PC13 Doc. 12 2 convención sobre el comercio internacional de especies




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PC13 Doc. 12.2.2

CONVENCIÓN SOBRE EL COMERCIO INTERNACIONAL DE ESPECIES


AMENAZADAS DE FAUNA Y FLORA SILVESTRES

____________



Décimo tercera reunión del Comité de Flora


Ginebra (Suiza), 12-15 de agosto de 2003

Comercio significativo de plantas

Aplicación de la Resolución Conf. 12.8

Cycas


1. Este documento ha sido preparado por la Secretaría.

2. El Comité de Flora ha identificado previamente a las Cycadales spp. como prioridad para proceder a su revisión en el marco del Examen del Comercio Significativo (Resolución Conf. 12.8).

3. La Secretaría ha contratado a TRAFFIC África Oriental/Meridional para realizar la fase de investigación del examen de las Cycadales spp. Las investigaciones se iniciaron en diciembre de 2002 y se completarán en el segundo semestre de 2003. En la 14a. reunión del Comité de Flora se presentará un informe sobre la labor realizada al respecto.

4. En el marco de este examen es preciso realizar investigaciones sobre un gran número de taxa (297 especies) que ocurren en 55 Estados del área de distribución. Aunque la información se presentará país por país, el informe no se estructurará siguiendo el formato normalizado para todos los Estados del área de distribución. La intención del consultor es estructurar la información de dos formas para los Estados del área de distribución, debido al número de especies y de Estados del área de distribución concernidos. Se preparará una página resumida para cada uno de los principales Estados del área de distribución que exportan activamente cycas, siguiendo el formato de informe normalizado para el comercio significativo, y se preparará un cuadro resumido para el resto de los Estados del área de distribución. El consultor expresa preocupación por el hecho de que, en el momento de redactar este documento, sólo el 30 por ciento de los Estados del área de distribución ha respondido a las solicitudes de información y ha solicitado a la Secretaría que aliente a los Estados del área de distribución que no han respondido aún a que lo hagan sin demora.

5. TRAFFIC África Oriental/Meridional ha preparado un informe provisional sobre los progresos realizados, poniendo de relieve determinados problemas relacionados con el acopio y la presentación de la información requerida en el informe. Este informe se adjunta como anexo al presente documento.

PC13 Doc. 12.2.2


Annex
(English only/Únicamente en inglés/Seulement en anglais)

CITES Significant Trade Review of Cycads

TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa - South Africa Office (TSA)
Interim Report, June 2003


This interim report to the CITES Secretariat and the Plants Committee first covers progress in terms of the planned activities and programme of work, followed by a brief outline of some of the findings.

Activities and programme of work


1. Analyse trade data provided by UNEP-WCMC to the CITES Secretariat, and collate additional existing trade data from exporting and importing countries, and from other sources, where available. Summarize what is known about trends in the trade, quotas, trade volumes, and the source of specimens in trade taking into account previous work undertaken on the species pursuant to Resolution Conf. 12.8 [previously Resolution Conf. 8.9 (Rev)]. Include available information on illegal trade in the species.

WCMC provided data on gross exports, gross imports, and comprehensive trade data for the period 1977 – 2001. All data have been analysed. Analyses include overall trade volumes and identifying the main exporting and importing countries as well as trade histories for particular species. Most CITES trade records refer to artificially propagated material although it is clear from other sources that trade in wild collected specimens has taken place.

There are no great surprises in the WCMC data, nor any strong indications of non-compliance. Most of the records refer to artificially propagated specimens of either Appendix 1 or Appendix 2 species. This is not surprising since the CITES records reflect the legal trade. Where there are apparent anomalies, these have been followed up and we have also tried to track down records of illegal trade. Trade records are also being compared to information on the availability of different species in cultivation. This should help to identify species that are apparently traded as artificially propagated specimens when, in fact, the traders classify these species as difficult to propagate.

A report for seeds is included as an example of what has been obtained from WCMC records. There are only 22 records of seed exports from wild sources. Fourteen records are for scientific purposes, two for botanic gardens, three for captive breeding (B) and one where no purpose is specified. Only four countries registered trade in wild harvested seed (CN, MX, KY, ZA). Volumes were between 9 and 125 seeds which is consistent with the purpose. Seven records were for Appendix 2 species, the remainder for Appendix 1. These are surprisingly low numbers for wild collected seed and certainly do not reflect the trade. E.g. there are no records of seed harvesting of Encephalartos although cycad specialists know that substantial harvests and exports took place between 1994 and 2000.



2. In undertaking the reviews and preparing the report, consult relevant authorities in the range states (CITES and Forestry Authorities) for information about the legal protection, status, biology and management of the species in their countries, and consult as appropriate with other relevant experts, the TRAFFIC Network and IUCN. The letters will be translated as appropriate and sent by the CITES Secretariat.

Letters were sent (via the Secretariat) to all Parties and follow up letters were sent to all range States by TSA. The letters requested specific information on trade, conservation status, biology, species management and steps taken to comply with Article IV of the Convention. To date there has been a relatively poor response to these letters from range States. The requested date for replies was 5 April 2003 but by 10 May 2003 only 16 responses had been received from 55 range States (Table 1).

Further analysis of the response groups (Table 1) showed that only 17 countries actively traded in cycads (total trade of > 1000 plants over several years) and fewer than ten range States had significant levels of trade. It is of concern that six of these States have not responded. Further approaches have been made to obtain information from these States, especially Australia, South Africa and Colombia, which have indigenous cycad species that are threatened by trade.

Cycad specialists and TRAFFIC offices have also been contacted to obtain further information. These contacts have supplied valuable information on the biology and status of cycad species and they have been able to clear up several anomolies in the CITES reports. For example, trade records showed an export of wild Chigua specimens from Ecuador to the USA, whereas Chigua is endemic to Colombia. Officials in the US together with cycad specialists in the US and Colombia were able to provide a history for this particular transaction. What is still missing is data on illegal trade, which would help to indicate where there may be problems in terms of compliance with CITES.



TABLE 1. Data obtained from the CITES management authorities in Cycad range States. Columns represent the number of indigenous cycad species, records of exports in the WCMC database between 1987 and 2001, total trade of > 1000 units, and whether the range State has submitted a full response, partial response, or no response. Shaded blocks represent States where important information is lacking due to missing or inadequate responses.

Range State

No of Species

Recorded Export

Export > 1000

Full response

Partial response

No response

Australia

70

YES

YES







X

Mexico

45

YES

YES




X




South Africa

39

YES

YES







X

Vietnam

22

YES

YES




X




China

19

YES

YES

X







Colombia

17

YES

YES







X

Thailand

12

YES

YES




X




Indonesia

7

YES

YES




X




India

5

YES

YES







X

Costa Rica

4

YES

YES







X

Brazil

3

YES

YES







X

Malaysia

3

YES

YES







X

Honduras

2

YES

YES







X

Dominican Republic

1

YES

YES







X

Japan

1

YES

YES

X







Sri Lanka

1

YES

YES







X

USA

1

YES

YES

X







Mozambique

12

YES

NO







X

Panama

12

YES

NO







X

Swaziland

10

NO

NO







X

Peru

9

NO

NO

X







Guatemala

8

NO

NO







X

Cuba

7

YES

NO

X







DRC

6

YES

NO







X

PNG

6

YES

NO







X

Myanmar

5

NO

NO

X







Tanzania

5

NO

NO







X

Kenya

5

YES

NO







X

Philippines

5

YES

NO




X




Ecuador

4

YES

NO







X

Uganda

4

YES

NO







X

Bahamas

3

NO

NO







X

Belize

3

NO

NO







X

Puerto Rico

3

NO

NO

X







Venezuela

3

YES

NO







X

Zimbabwe

3

YES

NO







X

Angola

2

NO

NO







X

Nicaragua

2

NO

NO







X

Benin

1

NO

NO







X

Bolivia

1

NO

NO







X

Cayman Is

1

YES

NO

X







Central African Republic

1

NO

NO







X

Comores

1

NO

NO







X

El Salvador

1

NO

NO







X

Ghana

1

NO

NO







X

Jamaica

1

NO

NO







X

Nigeria

1

NO

NO







X

Seychelles

1

NO

NO







X

Togo

1

NO

NO







X

Zambia

1

NO

NO







X

Madagascar

1

YES

NO







X

Malawi

1

YES

NO

X







Sudan




NO

NO










Federated States of Micronesia

NO







X




3. Collate information on the current exploitation and trade policies and practices in the range States of Cycadales spp. listed in Appendix II with a view to describe compliance with Article IV of CITES. Summarize the status of Cycadales spp. listed in Appendix II throughout its range, and compile the information on a range State basis.

A summary document is being prepared for each range state. The summary comprises information supplied by the range State together with information supplied by the IUCN/SSC Cycad Specialist Group, TRAFFIC, and other organisations or individuals. To date, there has been no response in terms of Compliance with Article IV because all the range States who have responded has no record of trade in wild collected cycads. Australia is known to have exported wild collected plants (e.g. Macrozamia moorei), but no response has been received from Australia.

The report format requires that information is compiled on a range State basis. Due to the large number of range States (55) and number of cycad species (297), the intention is to structure the report for range States in two ways. 1) A summary page (as outlined under point 4, below) will be prepared for major range States that have an active trade in cycads (13 States), and 2) a summary table will be provided for the remaining States.

4. Produce a report on trade in Cycadales spp. listed in Appendix II, referring to CITES Parties and territories only using terminology accepted by the United Nations, and without the use of automatic numbering of paragraphs. References in the report may only relate to sources of information in the public domain.

1. Summary (including recommended category and the basis for categorization)

The CITES status of all cycads has been summarised in a table. The table also highlights inconsistencies in the current listing and taxa that need to be reviewed.



2. The biology and conservation status of cycads

The document being compiled comprises information on the global distribution of cycads and identifies all range States. It summarises information from the IUCN/ SSC Cycad Action Plan (2003), which provides an IUCN Red List assessment for 297 species. The assessment also summarises the biology of all cycad taxa and identifies groups with similar biologies. This makes it possible to see whether groups are dealt with consistently in the CITES appendices. A graphic summary of the Red List status is given in Figure 1.

The remainder of the report will follow the format requested by the Secretariat, i.e.

3. Population distribution, status, trend and threats by range State

4. Conservation and management

- Habitat protection

- Regulation of wild harvesting

- Regulation of trade

- Monitoring

- Basis of non-detriment findings

5. Overview of trade

- International trade

- Domestic trade

6. Other relevant information, including on captive breeding / artificial propagation

7. References

Draft pages have been compiled for the 13 States where significant trade has been recorded. These will be revised as more information is acquired.







PC13 Doc. 12.2.2 – p.


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