Phylogeny references

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Figure 1: Phylogeny used for GLS analyses as obtained from Arnaiz-Villena et al. 1998, 1999, 2001; Barker et al. 2001; Tielemann et al. 2003; Hall & Tullberg 2004; Klicka et al. 2005). Fringilla coelebs (indicated by an asterix) belongs to the Fringillidae.


Phylogeny references:

Arnaiz-Villena, A., Alvarez-Tejado, M., Ruiz-del-Valle, V., Garcia-de-la-Torre, C., Varela, P., Recio, M. J., Ferre, S. & Martinez-Laso, J. 1998. Phylogeny and rapid northern and southern hemisphere speciation of goldfinches during the miocene and pliocene epochs. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 54, 1031-1041.

Arnaiz-Villena, A., Alvarez-Tejado, M., Ruiz-del-Valle, V., Garcia-de-la-Torre, C., Varela, P., Recio, M. J., Ferre, S. & Martinez-Laso, j. 1999. Rapid radiation of canaries (Genus Serinus). Mol. Biol. Evol. 16, 2-11.

Arnaiz-Villena, A., Guillén, J., Ruiz-del-Valle, V., Lowy, E., Zamora, J., Varela, P., Stefani, D. & Allende, L. M. 2001. Phylogeography of crossbills, bullfinches, grosbeaks, and rosefinches. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58, 1159-1166.

Barker, F. K., Barrowclough, G. F. & Groth, J. G. 2001. A phylogenetic hypothesis of passerine birds: taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data. Proc. R. Soc.Lond. B 269, 295-308.

Hall, K. S. S. & Tullberg, B. S. 2004. Phylogenetic analyses of the diversity of moult strategies in Sylviidae in relation to migration. Evol. Ecol. 18, 85-105.

Klicka, J., Voelker, G. & Spelman, G. M. 2005. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the ‘‘true thrushes’’ (Aves: Turdinae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 34, 486-500.

Tieleman, B. I., Williams, J. B. & Bloomer, P. 2002. Adaptation of metabolism and evaporative water loss along an aridity gradient. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270, 207-214.

Table 1: Within-species repeatability of morphometric sperm traits including two to 15 males per species for each of 27 species. F values of the one-way anova are given with the degrees of freedom between (df1) and within groups (df2) and the coefficient of sample size n0.

repeatability within species

ejaculate traits

Fdf1, df2




head length





midpiece length





flagellum length





total sperm length





Sperm size and testis mass between the Fringillidae and the Sylviidae

Sperm total length differs significantly between the Fringillidae and the Sylviidae (mean total length: Fringillidae: (187.29 μm ± 48.47 s.d.; Sylviidae: 88.47 μm ± 12.30 s.e.; t test: t38 = 2.02, p < 0.0001).

The Fringilliae and Sylviidae did not differ in absolute testis mass (mean testis mass Fringillidae: 0.30g ± 0.32, Sylviidae: 0.26g ± 0.22 t test: t24 = 0.58, p = 0.57) nor in relative (residual testis mass obtained from a regression of testis mass against body mass including all species, Fringillidae: -0.19 ± 0.25, Sylviidae: 0.01± 0.44: t24 = 1.41; p = 0.17). We also found no difference for the variance of relative testis mass between the two families (F test for the comparison of variance: F13 = 3.08, p = 0.07).

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