Partisanship and Electoral Reform: Change in Congressional Cohesion, 1877-1932 by




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**p < .01

*p < .05
Table 2.

All Electoral Reforms (Standard Errors in Parentheses)







Party Voting




Poole

Rosenthal









Democrats

Republicans

Democrats

Republicans

Intercept



77.296**

(.854)


87.644**

(.687)


-.300**

(.009)


.399**

(.009)

Australian Ballot


4.244**

(1.103)


1.342

(.961)


-.034**

(.012)


.090**

(.013)


Australian Ballot Counter

-.005

(.105)


.145

(.099)


.002

(.001)


-.004**

(.001)


Party Column

2.056

(1.363)


2.845*

(1.159)


-.013*

(.014)


.057**

(.016)


Party Column Counter

-.160

(.126)


-.229*

(.114)


-.000

(.001)


-.005**

(.002)


Straight Ticket

3.909*

(1.565)


-.879

(1.228)


-.046**

(.016)


.003

(.017)


Straight Ticket Counter

-.208

(.160)


-.078

(.121)


.003

(.002)


-.000

(.002)


Women's Vote

-4.459**

(.854)


-3.087**

(1.039)


.057**

(.013)


-.063**

(.014)


Women's Vote Counter

.294

(.175)


.185

(.121)


-.001

(.002)


.004*

(.002)


Poll Tax

1.153

(1.682)


--


-.060**

(.018)


--


Poll Tax Counter

-.022

(.147)


--


.009**

(.002)


--


Registration

-1.347

(.994)


.272

(.803)


.013

(.010)


-.007

(.011)


Registration Counter

-.118

(.082)


.063

(.066)


-.0004

(.0009)


.002*

(.0009)


Absentee Voting

-1.878

(1.242)


-2.755**

(.993)


.025

(.013)


-.032*

(.014)


Absentee Voting Counter

-.001

(.134)


.240*

(.010)


-.002

(.001)


.004**

(.001)


Primaries

-.306

(1.134)


-3.300**

(.953)


.039**

(.012)


-.077**

(.013)


Primaries Counter

.132

(.144)


-.217

(.128)


.0002

(.002)


-.0004

(.002)


Returning Members

-1.472

(.954)


.396

(.810)


.023*

(.010)


.043**

(.011)


South

11.858**

(.872)


--


-.183**

(.009)


--




n=892 r2=.32


n=946 r2=.13


n=900 r2=.52


n=955 r2=.27


**p < .01

*p < .05

Table 3.


OLS Estimates of All Reforms for Large State Delegations

(Standard Errors in Parentheses)







Party Voting




Poole

Rosenthal









Democrats

Republicans

Democrats

Republicans

Intercept

76.865**

(.904)


88.600**

(1.026)


-.300**

(.010)


.421**

(.012)


Australian Ballot

1.737

(1.123)


1.957

(1.338)


-.011

(.012)


.119**

(.016)


Australian Ballot Counter

-.067

(.111)


-.248

(.142)


.001

(.001)


-.011**

(.002)


Party Column

3.390*

(1.520)


1.936

(1.448)


-.042**

(.016)


.046**

(.018)


Party Column Counter

-.308*

(.125)


-.129

(.135)


.003

(.001)


-.003

(.002)


Straight Ticket

3.246

(1.703)


-.425

(1.519)


-.025

(.018)


-.020

(.018)


Straight Ticket Counter

-.024

(.158)


-.248

(.143)


.001

(.002)


-.002

(.002)


Women's Vote

-5.327**

(1.361)


-2.481

(1.369)


.055**

(.015)


-.057**

(.017)


Women's Vote Counter

.687**

(.223)


.369

(.199)


-.003

(.002)


.008**

(.002)


Poll Tax

2.178

(1.445)


--

-.066**

(.016)


--

Poll Tax Counter

-.111

(.127)


--

.009**

(.001)


--

Registration

-.291

(.966)


.841

(1.025)


.005

(.010)


-.014

(.012)


Registration Counter

-.112

(.079)


-.0003

(.076)


-.0004

(.0009)


.001

(.001)


Absentee Voting

-2.989*

(1.284)


-3.065*

(1.203)


.047**

(.014)


-.027

(.015)


Absentee Voting Counter

.178

(.133)


.258*

(.113)


-.004**

(.001)


.004**

(.001)


Primaries

1.257

(1.108)


-2.830*

(1.220)


.016

(.012)


-.056**

(.015)


Primaries Counter

.101

(.134)


.155

(.158)


.002

(.001)


.004

(.002)


Returning Members

.637

(1.191)


1.399

(1.310)


.006

(.013)


.063**

(.015)


South

11.099**

(.808)


--

-.171**

(.009)


--




n=629 r2=.42

n=560 r2=.19

n=629 r2=.63

n=560 r2=.43

**p < .01



*p < .05

















1 This sweeping statement is not intended to shortchange the pioneering work by Cooper, Brady and Hurley (1977), among others, who noted the rise and fall of partisanship in the U.S. House of Representatives over time. Their approach produces a complex explanation that points to large-scale changes occuring in the general political environment as well as within the House. Given the discipline's recent focus on electoral reforms, my focus reflects such concerns.

2 This measure excludes third parties from the analysis. The focus here is with major party conflict.

3 A PROBIT was estimated for an individual's party affiliation as a function of Poole and Rosenthal's DIM1 and DIM2. The resulting coefficients were used to calulate a single, underlying partisan dimension. This is easily done with a simple rotation of the two-dimensional Poole and Rosenthal data by an angle given by the estimated coefficients. See the discussion in Posler and Rhodes (1997).

4 The dates when states adopted the Australian ballot are widely available. Most recently those dates were published in Katz and Sala (1996) Table 1. With respect to the other variables coded in this study, the dates for implementing new reforms came from a variety of sources. These include U.S. Government documents like Provisions of Election Laws in the Different States (1897), Summary of Statutes and Constitutional Provisions in Force in the Various States, November 1916 (1917); Merriam and Overacker (1928); Harris (1929); and Luddington (1911). These sources were supplemented and double checked using WestLaw Digest for each of the states. WestLaw produces a useful point of reference for a variety of election laws and is usually thorough in presenting the statutes and case law pertaining to elections.

5 In analysis not reported here, estimates were run including only the 13 states that were members of the Confederacy. There, the Poll Tax variable was not significant for Party Voting and had a weaker, but significant effect on the Poole/Rosenthal party distance measure. Given that 10 of 13 Southern states imposed the Poll Tax, there is a high degree of intercorrelation between that variable and the dummy variable representing the South.

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