Pathogen Ungulate specie




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Additional file 3. Selected parasitic diseases reported in wild ungulates in Europe

Pathogen

Ungulate specie

(latin name)

n

N

Prevalence

Serology

Diagnostic method

Epidemiological role from author’s opinion

Year

Country

Reference

PROTOZOAN































Babesia capreoli

Rupicapra rupicapra

6

7

(case report)




PCR

Emerging disease

2005

Switzerland

[41]

1

48

X




PCR

Unspecified

2006-2007

Switzerland

[172]

Cervus elaphus

1

9

X




PCR

Unspecified

2006-2007

Switzerland

[172]

Capreolus capreolus

12

46

X




PCR

Reservoir

2006-2007

Switzerland

[172]

Babesia divergens

Rupicapra pyrenaica







15.79 [4.2-27.38]







Reservoir




Spain

[173]

Capreolus capreolus

40

75




X

Indirect IF

Unspecified

1979

France

[111]




51

54.9 %




PCR

Zoonotic reservoir

1996-2000

Slovenia

[174]

Cervus elaphus




30

16.7%




PCR

Zoonotic reservoir

1996-2000

Slovenia

[174]

Babesia ovis

Ovis musimon

6

50




X

IFAT

Reservoir

1991-1996

Spain

[175]

Capra pyrenaica

155

475




X

IFAT

Unspecified

1992-1995

Spain

[176]

Babesia spp

Capra pyrenaica

1

1

(case report)




Microscopic examination

Unspecified

1995

Spain

[177]

Capreolus capreolus







53.3 [42.04-64.62]







Unspecified




France

[111]

83

202

X




PCR

Unspecified

2004-2008

France

[164]

Babesia EU1

Capreolus capreolus




51

21.6%




PCR

Zoonotic reservoir

1996-2000

Slovenia

[174]

Cryptosporidium spp.

Cervus elaphus




118*

14,4




IFA+PCR

Unspecified

2003-2005

Poland

[178]

1

289

X




Fecal examination

Reservoir

2001-2003

Norway

[179]

Capreolus capreolus




22

9.1




IFA+PCR

Unspecified

2003

Poland

[178]

18

291

X




Fecal examination

Reservoir

2001-2003

Norway

[179]

Bison bonasus




55

29.1




IFA+PCR

Unspecified

2003-2005

Poland

[178]

Alces alces

15

455

X




Fecal examination

Reservoir

2001-2003

Norway

[179]

Sus scrofa




5

0




IFA+PCR

Unspecified

2003

Poland

[178]

Cryptosporidium parvum

Dama dama

1

16

X




Fecal examination

Possible reservoir

1995-1998

England

[180]

Muntiacus reevsi

4

42

X




Fecal examination

Possible reservoir

1995-1998

England

[180]

Dicrocoelium dendriticum

Capreolus capreolus

1

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Cervus elaphus

4

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Giardia spp.

Cervus elaphus




118*

1,7




IFA

Unspecified

2003-2005

Poland

[178]




285

1




Fecal examination

Unspecified




Croatia

[182]

5

289

X




Fecal examination

Reservoir

2001-2003

Norway

[179]

Capreolus capreolus




22

4.5




IFA

Unspecified

2003

Poland

[178]




14

27







Unspecified




Croatia

[183]

45

291

X




Fecal examination

Reservoir

2001-2003

Norway

[179]

Bison bonasus




55

7.5




IFA

Unspecified

2003-2005

Poland

[178]

Alces alces

56

455

X




Fecal examination

Reservoir

2001-2003

Norway

[179]

1

1

X




Fecal examination

Unspecified

2002-2008

Sweden

[184]

Rangifer tarendus

11

155

X




Fecal examination

Reservoir

2001-2003

Norway

[179]

Sus scrofa




144

1.7




Fecal examination

Unspecified




Croatia

[182]

Neospora caninum

Ammotragus lervia

1

13

X




ELISA + IFAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[185]

Capreolus capreolus

2

33

X




ELISA + IFAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[185]

Cervus elaphus

28

237

X




ELISA + IFAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[185]

Sus scrofa

1

298

X




ELISA + IFAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[185]

102

565

X




ELISA

Unspecified

1999-2005

Czech Republic

[186]

Toxoplasma gondii

Alces alces

270

2142

X




cDAT

Unspecified

1992, 1994-2000

Norway

[187]

Cervus elaphus

1

67




X

ELISA

Possible reservoir

1999

Spain

[126]

1

10

X




MAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[188]

Capra pyrenaica

1

3

X




MAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[188]

Dama dama

Ovis ammon

12

32

X




Isolation

Possible reservoir

2003-2008

France

[116]

258

760

X




cDAT

Unspecified

1994, 1999-2000

Norway

[187]

7

33

X




MAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[188]

Cervus elaphus

1

4

X




Isolation

Possible reservoir

2003-2008

France

[116]

69

441

X




MAT

Possible source of zoonosis

1993-2005

Spain

[188]

44

571

X




cDAT

Unspecified

1993-1999

Norway

[187]

Dama dama

18

79

X




MAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[188]

Ovis ammon

4

27

X




MAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[188]

Ovis gmelini

1

7

X




Isolation

Possible reservoir

2003-2008

France

[116]

Ovis orientalis musimon

17

77




X

ELISA

Unspecified

-

Italy

[189]

Rangifer tarandus

9

866

X




cDAT

Unspecified

1999-2000

Norway

[187]

Rupicapra rupicapra

2

10

X




MAT

Unspecified

1993-2005

Spain

[188]

Sus scrofa

26

148

X




MAT

Reservoir

2002-2008

France

[190]

148

565

X




IFAT

Unspecified

1999-2005

Czech Republic

[186]

Theileria sp. OT3

Cervus elaphus







85.7







Reservoir




Spain

[173]

Capreolus capreolus







46.4







Reservoir




Spain

[173]

Rupicapra pyrenaica







26.3







Reservoir




Spain

[173]

Theileria sp. 3185/02

Cervus elaphus







53.6







Reservoir




Spain

[173]

Capreolus capreolus







10.1







Reservoir




Spain

[173]

Sarcoptes scabei

Rupicapra rupicapra

1696

10000

X







Unspecified

1995-2004

Italy

[191]

Rupicapra pyrenaica parva




1600

12,9%




Observation

Unspecified

1994-1995

Spain

[192]

Cervus elaphus

1




(case report)




M.E.

Unspecified

1995-2004

Italy

[191]

Capreolus capreolus

1




(case report)




M.E.

Unspecified

1995-2004

Italy

[191]

Ovis gmelini musimon

1




(case report)




M.E.

Unspecified

1995-2004

Italy

[191]

Capra pyrenaica




2096

49.2 ± 7.9




M.E.

Unspecified

1995-2006

Spain

[193]

Rupicapra pyrenaica

43

63

X




M.E.

Unspecified

1988

Spain

[194]

Capra ibex

157




(case report)




M.E.

Unspecified

1995-2006

Italy

[195]

Spanish ibex







100 (epizoology)

-

histopathology

New infection of a naive population




Spain

[194]

TREMATODA































Dicrocoelium dendriticum

Capreolus capreolus

1

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Cervus elaphus

4

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Fasciola hepatica

Capra pyrenaica

10

2096$

X




Necropsy

Unspecified

1995-2006

Spain

[193]

5

380$

X




Coprology

Unspecified

1995-2006

Spain

[193]

Cervus elaphus

5

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Capreolus capreolus

1

1

Case report




Necropsy

Unspecified

2006

France

[196]

1

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Alces alces

1

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Fascioloides magna

Cervus elaphus







Case report




Necropsy

Unspecified




Croatia

[197]

Liorchis scotiae

Alces alces

4

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha

Alces alces

8

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Capreolus capreolus

2

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Paramphistomum cervi

Cervus elaphus

3

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Paramphistomum ichikawai

Alces alces

6

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Capreolus capreolus

2

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

CESTODA































Echinococcus granulosus

Alces alces

3

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Cervus elaphus

3

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Moniezia benedeni

Alces alces

5

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Taenia hydatigena

Alces alces

8

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Capreolus capreolus

1

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Cervus elaphus

2

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Taenia krabbei

Cervus elaphus

2

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

NEMATODA































Bunostomum trigonocephalum

Alces alces

5

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Chabertia ovina

Capreolus capreolus

8

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Dictyocaulus eckerti

Alces alces

4

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]




Capreolus capreolus

2

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]




Cervus elaphus

9

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Nematodirus oiratianus

Cervus elaphus

4

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Oesophagostomum venulosum

Alces alces

3

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]




Capreolus capreolus

5

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]




Cervus elaphus

5

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Onchocerca flexuosa

Cervus elaphus

10

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Setaria cervi

Capreolus capreolus

4

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Trichuris ovis

Alces alces

6

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]




Capreolus capreolus

6

18

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]




Cervus elaphus

5

16

X




H.E.

Unspecified

1981-1998

Belorussian Polesie

[181]

Trichinella spp.

Sus scrofa

13

1035




X

ELISA

Unspecified

2003-2004

Slovak republic

[198]

30

1492

X




ELISA

Unspecified

2006-2008

France

[199]

Trichinella britovi

Sus scrofa

1

1




Case report

Artificial digestion + PCR

Unspecified

2004

Belgium

[200]

3

3




Cases report

Artificial digestion + PCR

Unspecified

Unspecified

Roumania

[201]

Trichinella spiralis

Sus scrofa

2

2




Case report

Artificial digestion + PCR

Unspecified

Unspecified

Roumania

[201]

-

458




6.8%

ELISA

Unpecified

Unspecified

The Netherlands

[202]

Toxocara spp.

Sus scrofa

85

1173




X

ELISA

Unspecified

2003-2004

Slovak republic

[198]

Ascaris suum

Sus scrofa

45

411




X

ELISA

Unspecified

2003-2004

Slovak republic

[198]

Legend: *: farmed animals; $: same study total of 2096 ibexes: all were analysed by necropsy and 380 of them were additionally analysed by coprology; cDAT: commercial Direct Agglutination Test; ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay; IF: immunofluorescence; IFAT: Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test; H.E.: Helminthological Examination: dissection and organ compression; MAT: Modified Agglutination Test; M.E.: Microscopic Examination; PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction.


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