Paths of Glory – Suicide of Europe The First World War, 1914–1918

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16.4.1 The Central Powers Player has the ability to force Russia from the war via the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, as was done historically. This is accomplished by a six step process. The Russian Capitulation marker initially begins in the God Save the Tsar box.

16.4.2 The Central Powers Player records the number of VP spaces in Russia that he currently controls (even if the spaces are currently OOS), using the Current CP Russian VP marker on the General Records Track. If the Allied Player recaptures a VP space in Russia, the marker is moved back on the General Records Track.

16.4.3 When the Central Powers control three or more VP spaces in Russia, the Russian Capitulation marker is moved into the “Tsar Takes Command Allowed” box. The Central Powers may now play this event. If the Current CP Russian VP marker moves below 3 before the “Tsar Takes Command” event is played, move the Russian Capitulation marker back into the “God Save the Tsar” box.

16.4.4 The “Fall of the Tsar” Event may be played only if the “Tsar Takes Command” Event has been played and the Russian Turmoil Status plus the Current CP Russian VP is 33 or higher. If this occurs, move the Russian Capitulation marker into the “Fall of the Tsar Allowed” box of the Russian Capitulation Track. If this total drops below 33 before the “Fall of the Tsar” Event is played, move the Russian Capitulation marker back to the “Tsar Takes Command” box until the total is again 33 or higher.

16.4.5 When the “Fall of the Tsar” Event is played, place the Tsar Fell CP Russian VP marker in the same box as the Current CP Russian VP marker on the General Records Track. In addition, move the Russian Capitulation marker into the “Fall of the Tsar” box.

16.4.6 The “Bolshevik Revolution” Event may be played on any turn following the “Fall of the Tsar” Event if:

1. the Current CP Russian VP marker is in a higher box on the General Records Track than the Tsar Fell CP Russian VP marker (counting a captured Baku if applicable), or

2. the Central Powers control all seven VP spaces in Russia (excluding Baku).

If either of these conditions is met, move the Russian Capitulation marker into the “Bolshevik Revolution Allowed” box. If these conditions are no longer met, move the marker back to the “Fall of the Tsar” box until the conditions again apply.

16.4.7 When the “Bolshevik Revolution” Event is played, move the Russian Capitulation marker into that box.

16.4.8 The “Treaty of Brest-Litovsk” Event may be played at any time following the play of the “Bolshevik Revolution” Event.

When the “Treaty of Brest-Litovsk” is played, move the Russian Capitulation marker into that box.

16.4.9 When Brest-Litovsk is played Russian units may not operate outside Russia, Germany, Turkey, Austria and Romania.

Any Russian units outside those countries are eliminated. Russian units after Brest-Litovsk may never move through or stack with Allied units (and vice versa). Russian units currently stacked with Allied units are eliminated (interned). (This prevents the Allied Player from using Russian units after Brest-Litovsk from protecting Allied units from attack.)

16.4.10 After the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk RU units may no longer attack. CP units may not attack RU units except TU units may attack on the Near East map. Both sides may still move into unoccupied spaces and may still suffer attrition, besiege forts, and resolve sieges.
16.5 Foreign Policy and Peace Terms

16.5.1 Foreign Aid

During Voluntary Economic Actions (only) the Active Player may transfer 1 RP from one of his active nations to another. The last RP of a nation can not be transferred.

The recipient nation does not need to be active, but must be able to record replacement points.

16.5.2 Foreign Policy

If a Player elects to apply Foreign Policy, then the Player must select either the Russian Turmoil Status or the BR Entry / US Involvement Status, and roll on the appropriate line (based on current Combined War Status) of the Peace Terms Table.

The VP result on the Peace Terms Table will indicate an increase, decrease, or leave unchanged, either the Russian Turmoil Status or the BR Entry / US Involvement Status, as selected by the active Player.

Negative (i.e. favorable) VP results for the Allied Player will reduce the Russian Turmoil Status or increase the BR Entry / US Involvement Status.

Positive (i.e. favorable) VP results for the Central Powers Player will increase the Russian Turmoil Status or reduce the BR Entry / US Involvement Status.

The Russian Turmoil Status and BR Entry / US Involvement Status can never go below zero.

16.5.3 Peace Terms Allowed Range:

A Player may elect to Offer Peace Terms (instead of applying Foreign Policy) if the current VP total is within his allowed range.

The Central Powers Player may offer Peace Terms if the current VP total is 11 or more. The Allied Player may offer Peace Terms if the current VP total is 9 or fewer.

A Player may not offer Peace Terms more than once per turn. Rejected Peace Terms

If the Peace Terms offer is rejected, then:

  • Increase the War Status of the Offering Player (and also the Combined War Status) by 1 point (note there is no change to the BR /US Involvement or to the Russian Turmoil status markers);

  • The offering Player rolls a die to determine the effect of the Peace Terms offer using the Peace Terms Table. The result will increase, decrease or leave unchanged the VP level. Accepted Peace Terms

If the opposing Player accepts the Peace Terms, the combined War Status Marker is moved to the level 40 box.

As a result an Armistice will be declared during the War Status Phase of the current turn. At that point the game will end and victory will be determined.

The game continues as normal but the play of Strategy Cards as an Event card is no longer allowed, and no additional offers of Peace Terms may be made.

Note: While the acceptance of Peace Terms heralds the end of the war, the time required to negotiate Armistice conditions provides a last opportunity to modify the situation on the ground to one’s advantage before the actual word passes from the soldiers to the diplomats and negotiators.
17.0 Replacements

17.1 General Rules

17.1.1 During the Replacement Phase of a Player’s Economic Action, each nation of the active Player can spend the number of replacement points (RPs) recorded on the General Records Track by the nation’s RP marker. Allied (A) RPs may be spent only to replace ANA, AUS, BE, CND, MN, PT, RO, GR, HO and SB units. In addition, these units may only be replaced using Allied RPs.

17.1.2 RPs not spent during a Voluntary Economic Action are retained and may be spent during future Replacement Phases.

RPs not spent during a Mandated Economic Action are lost; they may not be saved for use in future Replacement Phases.

17.1.3 If the enemy controls or besieges a nation’s capital space (Paris in the case of France, Vienna or Budapest in the case of Austria-Hungary), no RPs may be spent for that nation.

Exception: Belgian and Serbian units and the Dutch Corp are not affected by this restriction. However, Belgian and Serbian Army units can be recreated only if they may legally be placed on the map (see 17.1.5) Dutch, Belgian and Serbian corps can still be rebuilt in the Reserve Box, even if their countries are completely controlled by the enemy.

17.1.4 The different replacement options and their cost are given in Replacement Cost Table on the Player Aid Cards. German and Austrian units tracing supply to Sofia or Constantinople, Turk units tracing supply to Essen, Breslau or Sofia, Bulgarian units tracing supply to Essen, Breslau or Constantinople, and Russian and Romanian units tracing supply to Belgrade may not receive replacements.

Note: French units cut off from an unbesieged Paris and tracing supply to London can receive replacements normally.

17.1.5 Recreated Armies are placed as if they were a reinforcement (See There are two exceptions noted below:

  • Serbian Army units may be recreated at Salonika if the “Salonika” or “Greek Entry” Event cards have been played and Salonika is under Allied control. They may also be recreated in Belgrade following normal reinforcement restrictions.

  • The Belgian Army may be rebuilt in Brussels, Antwerp, or Ostend. The Belgian Army may not be built in Antwerp if a line of supply does not exist. If none of these spaces are Allied controlled and in supply, the Belgian Army may be rebuilt in Calais. (Calais also represents the corner of Belgium held by the Allies after October 1914.).

Exception: Serb armies may not be recreated at Belgrade if Nis is under CP control.

17.1.6 The British ANA Corps is not placed in the Reserve Box if it is replaced. It is placed in Arabia.

17.1.7 Some units may never take replacements. These units are marked with a dot in the upper right hand corner. E.g. the BR MEF Army.

17.1.8 United States Replacement Points: After the play of the “Over There” Event, all Allied RP cards played produce one US RP as well as the RP listed on the card.
18.0 Vesting Holland

Credit for the concept of this rule lies with the original designer, Mr. David Meyeler. His original design notes are reproduced below.

Vesting Holland - Design notes (from Mr. Meyler)

Prior to the First World War, the Dutch government had an informal but effective “spy” service in operation in Germany. With the receipt of the coded message “api api” in late July 1914, following the Sarajevo crisis, the Dutch government ordered full mobilization (ironically, the first nation in Western Europe to do so). Meaning fire in Malay, the code meant imminent German mobilization, and with that, an expected invasion. The Dutch knew that German war plans from 1906 included an invasion of the Netherlands, but were unaware this provision had been dropped a few years later. A German invasion never did come, but the Dutch armed forces remained on alert for the duration of the war, in fact doubling its pre-war size by 1918

The Dutch Army in 1914 was based on eight infantry brigades organized into four divisions, each brigade comprising three regiments and some field artillery. In support were a cavalry brigade and horse artillery regiment, and a small air service with about a dozen aircraft. There was also a territorial reserve of 16 regiments. Unlike the Second World War, the Dutch field army (Veld Leger) was about the same size as its Belgian equivalent, and had the same shortages in heavy artillery and machine guns. Taking into account the Dutch navy and overseas forces, the military establishment of the Netherlands was considerably greater than that of Belgium

Two of the Dutch divisions were posted near Maastricht, with a third division in the Arnhem area, and the fourth in reserve. It was meant as a clear indication that any violation of Dutch territory would meet resistance, even a limited German advance through Maastricht to bypass Liege. Berlin, in fact, complained about this obviously anti-German deployment before the war, and the Dutch began an extensive re-fortification of the port of Vlissingen in the Scheldt estuary as an “anti-British” move. The British, in turn, doubted Dutch intentions or abilities to oppose a German invasion and had made some preliminary studies about a limited occupation of Dutch territory along the Scheldt to secure the shipping route to Antwerp.

18.1 Map Changes

18.1.1 Holland:

Holland is made of two spaces:

  • Amsterdam, a Fort and port space (black, non-VP) combat factor of 1, and with connections to Nijmegen ad Antwerp, and a restricted connection to London.

  • Nijmegen, an open space (black, non-VP), with connections to Essen, Aachen, Antwerp and Amsterdam.

18.1.2 London-Amsterdam connection:

The London-Amsterdam connection may only be used by BR corps (either direction), or the HO corps moving from London to Amsterdam (this direction only). Amsterdam is considered an Allied port for all purposes.

18.2 New Units:

Suggested stats for the HO units are as follows: HO Army (id VL), full strength 2-3-3/reduced 1-3-3; one Holland corps, full strength 1-1-3/reduced 0-1-3.

Dutch units use London as supply source.

HO units can be rebuilt in Amsterdam. If Amsterdam is controlled by the Central Powers the HO corps can still be rebuilt in the Allied Reserve, and if the HO Army is not on the map the HO Corps may SR from the Reserve box to London (reflecting overseas resources of the Dutch Empire).

18.3 The Central Powers card #8 can now be used as either the “Race to the Sea” or the “Invasion Holland” events.

The “Race to the Sea” event can be played before the “Invasion Holland” event.

19.0 Italy

19.1 Map and Set-Up Changes

There is no longer a connection between the Trent space and the Verona space.

The Italian 1st Army is set-up in Venice.

19.1 .1 Map and Set-Up Changes (Optional): Trent/Verona

There is still a connection between the Trent and the Verona spaces.

Movement, retreat, SR and tracing supply are allowed as per the normal rules, but combat and advance after combat are not allowed between these two spaces.

19.1 .2 Map and Set-Up Changes (Optional): Taranto/Valona

Only Italian Corps (and not Armies) may move, attack or SR between Taranto and Valona.

19.1 .3 Map and Set-Up Changes (Optional): Maggiore/Venice

There is a normal connection between the Maggiore and the Venice space.

Historical Note: The Maggiore space (perhaps a better name for the spacewould be either Caporetto or Vittorio Veneto) is where the breakthrough occurred during the Caporetto rout of the Italian Army. The bulk of the Italian forces between Caporetto and the sea (i.e. in the Udine area) risked being cut off and were forced to rapidly retire behind the Piave river: due to the plain lay of the land the river was the only natural obstacle between Caporetto and Venice.
19.2 Operations Restrictions (Optional)

Design Note: It is a widely diffused opinion that Italy is a liability to the Allied cause.

With the introduction of level zero trenches and the suppression of the Trent to Verona connection Italy is a tougher nut to crack.

Players that fear the Central Powers can still too easily pick on Italy early in the game might consider the adoption of this optional rule inspired by a variant originally proposed by Ted Raicer.

19.2.1 Central Powers

Only up to two German Corps (and no German Armies) may operate in Italy (move, attack, or advance into any space in Italy) until the CP Commitment level reaches Total War.

Once the Central Powers are at Total War any number of German Corps and up to a maximum of two German Armies may operate in Italy.

19.2.2 Allied Powers

Only up to two British or French Corps (and no British or French Armies) may operate in Italy (move, attack, or advance into any space in Italy) until the AL Commitment level reaches Total War.

Once the Allied Powers are at Total War any number of British or French Corps and up to a maximum of two British or French Armies may operate in Italy.
20.0 Card Notes

This section is intended to give Players a brief understanding of the events represented by the cards.

11th Army: The 11th Army, commanded by August von Mackensen, spearheaded a number of German offensives both against Russia and in the Balkans.

14 Points: Woodrow Wilson’s idealistic statement of US war aims.

Air Superiority: Air warfare developed gradually in WWI, particularly on the western front, where the introduction of new models, tactics, and organization constantly swung the balance between the Germans and the Allies. Only in the summer of 1918 would sheer numbers allow the Allies to attain permanent air supremacy.

Allenby: Former cavalry commander on the Western Front, he led the British to triumph over the Turks in 1917-18.

Alpenkorps: an elite unit trained in mountain warfare, it took part in the blitzkrieg style campaign against Romania in 1916.

Arab Northern Army: the name given the Arab forces under Prince Feisal and his British advisor, Lawrence of Arabia, during the 1918 drive on Damascus.

Von Below: German general responsible for the victory at Caporetto (against the Italians) in 1917.

Blockade: The British blockade of the Central Powers, which grew ever tighter as the war progressed, ultimately resulted in widespread hunger and even starvation in Germany and Austria in the last two years of the war.

Blucher: Code name for the May 1918 offensive against the French, which brought the Germans back to the River Marne for the first time since 1914.

Bolshevik Revolution: The overthrow of the Kerensky government by Lenin led to Russia’s withdrawal from the alliance against the Central Powers.

Brusilov Offensive: Named after its commander, the Brusilov offensive was the greatest Russian victory of the war, nearly toppling the Austrian monarchy. Its ultimate strategic failure however, helped spread defeatism through the army.

Bulgarian Entry: Tempted by the promise of Serbian territory, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915. Her entry into the war led to the Serbian collapse, but the Bulgar forces were decisively beaten when the Allies broke out of Salonika in October 1918.

Chlorine Gas: Used by the Germans at Ypres in the spring of 1915, it caused a tactical breakthrough the Germans lacked the reserves to exploit.

Cloak and Dagger: Allied spying operations had no success comparable to Ultra in WWII, but undoubtedly provided useful information from time to time.

Convoy: While the British admiralty was reluctant to adopt a combat system to combat the U-boats, heavy merchant ship losses finally forced them to do so in early 1917.

Entrench: Though the French discouraged entrenching (to the point of failing to issue shovels and picks) the need to avoid all the lead flying above ground quickly led soldiers on both sides to dig in.

Everyone Into the Battle: Foch’s slogan for the grand Allied offensive in the closing weeks of WWI.

Falkenhayn: Chief of the General Staff from September 1914 to August 1916, his first task on taking command was to reorient German strategy after the failure of the Schlieffen Plan.

Fall of the Tsar: Bread riots in Petrograd in early 1917 quickly escalated into a revolution, leading to the end of the 300 year-old Romanov dynasty in Russia.

Flamethrowers: The first large-scale use of flamethrowers took place at Verdun in 1916.

Fortified Machine Guns: A major element of German defensive tactics on the western front was the employment of machine guns in heavily fortified emplacements.

Von Francois: Commanding the German 1st Corps at the Battle of Tannenberg, von Francois was an especially aggressive (sometimes to the point of insubordination) and tactically skilled commander.

French Army of the Orient: Name given to the French force at Salonika.

French Mutiny: The French Mutiny in the spring of 1917, kept secret at the time, ended any hope for major French offensives that year.

Grand Fleet: The British Grand Fleet effectively kept the German High Seas Fleet bottled up for the entire war.

Great Retreat: In the summer of 1915 the Russian army abandoned Poland, beginning a massive withdrawal that ended that Fall in a line that ran from Riga to Romania.

Greek Entry: Though partly occupied by Allied forces at Salonika in 1915, Greece did not join the Allies until 1917.

Guns of August: The use of borrowed Austrian mortars with 305-cm shells allowed the Germans to smash the forts of Liege in August 1914 The famous Krupp 420-cm mortars, often given credit for this feat, did not actually arrive until after the Liege forts had fallen.

High Seas Fleet: The German High Seas Fleet spent most of the war bottled up by the larger British Grand Fleet. It fought only one fleet action during the conflict, at Jutland in 1916. A tactical victory, it failed to break the British blockade and was thus a strategic defeat.

H-L Take Command: Taking command from Falkenhayn in August 1916, the duo of Hindenburg and Lundendorff ruled Germany as virtual dictators until the fall of 1918.

Hoffmann: Perhaps the best operational mind the war produced, he was the genius behind many of the victories Germany won in the east.

Hurricane Barrage: An intense, concentrated, and brief barrage, designed to pave the way for an infantry assault.

Von Hutier: German general responsible for victory at Riga (against the forces of the Kerensky government) in 1917. Later commanded armies in France.

Independent Air Force: The forerunner to WWII’s Bomber Command, the British Independent Air Force began a series of strategic bombing raids on German industry in 1918.

Italian Entry: Italy ignored its treaty with the Central Powers in 1914, preferring to remain neutral at first, and ultimately joining the Allies in 1915.

Kemal: Later father of modern Turkey, Kemal was also an extremely effective commander, starting the war with command of a division and rising to army command.

Kerensky Offensive: The last Russian offensive of WWI, it had some initial success against the Austrians, but ultimately resulted in the collapse of the Russian southern front.

Landships: name given to the early British tanks, which did indeed resemble small land bound dreadnoughts.

Landwehr: German territorial forces, they were not originally intended for front line use, but quickly found themselves fighting alongside the regular army.

Libyan Revolt: Moslem tribesmen launched a holy war against the British in Libya, but were eventually put down by the diversion of forces from the campaign against the Turks.

Liman von Sanders: German General who helped organize and command the Turk Army.

Lloyd George: Britain’s 2nd wartime Prime Minister tried to curb the offensive instincts of General Haig, especially after the bloodbath of 3rd Ypres, by holding back men and supplies.

Lusitania: A passenger liner sunk by a German U-boat in 1915, the loss of life-including 124 Americans, spread anti-German feeling through much of the United States. It should be noted the Lusitania was almost certainly carrying munitions to the British.

Mata Hari: An exotic dancer, prostitute, and rather ineffectual German spy. Other German agents achieved better results, but what WWI game would be complete without the war’s most famous spy?
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