,136

0.99

5.94

<0.0001

flagellum length

811.9126,136

0.99

5.94

<0.0001

total sperm length

837.5026,136

0.99

5.94

<0.0001


Sperm size and testis mass between the Fringillidae and the Sylviidae

Sperm total length differs significantly between the Fringillidae and the Sylviidae (mean total length: Fringillidae: (187.29 μm ± 48.47 s.d.; Sylviidae: 88.47 μm ± 12.30 s.e.; t test: t38 = 2.02, p < 0.0001).



The Fringilliae and Sylviidae did not differ in absolute testis mass (mean testis mass Fringillidae: 0.30g ± 0.32, Sylviidae: 0.26g ± 0.22 t test: t24 = 0.58, p = 0.57) nor in relative (residual testis mass obtained from a regression of testis mass against body mass including all species, Fringillidae: -0.19 ± 0.25, Sylviidae: 0.01± 0.44: t24 = 1.41; p = 0.17). We also found no difference for the variance of relative testis mass between the two families (F test for the comparison of variance: F13 = 3.08, p = 0.07).


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