Phyla: Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota




Дата канвертавання28.04.2016
Памер28.96 Kb.
Domain Eukarya

Kingdom Fungi

Phyla: Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota




Ascomycota

Basidiomycota

Zygomycota

Chytridiomycota

Common Characteristics:



Multicellular Structures




- haustoria = penetrate plant cells




- mycelia (pl = mycelium)

Reproductive Terms



  • pheromones

  • plasmogamy

  • heterokaryon

  • dikaryotic

  • karyogamy

  • meiosis


Zygomycetes





  • paraphyletic

  • aseptate

  • asexual sporangia & spores

  • sexual  zygosporangium



Rhizopus sp. Rhizopus sp.
* asexual sporangia * sexual zygospores

Chytridiomycota


* Ubiquitous in lakes and soils

* Decomposers to parasitic or mutualistic

* Diverged early in fungal evolution  paraphyletic

* Some form colonies (hyphae) or single spherical cells

* zoospores  flagellated spores (may have lost several times)





Phytophthora sp.

Glomeromycetes




  • monophyletic

  • arbuscular mycorrhizae




Ascomycetes

marine, freshwater, terrestrial

monophyletic



Sexual reproduction



  • ascus (pl = asci): structure producing ascosporeshaploid spores

  • housed in a fruiting body  ascocarp

Asexual reproduction



  • conidia: haploid spores

  • conidiophore: specialized hyphae  make conidia


Asexual




Penicillium sp. Aspergillis sp.

S


ascospores (n)
exual


asci





Peziza sp.

ascocarp mycelia

Basidiomycetes

-monophyletic

- important wood decomposers

- rusts and smuts

Sexual Reproduction



-Basidium – terminal cells w/ basidiospores  housed on gills

-Basidiocarpdikaryotic fruiting body





Lichens


Mutualistic relationship



    • fungi & alga or cyanobacteria

    • fungi – suitable environment

    • agla/cyanobacteria – carbon compounds, fix N

Reproduction



  • fungi sexually & independently from asexual alga

  • together asexually

    • soredia: hyphae w/ embedded algae

Ecological impact



  • penetrate new soils

  • chemical attacks

  • trap soil

  • add N







Ascomycota

Basidiomycota

Zygomycota

Chytridiomycota

The phylogram above shows the main groups of fungi and can be interpreted simply:

Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are more closely related to one another than either is to Zygomycota or Chytridiomycota. Or you could say that all of the Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes share a common ancester that is not shared with the other groups. The branches leading to Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota are dashed to show that there is more than one lineage in these groups. The relationships within these two groups is not well understood


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