Paulo j. Rieger




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Malacostraca - Eucarida

PAGUROIDEA

PAULO J. RIEGER

Departamento de Ciências Morfo-Biológicas

Fundação Universidade do Rio Grande - FURG

Superfamily Paguroidea Latreille, 1803

Family Parapaguridae Smith, 1882

Genus Parapagurus Smith, 1879



Parapagurus gracilis Henderson, 1888.

Decription and diagnosis: Henderson, 1888: 92; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 114.

References: Henderson, 1888: 92, pl. 10, fig. 3; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 114; Saint Laurent, 1972: 112; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 38.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AL, PE).

Comments: Tropical, deep waters at 640m.

Family Paguridae Latreille, 1803



Genus Pagurus Fabricius, 1775

Pagurus brevidactylus (Stimpson, 1859)

Synonymy: Lemaitre et al., 1982: 675.

Decription and diagnosis: McLaughlin, 1975: 359; Lemaitre et al., 1982: 675.

References: Provenzano, 1959: 413, fig. 20; Williams, 1965: 132, fig. 107; Fausto-Filho, 1970a: 71; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 164; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 122, figs. 78-79, 95-96; McLaughlin, 1974: 41; 1975: 359, figs. 1-3; Hebling, 1978: 424; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 40; Negreiros-Fransozo & Hebling, 1987: 181, figs. 1-7; McLaughlin & Gore, 1988: 262; Negreiros-Fransozo, Fransozo & Hebling, 1991: 135.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From Bermudas and USA (Florida) to Brazil. (FN, from PE to SP).

Comments: Tropical, protected low intertidal zone, up to 50m, not in ooze zones.

Pagurus criniticornis (Dana, 1852)

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 124.

Decription and diagnosis: Dana, 1852: 448; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 124; Lemaitre et al., 1982: 684.

References: Dana, 1852, 448; 1855, pl. 27, fig. 8a-e; Moreira, 1906: 15; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 124, figs. 80, 83-84, 88-99; Fausto Filho, 1970a: 71; 1970b: 59; Scelzo, 1971: 146; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 164; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 205; McLaughlin, 1974: 41; 1975: 372; Scelzo, 1976: 43; Fausto-Filho, 1978: 67; Boschi, 1979: 138; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Hebling & Brossi Garcia 1981: 765; Lemaitre et al., 1982: 684; Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 69, figs. a-b; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 40; Negreiros-Fransozo & Hebling, 1987: 181; McLaughlin & Gore, 1988: 262; Negreiros-Fransozo, Fransozo & Hebling, 1991: 135.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Gulf of Mexico to Argentina. Brazil (from PE to RS).

Comments: Tropical, coastal zones, shallow waters up to 50 m, on mud and sand bottoms. Usually parasitized by Rhizocephalans.
Pagurus exilis (Benedict, 1892)

Synonymy: Benedict, 1892: 6; Barattini & Ureta, 1960: 53.

Decription and diagnosis: Benedict, 1892: 6; Barattini & Ureta, 1960: 53; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 135; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 208; Boschi, 1979: 138.

References: Benedict, 1892: 6; Barattini & Ureta, 1960: 53; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 135, figs. 102-106; Scelzo & Boschi, 1969: 165; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 165; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 208; Boschi, 1979: 138; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Hebling & Brossi-Garcia, 1985: 66; Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 63, fig. 3; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 41.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from RJ to RS) to Argentina.

Comments: Subtropical, on sand and mud bottoms, up to 50m.
Pagurus gaudichaudi H. Milne-Edwards, 1836

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 142.

Decription and diagnosis: H. Milne-Edwards, 1836: 269; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 142.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 142, fig. 112; Scelzo, 1973: 166; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 204; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 42.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RS) to Argentina. Eastern Pacific. Chile.

Comments: Littoral, from intertidal zones to 132m.
Pagurus leptonyx Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 128; Lemaitre et al., 1982: 678.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 128, figs. 81, 85-86, 89-90, 100; Fausto-Filho, 1970a: 71; 1970b: 58; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 164; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 214; McLaughlin, 1974: 41; 1975: 372; Fausto-Filho, 1978: 67; Lemaitre et al., 1982: 678; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho, Ramos-Porto & Calado, 1983: 148; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 41; McLaughlin, Gore & Craine, 1988: 432; Hebling, 1988: 82.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from CE to SC).

Comments: Tropical, from coastal ooze zones, 1 up to 20m. Usually parasitized by Rhizocephalans.
Pagurus limatulus Fausto Filho, 1970

Decription and diagnosis: Fausto Filho, 1970a: 69.

References: Fausto Filho, 1970a: 69, figs. 1-6; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 165; Fausto Filho, 1978: 67; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho, Ramos-Porto, 1987: 41; McLaughlin, Gore & Crain, 1988: 432.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (CE, RN, AL).

Comments: Tropical, from coastal zones, on mud bottoms, 1 up to 10m.
Pagurus longimanus Wass, 1963

Decription and diagnosis: Wass, 1963: 146.

References: Wass, 1963: 146; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 165; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 117; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho, Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 41; McLaughlin; Gore, & Crain, 1988: 432.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. French Guiana to Brazil (AP).

Comments: Littoral, up to 60m.
Pagurus provenzanoi Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 118; Lemaitre et al., 1982: 672.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 118, figs. 72-77, 93-94; Fausto-Filho, 1970a: 71; Coelho, 1971: 232; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 164; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973, 214; Fausto-Filho, 1974: 10; McLaughlin, 1974: 41; 1975: 371; Markham, 1978: 103; Sanchez & Campos, 1980: 44, figs. 14-15; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Lemaitre et al., 1982: 672; Coelho, Ramos-Porto & Calado, 1983: 148; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 40.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From Bermudas and USA (Florida) to Uruguay. Brazil (FN, from PE to RS).

Comments: Tropical, in coastal regions, occuring between 5 and 100m, on different substrates, from mud to rocks.

Genus Phimochirus McLaughlin, 1981



Phimochirus holthuisi (Provenzano, 1961)

Synonymy: McLaughlin, 1981b: 342.

Decription and diagnosis: Holthuis, 1959: 157; McLaughlin, 1981b: 342; Williams, 1984: 225.

References: Holthuis, 1959: 157; Provenzano, 1961: 162, fig. 3; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 165; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho; Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; McLaughlin, 1981b: 342, fig, 4c, 6a-c, 7c; Williams 1984, 225, fig. 161; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 42.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA to Brazil (from AP to BA).

Comments: Tropical, littoral, from 1 to 210m.
Phimochirus occlusus (Henderson, 1888)

Synonymy: McLaughlin, 1981a: 360.

Decription and diagnosis: Henderson, 1888: 70; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 145; McLaughlin, 1981b: 360.

References: Henderson, 1888: 70, fig. 6, pl. 7; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 145, figs. 113, 115-119; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 165; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; McLaughlin, 1981b: 360, figs. 4g, 9c, 10c; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 42.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Antilles and Brazil (AL, RJ).

Comments: Tropical, on sand, mud, and shell bottoms, between 103 and 640m.

Genus Pylopagurus A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1891



Pylopagurus discoidalis (A. Milne Edwards, 1880)

Synonymy: Williams, 1984: 226.

Decription and diagnosis: A. Milne Edwards, 1880: 41; Williams, 1984: 226.

References: A. Milne Edwards, 1880: 41; 1893: 76, pl. 6, figs. 7-14; Williams, 1965: 134, fig. 109; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 166; Coelho, Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; McLaughlin, 1981a: 2; Williams, 1984: 226, fig. 162; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 43.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA to Brazil (AP, PA).

Comments: Sublittoral, between 55 and 930m, in Dentalium shells and polychaete tubes.

Genus Rhodochirus McLaughlin, 1981



Rhodochirus rosaceus (A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1893)

Synonymy: McLaughlin, 1981b: 330.

Decription and diagnosis: A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1893: 97; McLaughlin, 1981b: 330; Williams, 1984: 227.

References: A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1893: 97, pl. 7, figs. 10-17; Hay & Shore, 1918: 413, pl. 30, fig. 5; Williams, 1965: 135, fig. 115; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 148, figs 114, 120-123 (as Pylopagurus acutus); Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 166; Hebling, 1978: 424; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; McLaughlin, 1981a: 4; 1981b: 330, figs. 1a, 2a, 3a; Williams, 1984: 227, fig. 163; Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 66, fig. 2; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 43.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA to Brazil (SP, RS).

Comments: Sublittoral, between 100 and 209m.

Genus Tomopagurus A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1893



Tomopagurus wassi McLaughlin, 1981

Sinonimia: McLaughlin, 1981a: 14.



Decription and diagnosis: McLaughlin, 1981a: 14.

References: Wass, 1963: 136 (part, not fig. 2a-g); Hazlett, 1966: 84 (in part); Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 114 (in part); McLaughlin, 1981a: 14, figs. 1b, 2b, 3b, 4b, 5-6, 7b-c, 8b; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 43.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA to Brazil (MA).

Comments: From deep sea, between 75 and 360m.

Genus Catapagurus A. Milne Edwards, 1880



Catapagurus sharreri A. Milne Edwards, 1880

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 151.

Decription and diagnosis: A. Milne Edwards, 1880: 46; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 151.

References: A. Milne Edwards, 1880: 46; Smith, 1883: 31, pl. 4, fig. 5; 1884: 353, pl. 4, figs. 1-2; 1886: 38; A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1893: 127, pl. 9, figs. 19-24; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967, 151, figs. 124-135; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 166; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 43.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA to Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Tropical, sublittoral, between 80 and 500m, on sand, mud, and shell bottoms.

Genus Nematopaguroides Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967



Nematopaguroides fagei Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 157.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 157, figs. 136-141; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 166; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 43.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PE, BA).

Comments: Tropical, littoral, between 17 and 39m, on calcareous algae, coral, rock, and mud bottoms.
Nematopaguroides ? pusillus Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 159.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 159, figs. 142-146; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 166; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 43.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PE).

Comments: Tropical, littoral, from 75m, on calcareous algae and coral bottoms.

Genus Iridopagurus de Saint Laurent, 1966



Iridopagurus dispar (Stimpson, 1859)

Synonymy: Saint Laurent, 1966: 162.

Decription and diagnosis: Saint Laurent, 1966: 162.

References: Saint Laurent, 1966: 162, figs. 21, 25, 30, 35; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 19.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From Antilles to Brazil (AL).

Comments: Between 1 and 36m, on calcareous algae bottoms.
Iridopagurus iris (A. Milne Edwards, 1880)

Synonymy: Saint Laurent, 1966: 159.

Decription and diagnosis: Saint Laurent, 1966: 159.

References: Saint Laurent, 1966: 159, figs. 1, 3-9, 17-20, 24, 29, 34; Coelho, Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 19.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA (Florida) and Antilles to Brazil (AP).

Comments: Between 116 and 256m.

Iridopagurus violaceus de Saint Laurent, 1966

Decription and diagnosis: de Saint Laurent, 1966: 165.

References: de Saint Laurent, 1966: 165, figs. 16, 22, 26, 31, 36; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 162, figs. 147-150; Coelho, 1971: 232; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 166; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho, Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; Coelho, Ramos-Porto & Calado: 1983: 148; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 44.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (FN, from PA to BA).

Comments: Tropical, littoral, between 29 and 75m, on calcareous algae, coral, rock, and sand bottoms.

Superfamily Coenobitoidea Dana, 1851

Family Diogenidae Ortmann, 1892

Genus Paguristes Dana, 1852



Paguristes angustitheca McLaughlin & Provenzano, 1974

Decription and diagnosis: McLaughlin & Provenzano, 1974: 183.

References: McLaughlin & Provenzano, 1974: 183, figs. 4b, 5d-f, 6c-d, f-h, 7d-f, 8b-d, 9; Coelho & Santos: 1980: 142; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 48.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From Venezuela to Brazil (AP).

Comments: Littoral, between 25 and 91m.
Paguristes calliopsis Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 80.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 80, figs. 9, 20, 31, 40, 48; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 167; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 214; Coelho & Santos: 1980: 142; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 48.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (BA).

Comments: Littoral, from 17 to 60m, on sand , mud, and shell bottoms.
Paguristes erythrops Holthuis, 1959

Decription and diagnosis: Holthuis, 1959: 138; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 68.

References: Holthuis, 1959: 138, figs. 24-25; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 68, figs. 4-5, 15-16, 25, 36, 44; Coelho, 1971: 232; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 167; Hebling, 1978, 424; Coelho; Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 142; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 48.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Surinam and Brazil (from MA to SP).

Comments: Tropical, littoral, from 1 to 53m, on sand, mud, calcareous algae, coral, shell, and rock bottoms.
Paguristes iris Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 83.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 83, figs. 10, 21, 32, 41-49; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 167; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 214; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 142; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 48.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RJ).

Comments: Subtropical, infralittoral, from 103m, on mud and shell bottoms.

Paguristes pauciparus Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 84.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 84, figs. 11-12, 22, 33, 42-50; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 167; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 214; Coelho & Santos: 1980: 142; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 48.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (SP, SC).

Comments: Littoral, from 0 to 100m, on sand and mud bottoms.

Paguristes robustus Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 87; Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 71.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 87, figs. 14, 24, 35, 43, 51, 53; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 168; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 208; Boschi, 1979: 138; Coelho & Santos: 1980: 142; Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 71, fig. 5.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From Brazil (RS) to Argentina.

Comments: Littoral, from 6 to 30m, on mud and shell bottoms.

Paguristes rostralis Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 88.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 88, figs. 13, 23, 34, 52; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 168; Coelho & Santos: 1980: 142; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 49.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (SC).

Comments: Littoral, from 6m, on sand, mud, and shell bottoms.

Paguristes spinipes A. Milne Edwards, 1880

Synonymy: Williams, 1984: 204.

Decription and diagnosis: A. Milne Edwards, 1880: 44; Williams, 1984: 204.

References: A. Milne Edwards, 1880: 44; Henderson, 1888: 78, pl. 8, fig. 3; A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1893: 33; Benedict, 1901: 145; Hay, 1917: 73; Hay & Shore, 1918; Williams, 1965: 118, fig. 95a, b; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 68; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 167; Provenzano, 1978: 512; Coelho & Santos: 1980: 142; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 48 .

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA and Antilles to Brazil (PE, AL).

Comments: Tropical, sublittoral, between 72 and 640m (Wenner & Read, 1982).

Paguristes tortugae Schmitt, 1933

Decription and diagnosis: Schmitt, 1933: 7; McLaughlin & Provenzano, 1974: 171.

References: Schmitt, 1933: 7, fig. 4; Provenzano, 1959: 388, figs. 11a-b, 12d; Williams, 1965: 119, fig. 96; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 74, figs. 18, 27, 38, 46; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 167; McLaughlin & Provenzano, 1974: 171, figs. 3, 4a, 5a-c, 6a-b, e-f, 7a-c, 8a, c, 11a, 12a-c, 13a-b, e-f, 14a-d, i; Hebling et al., 1977: 809; Hebling, 1978: 424; Coelho & Santos: 1980: 142; Hebling & Negreiros-Fransozo, 1983: 157; Williams, 1984: 205, fig. 144; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 48; Negreiros-Fransozo & Fransozo, 1992: 31; Negreiros-Fransozo et al., 1992: 547.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. USA (Florida) and Antilles to Brazil (to SP).

Comments: Littoral, from intertidal zone up to 94m, on sand, mud, rock, and algae bottoms.
Paguristes triangulopsis Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 77.

References: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 77, figs. 8, 19, 28-29, 39, 47; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 167; Coelho & Santos: 1980: 142; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 48.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (SE, BA).

Comments: Littoral, from 35 to 63m, on sand, mud, and shell bottoms.

Genus Dardanus Paulson, 1875



Dardanus fucosus Biffar & Provenzano, 1972

Synonymy: Williams, 1984: 196.

Decription and diagnosis: Biffar & Provenzano, 1972: 782; Williams, 1984: 196.

References: Benedict, 1901: 141 (part); Biffar & Provenzano, 1972: 782; Coelho, 1971: 232; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 168; Coelho; Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; Williams, 1984: 196; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 50.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA and Antilles to Brazil (AP, PA).

Comments: Littoral, from 45 to 365m, on sand and mud bottoms.
Dardanus insignis (de Saussure, 1858)

Synonymy: Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 73.

Decription and diagnosis: de Saussure, 1858: 453; Williams, 1984: 197, fig. 137.

References: de Saussure, 1858: 453, pl. 3, figs. 20-20a; A. Milne Edwards, 1880: 40; A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1893: 162; Moreira, 1903: 64; 1906: 133; Verrill, 1908: 446, fig. 60, pl. 26, figs. 4b-c, 5b; Schmitt, 1926: 48, fig. 69a, d-e, g; Williams, 1965: 124, fig. 100; Hazlett, 1966: 82; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 91, pl. 1, figs. 2, 4; Scelzo, 1971: 146; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 168; Scelzo, 1973: 168; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 208; Boschi, 1979: 138; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 142; Williams, 1984: 197, fig. 137; Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 73, fig. 7; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 50; Hebbling & Mansur, 1995: 471.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA and Antilles to Brazil (from RJ to RS), Uruguay and Argentina.

Comments: Subtropical, littoral, from 19 to 500m, on sand, mud, shell, and rock bottoms.
Dardanus venosus H. Milne Edwards, 1848

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 94.

Decription and diagnosis: H. Milne Edwards, 1848: 61; Williams, 1965: 123.

References: H. Milne Edwards, 1848: 61; Rathbun, 1900: 144; Benedict, 1901: 141; Moreira, 1901: 24; 1906: 13; Verril, 1908, 441; Bouvier, 1918: 6; Rathbun, 1919: 329; Schmitt, 1924: 95; 1935: 201; 1936: 376; Holthuis, 1959: 153; Provenzano, 1959: 374, fig. 6; 1960: 119; 1961: 153; Williams, 1965: 123, fig. 99; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 94; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 168; Biffar & Provenzano, 1972: 777; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 50.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA and Bermudas to north of South America. Brazil (from PA to BA, RA, FN).

Comments: Littoral, from 0 to 100m, on rock, shell, calcareous algae, algae, coral, sand, and mud bottoms.

Genus Cancellus H. Milne Edwards, 1836



Cancellus ornatus Benedict, 1901

Decription and diagnosis: Benedict, 1901: 772; Williams, 1984: 193.

References: Benedict, 1901: 772, figs. 1-2; Mayo, 1973: 18, figs. 5-8; Williams, 1984: 193, fig. 134; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 49.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From Gulf of Mexico, USA (Florida) and Antilles to northern South America. Brazil (PE, BA).

Comments: Littoral, from 37 to 366m, on sand, mud, and shell bottoms. Males were found associated with siliceous sponges, and females on calcareous rocks.

Genus Clibanarius Dana, 1852



Clibanarius antillensis Stimpson, 1859

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 99.

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 99.

References: Dana, 1852: 467; Smith, 1869: 18; Nobili, 1897: 4; Rathbun, 1900: 144; Benedict, 1901: 142; Moreira, 1901: 29; Schmitt, 1924: 79; 1935: 199; 1936: 375; Provenzano, 1959: 368, fig. 5b; 1960: 119; 1961: 152; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 99, fig. 60; Coelho, 1971: 232; Gomes Corrêa, 1972: 1; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 169; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Negreiros-Fransozo et al., 1991: 135.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From Bermudas and USA (Florida) to Brazil (from CE to SC, RA).

Comments: Littoral, intertidal to 6m, on mud and rock bottoms, reefs, and estuarine zones.
Clibanarius foresti Holthuis, 1959

Decription and diagnosis: Holthuis, 1959: 147.

References: Holthuis, 1959: 147, fig. 28; Coelho, 1971: 232; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 169; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho; Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 51.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Suriname and Brazil (AP, PA).

Comments: Littoral, from 113 to 65m, on mud, occasionally sand and organic bottoms.
Clibanarius sclopetarius (Herbst, 1796)

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 103.

Decription and diagnosis: Herbst, 1796: 23; Provenzano, 1959: 369.

References: Herbst, 1796: 23, pl. 23, fig. 3; H. Milne Edwards, 1836: 278; 1837: 229; de Saussure, 1858: 455; Stimpson, 1858: 235; Smith, 1869: 18; Miers, 1877: 658; Ives, 1891: 182; Nobili, 1897: 4; Rathbun, 1897: 43; 1900: 144; Benedict, 1901: 142; Moreira, 1901: 27; Schmitt, 1935: 199; 1936: 376; Provenzano, 1959: 369; 1961: 152; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 103; Coelho 1971: 232; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 169; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 51.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA (Florida) and Antilles to Brazil (from CE to SC).

Comments: Intertidal, on sand bottoms near reefs and estuarine zones.

Clibanarius tricolor (Gibbes, 1850)

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 102.

Decription and diagnosis: Gibbes, 1850: 189; Provenzano, 1959: 366.

References: Gibbes, 1850: 189; Verril, 1908: 447, figs. 61-63; Schmitt, 1924: 94; 1935: 200; Boone, 1927: 77; Provenzano, 1959: 366, fig. 5a; 1960: 119; 1961: 153; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 102, fig. 61; Coelho, 1971: 232; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 169; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 51.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. USA (Florida) and Bermudas to Brazil (RA, FE).

Comments: Littoral, from intertidal to 6m, in rock holes.

Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802)

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent 1967: 104.

Decription and diagnosis: Bosc, 1802: 78; Williams, 1984: 194.

References: Bosc, 1802: 78, pl. 12, fig. 1; Ives, 1891: 183; Rathbun, 1900: 144; Moreira, 1901: 28; Hay & Shore, 1918: 410; Wass, 1955: 148; Provenzano, 1959: 371, fig. 5b; Holthuis, 1959: 141, figs. 26a-b, 27; Williams, 1965: 120, fig. 97; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 104; Coelho, 1971: 232; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 170; Felder, 1973; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho; Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; Williams, 1984: 194, fig. 135; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 52; Negreiros-Fransozo, Fransozo & Hebling, 1991: 135.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA and Antilles to Brazil (from PA to SC).

Comments: Littoral, from intertidal up to 22m, on sand and algae bottoms, reefs, and estuarine zones.

Genus Calcinus Dana, 1852



Calcinus tibicen (Herbst, 1791)

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 106.

Decription and diagnosis: Herbst, 1791: 25; Provenzano, 1959: 363.

References: Herbst, 1791: 25; Bosc, 1802: 78; H. Milne Edwards, 1836: 279; 1848: 64; Smith, 1869: 16, 39; Rathbun, 1900: 144; Rankin, 1900: 533; Benedict, 1901: 141; Moreira, 1901: 27; Verril, 1908: 439; Schmitt, 1935: 198; Provenzano, 1959: 363, fig. 4; 1960: 120; 1961: 152; Fausto-Filho, 1966: 35; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 106; Coelho, 1971: 232; Gomes Corrêa, 1972: 1; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 170; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 52.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA (Florida) and Bermudas to Brazil (from CE to SP, FN).

Comments: Littoral, from intertidal to 30m, in beaches and reefs.

Genus Isocheles Stimpson, 1858



Isocheles sawayai Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967

Decription and diagnosis: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 107.

References: Moreira, 1901; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 107, figs. 62-63, 68-69; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 170; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Negreiros-Fransozo & Hebling, 1983: 41, figs 1-12; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 52.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from CE to SC).

Comments: Littoral, from 1 to 20m, on sand bottoms, near the beach.

Genus Loxopagurus Forest, 1964



Loxopagurus loxochelis (Moreira, 1901)

Synonymy: Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 72.

Decription and diagnosis: Moreira, 1901: 24; Forest, 1964: 281; Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 72.

References: Moreira, 1901: 24, pl. 2, fig. 1a-f; Forest, 1964: 281, figs. 1-10; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 112, figs. 66-67; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 170; Scelzo, 1973: 169; Scelzo & Boschi, 1973: 208; Scelzo, 1976: 44; Boschi, 1979: 138; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Hebling & Rieger, 1986: 72, fig. 6; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 52.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from BA to RS) to Argentina.

Comments: Littoral, from 8 to 30m, on sand and mud bottoms.

Genus Petrochirus Stimpson, 1858



Petrochirus diogenes (Linné, 1758)

Synonymy: Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 95.

Decription and diagnosis: Linné, 1758: 631; Williams, 1984: 198.

References: Linné, 1758: 631; Herbst, 1791: 30; Olivier, 1811: 640; Dana, 1852: 453; Heller, 1865: 85; Smith, 1869: 17; Moreira, 1901: 26; Benedict, 1901: 140; Hay & Shore, 1918: 410, pl. 30, fig. 6; Schmitt, 1935: 206, fig. 66; Provenzano, 1959: 378, fig. 8; Holthuis, 1959: 151; Provenzano, 1961: 153; Williams, 1965: 122, fig. 98; Forest & de Saint Laurent, 1967: 95; Provenzano, 1968: 147, figs. 1-12; Coelho, 1971: 232; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 169; Coelho & Santos, 1980: 143; Coelho, Ramos-Porto & Koening, 1980: 7; Williams, 1984: 198, fig. 138; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1987: 49.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. From USA and Antilles to Brazil (from AP to RS) and Uruguay .

Comments: Littoral, from 0 to 128m, on sand, mud, shell, rock, and calcareous algae bottoms.

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