Paths of Glory – Suicide of Europe The First World War, 1914–1918

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10.1.3 Should a Player overstack a space, he will choose which unit(s) to eliminate to bring the space back into stacking limits. Players may intentionally overstack a space and then eliminate excess units.

10.1.5 Units of opposing sides may never be stacked together.

Note: Units of one side may besiege the enemy’s forts, which are not considered units.

10.1.6 Units of different nations controlled by one Player may stack freely; however, there is a higher cost to activate a space with more than one nationality in it (see 9.2.3).
11.0 Movement

11.1 General Rules

11.1.1 Combat units with a MF of 1 or more may move when their space is Activated for movement. The movement of one stack must be completed before beginning the movement of another. One unit must also complete its movement before another unit begins moving.

NOTE: This rule comes into play when sequencing the besieging of enemy forts and subsequent movement through those besieged spaces.

11.1.2 All spaces cost 1 MP to enter, regardless of the terrain type.

11.1.3 Movement must be from space to space connected by a solid or dotted line. Spaces may not be skipped.

11.1.4 Players do not gain control of spaces their Units move or advance into.

Players immediately gain control of the space their Units end their movement or advance in, provided the space does not contain an intact enemy Fort. Control is gained as soon as the unit terminates its move, thus allowing units moving later in the Action to receive supply through the space.

Clarification: in rare circumstances it is possible that units out of supply at the time of activation will be able to move: a space that contains both supplied units and OOS units can be activated for movement; if, because of sequencing of movements, a valid supply path is opened for the units previously out of supply, then these will be able to move.

Players can gain control of spaces their units move through by spending 1 additional movement point in the space. This action can not be performed if the space contains an intact enemy Fort.

11.1.5 A unit may never spend more MPs than its MF in a single Action. Unused MPs cannot be accumulated for future Actions or transferred to other units.

Units that enter a space where they would be isolated (unsupplied) must immediately stop.

Clarification: units can enter a space where they will be isolated, but can then move no farther.

11.1.6 Units may move through and also end their movement in a space containing an Attack marker. Units so moved can not take part in any of the attacks being launched from the space activated for attack, and do not affect the combat in any way (i.e. do not trigger the effects of Combat cards).

Exception: the Schlieffen Plan and the Guns of August events allow Central Powers units ending their move in a space activated for Attack to participate in combat during the same action.

11.1.7 Units may never enter a space containing an enemy combat unit.

11.1.8 Units may enter a space containing an enemy Fort if they are able to besiege it (alone or in conjunction with other units moving in the same action) or if the Fort is already besieged (See 15.2.1).

11.1.9 Until either the “Race to the Sea” Event card is played or the CP War Status is 4 or higher, Central Powers units may neither end their move nor SR into Amiens, Antwerp, Calais, or Ostend, except to advance after combat. However they may move through and place control markers on these spaces.

11.1.10 No units may enter a MEF space unless the MEF Beach Head marker is in the space.

11.1.11 Units may not enter a space in a neutral nation, but all units may freely enter any nation immediately after it enters the war.

Exceptions: Limited Greek Entry (See

11.1.12 Units may always enter Albania. Albanian spaces are considered Allied Controlled at Start for SR purposes. Albanian spaces check Attrition supply by tracing normally to an Allied supply source or tracing to Taranto even while Italy is still Neutral.

11.1.13 Units of both sides may freely enter Persia after Turkey enters the war. Although Ahwaz is in Persia, it is an Allied controlled VP space when Turkey enters the war.

11.1.14 The Arab Northern Army unit is an exception to rules on control of spaces: the ANA does not permanently convert CP spaces it establishes control over (whether by spending 1MP in the space or by ending its movement or advance in it). Instead any CP space (except for a besieged Fort space) the ANA occupies and converts is considered temporarily under Allied control. The instant the ANA leaves such a space, it reverts to CP control. The ANA has no effect on spaces converted by other Allied units: these remain Allied after the ANA exits.

11.1.15 The Turk SN Corps converts spaces normally, however, during the Attrition segment of each Political Action, any spaces it converts (other than the space it occupies) that cannot trace a supply line suffer Attrition. The Libya space suffers normal attrition and can be controlled by the Allied Player through normal movement.

11.1.16 Neither the BEF Corps nor Army may move in or attack into any space outside Britain, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany.
11.2 Trenches

11.2.1 If a space is Activated for movement and the game is in the Fall 1914 turn (turn 3) or later, then one unit in each Activated space may attempt to entrench instead of moving or attacking. Other units in the space may move or attack freely.

Units may entrench while besieging enemy Fort spaces.

Important: both Players may play the Entrench event

11.2.2 After all movement for the Action is complete the Active Player can proceed to attempt entrenchment of the eligible spaces: If the Entrench Event has not yet been played by the Active Player, and provided the game is in the Fall 1914 turn (turn 3) or later, he may roll a die for each space which has a unit attempting to entrench. If the die roll is equal to or less than the unit’s LF, place a Level 1 Trench marker in that space.

Note that it is not possible for a Player to entrench units to level 2 until he has played the Entrench Event. If the Entrench Event has been played by the Active Player:

  • he may automatically entrench any eligible units up to trench level 1

  • he may roll a die for each space which has a unit attempting to entrench and that already is entrenched at Level 1. If the die roll is equal to or less than the unit’s LF, flip the Trench marker to Level 2 side.

11.2.3 A space may never contain more than one Trench marker and the Trench level may never be more than Level 2.

11.2.4 Trenches remain in a space until an enemy unit enters that space, even if no friendly units are in the space.

11.2.5 If an enemy unit enters a space with a friendly Level 1 Trench, the Trench marker is removed.

11.2.6 If an enemy unit enters a space with a friendly Level 2 Trench, the Trench marker is replaced by an enemy Level 1 Trench marker.

11.2.7 Trenches and Attrition: If a space with a Level 1 Trench suffers attrition, the Trench marker is removed. If a space with a Level 2 Trench marker suffers attrition, it is replaced with a Level 1 Trench marker.

Exception: Level 1 and Level 2 Trench markers in an intact Fort space do not suffer attrition.

11.2.8 All defending units receive the Combat benefits of friendly Trenches present in the space they occupy, as listed on the Terrain Effects Chart.

11.2.9 Forts by themselves never benefit from Trenches. However, if friendly units are defending in a Fort space, the trench benefit is applied as well as adding the Fort’s CF to the combat strength.

11.2.10 After “Entrench” has been played as an event by the Central Powers player, and for the rest of the game, all spaces containing at least a German Army, all spaces in Austria Hungary and all Mountain spaces containing at least an Austro-Hungarian Army are considered to be entrenched at level zero, unless already containing a level 1 or level 2 Trench marker.

11.2.11 After “Entrench” has been played as an event by the Allied player, and for the rest of the game, all spaces containing at least a French, US or British Army, all spaces in Italy and all Mountain spaces containing at least an Italian Army are considered to be entrenched at level zero, unless already containing a level 1 or level 2 Trench marker.

11.2.12 A space with level 0 Trenches causes one column shift to the left on the attacker’s fire table (but no favourable shift to the defender’s fire). A space with level 0 trenches is considered an entrenched space in all respects (i.e. prevents Flank Attacks, allows the defender to cancel retreat, etc.).

Level 0 trenches may not be brought into play in any other way, and can never be destroyed (their effects can, however, be temporarily nullified by trench-negating combat cards).

DESIGN NOTE: The original idea for this rule was published in the Banquet des Generaux website; full credit goes to the Authors.
11.3 Near East Map Movement Restrictions

11.3.1 The only Armies that may enter or attack into spaces on the Near East map are the Russian CAU, the British MEF and NE, the French OR, and the Turk YLD and AoI. This includes Constantinople and Bursa, which are also on the main map.

11.3.2 Only one Russian Corps per turn may move in either direction between the To Caucasus space and the Near East (Grozny and Poti). A Russian Army (including RU CAU) is never allowed to make this move. After the “Fall of the Tsar” Event, no Russian unit may move between the To Caucasus space and the Near East, although one Corps may still SR between the To Caucasus space and the Near East per turn. See also 13.2.2.

11.3.3 Turkish Internal Supply (Optional)

Any CP controlled VP space in Turkey (Medina included) is a special limited supply Source for CP spaces and units in Turkey (defined as any location on the NE map which began the war under CP ownership).

CP units (including German Corps) that are in Limited Supply may be activated for OPS and use Combat Cards but may not receive replacements nor may they SR.

11.3.4 Near East Map: Definition (Optional)

Consider Constantinople and Bursa to be part of the Near East Map, even if depicted also on the Main Map.

11.3.5 Non-Turkish CP Corps (Optional)

Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian Corps may not operate on the NE map.

German Corps may only enter the NE map from the main map or the Reserve Box with Strategic Redeployment (SR) at the cost of 3 SR points for one German Corps.

German Corps may not enter the Near East Map through normal movement, retreat or advance after combat.

Strategic Redeployment (SR) for German Corps within the NE map or from the NE map to the main map or Reserve Box costs 1 SR point. Normal movement from NE map to the main map is allowed normally.
12.0 Combat

12.1 General Rules

12.1.1 A Combat may be initiated only by units in an Activated space with an Attack marker. Combat is voluntary and not all units in a space have to attack. A Player can choose to not attack from an activated space, perhaps as a consequence of the results of earlier combats.

12.1.2 A Player may attack a space that contains only enemy units that retreated in the current Action. In this case, defending units can not benefit from Combat Cards, can not receive any positive DRMs and automatically fire on the leftmost column of the appropriate fire table; any column shifts in their favor are ignored.

If the attacker achieves a Loss Number of at least one, all of the defending units that retreated in the current Action will be eliminated (see also 12.5.8).

12.1.3 The active Player is called the Attacker and the non-active Player is the Defender.

12.1.4 Each Combat can involve only one defending space. Any number of units in adjacent spaces Activated for Attack can participate in an attack.

12.1.5 Activated units in a single space do not have to participate in the same Combat; they can attack different adjacent spaces.

12.1.6 Each unit may participate in only one Combat per Action. A unit’s CF cannot be divided between multiple Combats.

12.1.7 Corps with a CF of 0 may attack by themselves or with other units. If they attack with other units, they will add nothing to the Combat Strength of the Combat but they can absorb losses.

12.1.8 Only attacking units participating in a Combat may take losses or be eligible to advance. If there are non-participating units in the attacking space, they are not allowed to take losses or advance.

12.1.9 Units may attack across dotted lines only if their nationality is indicated on the map adjacent to the dotted lines. Russian Armies cannot make attacks from the To Caucasus Box to the Near East. One Russian corps may attack/retreat between the To Caucasus box and the Near East per turn; this counts as the “one move” allowed under 11.3.2

12.1.10 London and Taranto: Units in London may conduct a Combat only if the Combat also involves friendly units located in a space in France, Holland or Belgium.

Exception: the North Sea Invasion event allows attacks from London without participation of units in France, Holland or Belgium.

Italian units may attack across the Taranto–Valona dotted line without friendly units located in Albania or Greece.

12.1.11 Multi-national Attack: Units of different nations on the same side may participate in the same Combat only if one space contains units of all involved nationalities. Although several special cases exist for multi-national activation (see 9.2.3), these cases do not supersede the requirements of multi-national attacks.

E.g. while BR and BE units can be activated together at a lower cost in Antwerp, Brussels, Liege, Ostend, Calais, and Amiens, the BE units do not count as BR units for multi-national attacks. Any other space(s) involved in the same Combat may contain units from any of the nationalities in the multi-national hex.
12.2 Combat Resolution

Each Combat is resolved using the following steps in the order given:

  1. Designate the Combat

  2. Determine Combat Strengths

  3. Play trench-negating Combat Cards

  4. Attempt Flank Attack

  5. Play Combat Cards

  6. Determine DRM

  7. Determine Fire Column

  8. Determine Results

  9. Take Losses

  10. Determine Combat Winner

  11. Defender Retreat

  12. Attacker Advance

12.2.1 Designate the Combat: The active Player designates which units are attacking and which space they are attacking.

The space under attack can be an empty space (regardless of control), a space containing friendly units, a space containing friendly units besieging a Fort, or an empty space containing a Fort (either friendly or enemy).

If the space does not contain any enemy units and does not contain an intact enemy Fort, then consider that the attacker won the combat and that the defender suffered a retreat of two spaces; resolution of the attack proceeds to point “12 Attacker Advance” (see also 12.7).

All attacks on spaces that do not contain any enemy units and do not contain an intact enemy Fort must be resolved before all other attacks.

12.2.2 Determine Combat Strengths: Each Player totals the CF of the units involved in the Combat to determine his Combat Strength. The Defender also adds the CF of any Fort in the defending space to his Combat Strength. This step is conducted simultaneously.

12.2.3 Play Trench Negating Combat Cards: The Attacker may play Combat Card Events that negate enemy trenches for purposes of the combat.

12.2.4 Attempt Flank Attack: The Attacker (if certain requirements are met) may declare and determine the success of a Flank Attack (See 12.3). If a Flank Attack is attempted, steps 6 though 9 of the Combat Procedure will be resolved sequentially instead of simultaneously.

12.2.5 Play Combat Cards: The Attacker may play any number of Combat Card Events whose conditions are met by this Combat at the time of Step 5. In addition, the Attacker may elect to use any Combat Card Events that are in front of him whose conditions are met by this Combat and which have not been used in a previous Combat during this Round. After the Attacker plays and selects all his Combat Cards, the Defender has the opportunity to play and select Combat Cards using the same procedure outlined for the Attacker.

12.2.6 Determine DRM: Both Players examine all played and selected Combat Event cards to determine the final DRM which will affect this Combat. There is also a –3 DRM if all attacking units are in the Sinai space. (Attacks from the Sinai space in conjunction with another space do not suffer the –3 DRM). This step is conducted simultaneously.

12.2.7 Determine Fire Column: Each Player determines which Fire Table he will use. If the Player’s units contain one or more Armies (even if reduced), the Player fires on the Army Table; otherwise, the Player uses the Corps/Fort Table.

A Player whose units reach a Loss Factor of 4 in at least one of his attacking or defending spaces and would fire on the Corps/Fort Table may elect to fire on the Army Table instead., for the current combat only, by renouncing any favourable column shifts (round the “0” Corp / Fort Fire Table column up to the “1” Army Fire Table Column).

Example: One German Army attacks two entrenched Russian Corps defending the Forts at Warsaw (LF of 2). The Allied Player can fire on the 5 Column of the Corps/Forts Table, or may elect to fire on the Army table: this would mean firing on the Army table on the 4 column.

Each Player finds his Combat Strength on the appropriate Fire Table and shifts a number of columns depending upon the Terrain Effects of the defending space (terrain and trench effects are cumulative) to determine his Fire Column. Column shifts cannot cause the Fire Column to be off the Army or Corps/Fort Tables; if the column shifts would take the Fire Column above the rightmost or below the leftmost column, any additional shifts are ignored. This step is conducted simultaneously unless a Flank Attack was attempted or the von Hutier Combat Card was played.

12.2.8 Determine Results: Each Player rolls a die, modifies it by his DRM, and cross references it with his Fire Column to determine his result. A die roll can never be modified to less than 1 or greater than 6; treat any modified die roll below 1 as a 1 and any modified die roll above 6 as a 6. This step is conducted simultaneously unless a Flank Attack was attempted (possibly with Wireless Intercepts) or the von Hutier Combat Card was played.

12.2.9 Take Losses: Each Player must now apply the combat losses required by his opponent’s result. If this was not a Flank Attack, the Defender must assign losses before the Attacker, but the losses do not affect the Loss Number he achieved.

12.2.10 Determine Combat Winner: The Player who causes his opponent the higher Loss Number wins the Combat and is allowed to keep any played or selected Combat Card Events.

The losing Player must discard all played and selected Combat Card Events. If both Players’ Loss Numbers are the same, both Players are considered to have lost and must discard.

Exception: The Allied Player discards the They Shall Not Pass event card when he loses the Combat. If he ties or wins, the card remains face up in front of him. The card is still discarded normally at the end of the turn following the one in which it is played.

12.2.11 Defender Retreat: If the Attacker wins the Combat and any attacking units remain at full strength, all defending units not eliminated must retreat. The Defender may have the option to cancel the retreat by taking an additional step loss.

12.2.12 Attacker Advance

If the Defender retreated or was completely eliminated, the Attacker has the option to advance with any remaining full strength units.

Reduced strength attacking units may also advance if the defending space was free of enemy units at the beginning of the attack.

12.3 Flank Attacks

12.3.1 The Attacker may attempt a Flank Attack if the following conditions apply:

  • Supplied Units are attacking from each of two or more spaces, and

  • the defending space is not Swamp or Mountain, does not contain a Trench marker, and is not an unoccupied Fort.

NOTE: Flank attempts may be made if certain CP combat cards which “cancel all trench effects” are used in the combat provided all of the other conditions are still met.

12.3.2 In a Flank Attack Attempt, the Attacker must designate any one supplied attacking space as the “frontal assault” or “pinning” space. Each supplied attacking space except the “pinning” space that is not connected by a solid line to any enemy occupied space except the target space provides a +1 DRM to the Flank Attack Attempt die roll. Spaces containing only an enemy Fort are not considered occupied for this rule. Enemy occupied spaces connected to friendly attacking units only by dotted lines are ignored for the purpose of determining Flank Attack Attempt DRMs.

NOTE: The Flank Attack DRM is checked at the time of the attack.

The sequence of combats may affect the enemy occupied spaces.

12.3.3 The attacking Player rolls one die to determine the success of the Flank Attack Attempt. If the modified die roll is 4 or higher, the Flank Attack succeeds and the Attacker will resolve steps 6 through 9 before the Defender. This means the Defender’s fire will be affected by the losses he takes. If the modified die roll is 3 or lower, the Flank Attack fails and the Defender will resolve steps 6 through 9 before the Attacker.

12.3.4 During flank attacks, Combat Cards played during the Play Combat Cards Step are still used even if the conditions are not met at the time of the Determine Combat Results Step.

E.g., if BR and FR units using the Hurricane Barrage Combat Card attempted and failed a flank attack, the Combat Card would still be used even if no BR units survived steps 6 though 9 of the Defender’s Combat Resolution. In the case of Kemal Combat Card, if the required TU units with combat factor of 1 or more are no longer present, simply convert the remaining factors from the Corps Fire Table to the Army Fire Table (round the “0” Corp Fire Table column up to the “1” Army Fire Table Column.) In the case of Withdraw Combat Card, the defender would still regain the flipped army or corps step after the Combat Resolution.

Note: During a flanking attack it is possible that a force will be completely eliminated before having fired: in this case the force will fire on the leftmost column of the Corps-Forts table (as no armies will be present during step 7 Determine Fire Column when the appropriate firing table is selected). Any column shifts are ignored, any DRM still applies.
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