Papaver pulvinatum




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52.1.15  Papaver pulvinatum Tolm. (1932), Trav. Mus. Bot. Ac. Sc. URSS 24: 269.

S

Comments:



(1) The split into several subspecies (and closely related species) might be better justified here than in some other cases (e.g. Atlantic P. radicatum and NE American P. lapponicum/radicatum) as the areas where the races occur have been mostly unglaciated. Some of the races of P. pulvinatum therefore may have a much longer history than the very dubious races of the two other species. (Elven)
52.1.15.1  Papaver pulvinatum Tolm. subsp. pulvinatum

S P. pulvinatum Tolm. subsp. tschuktschorum Tolm. (1975), Fl. Arct. URSS 7: 24.

2n= (1) 28 (4x). (2) 35 (5x).

2nD Zhukova & Petrovsky (1971 NE As, 1985 N Sib); Zhukova et al. (1973 N Sib). See comments. [Which references relate to which counts?]

G SIB RFE

Comments:

(1) Maybe pentaploid plants are hybrids. (Petrovsky)

(2) Reported by Petrovsky (1999) with a fairly disjunct distribution with four main areas: Gydan-Taimyr, northern Yakutia, mainland West Chukotka (incl. Ayon Island), and Wrangel Island. (Elven)

(3) Subsp. tschuktschorum seems to be included in Petrovsky's (1999) concept of subsp. pulvinatum as the two part areas of Tolmachev's subsp. tschuktschorum are the same as the two eastern part areas of Petrovsky's subsp. pulvinatum. As this is an accepted name in Fl. Arct. URSS, it must appear in the synonymy. (Elven)
52.1.15.2  Papaver pulvinatum Tolm. subsp. interius Petrovsky in Zhukova & Petrovsky (1980), Bot. Zhurn. 65: 657.

S

T Russia: Terra Tschuktschorum occidentalis, ad fl. Kytep-Gujtenjyveem, 17.08.1977, leg. V. petrovsky 77-44 (LE) holotype.



2n= 28 (4x).

2nD Zhukova & Petrovsky (1980, 1985 NE As).

G RFE

Comments:



(1) The comments of Petrovsky (1999) throw some doubts on this as a distinct subspecies in our concepts: "... distinguished by its taller and weakly pubescent flowering stems and by its comparatively small flowers. Its distribution runs along the southern limit of the range of the aggregate as a whole ..." Could perhaps be included as the southern marginal populations of subsp. pulvinatum without its own rank? (Elven)

WARNING! Might be included in subsp. pulvinatum.
52.1.15.3  Papaver pulvinatum Tolm. subsp. lenaense Tolm. (1975), Arct. Fl. USSR 7: 24.

S

2n= 56 (8x).



2nD Zhukova & Petrovsky (unpubl.).

G SIB


Comments:

(1) This octoploid seems to deserve recognition as a separate race. The complex is otherwise, as far as known, tetraploid. (Elven)


52.1.16  Papaver leucotrichum Tolm. (1960), Bot. Mater. Herb. Bot. Inst. Ac. Sc. USSR 20: 176.

S

T Russia: Jakutia arctica, in jugo montium Tuora-Siss, ad ripam dextram fluminis Lenae inferioris, in cucumine montis Sokujdach, 11.08.1957, leg. B. Jurtzev & B. Norin (LE) holotype.



2n=

2nD


G SIB

Comments:

(1) Information insufficient for evaluation. Petrovsky (1999): "... very peculiar, but undoubtedly closely related to subsp. lenaense and ... recorded from the same region". This might indicate that it should be included in subsp. lenaense, also as it is very local. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be included as somewhat aberrant populations of P. pulvinatum subsp. lenaense.
52.1.17  Papaver nivale Tolm. (1930), Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 24: 42.

S

T [Described from Jakutia, Verchojansk Mts, LE]



2n= 28? (4x).

2nD Zhukova et al. (1973 NE As).

G RFE

Comments:



(1) A narrow West Chukotka endemic where the information yet is insufficient for evaluation. Said by Petrovsky (1999) to be "very similar to P. pulvinatum" and also probably tetraploid as the main body of that species. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be included in P. pulvinatum, perhaps as a separate race.
52.1.18  Papaver anjuicum Tolm. (1975), Fl. Arct. URSS 7: 25.

S

T Russia: Terra Tschuktschorum, in parte septenrionali montium Anjuicum, ad fontes fluminis Erguveem, 11.07.1967, leg. E. Zimarskaja, A. Korobkov et B. Jurtzev (LE) holotype?



2n=

2nD


G RFE

Comments: See also P. mcconnellii.

(1) All dates on chromosome numbers of P. anjuicum with 2n=42 (Zhukova & Petrovsky 1985) are not related to that species. I shall see. (Petrovsky)

(2) A narrow West Chukotka endemic where the information yet is insufficient for our checklist decision. Said by Petrovsky (1999) to be "very similar to P. pulvinatum" and on the other hand, "P. mcconnellii may be considered as the West American counterpart of P. anjuicum Tolm.". (Elven)



WARNING! Needs re-evaluation vs. P. pulvinatum and P. mcconnellii.
52.1.19  Papaver mcconnellii Hultén (1945), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 41, 1: 803.

S P. denalii Gjærevoll (1964), K. Norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 1963, 4: 42.

2n= 28 (4x).

2nD Murray & Kelso ***

G ALA CAN

Comments:

(1) The possible correspondence between this entity of Alaskan and Yukon mountains and P. anjuicum of Chukotkan mountains must be evaluated in the checklist content. It may be a case of 'traditional' application of different names for virtually the same taxon across national borders. To identify such cases and to 'solve' them is one of the main tasks of the checklist. If these are united within a species, possibly with subspecies or local varieties, P. mcconnellii has priority. The similarity between P. mcconnellii and P. anjuicum was also indicated by Tolmachev (1975) and Petrovsky (1999). The concept of P. mcconnellii has been extended by North Americans from the very narrow original one. (Elven)

WARNING! Must be re-evaluated vs. P. pulvinatum and P. anjuicum.
52.1.20  Papaver angustifolium Tolm. (1930), Tr. Bot. Muz. AS USSR 22: 369

S

2n=



2nD

G SIB


Comments:

(1) Maybe P. angustifolium is a southern race of P. lapponicum. (Petrovsky)

(2) Information is yet very insufficient for a decision proposal. With the doubts expressed, both above and by Petrovsky (1999), I am sceptical to formal retention as a species in the checklist. It could be reflected in a comment, to the P. lapponicum aggregate, to the P. pulvinatum aggregate, or to both. (Elven)

WARNING! Very unclear entity, might be merged with P. lapponicum.
The Papaver macounii   paucistamineum aggregate (atrovirens, keelei, macounii, paucistamineum)
52.1.21  Papaver macounii Greene (1898), Pittonia 3: 247.

S

T [Described from St. Paul Isl., Bering Sea]



Comments:

(1) The accounts of this Beringian species, or perhaps two species, are very confusing to a NW European. I am a little familiar with the 'discolor' entity from some sites, a few inside the range of the 'keelei' entity, but the 'macounii s. str.' entity I have only seen in cultivation. As said above in the notes to the P. pulvinatum aggregate, the three do not seem very different in comparative cultivation but there may be some enzymatic differences between 'macounii s. str.' and 'discolor'/-'keelei'.

Hultén (1968) included P. keelei in his P. macounii which also included plants of the Beringian Sea islands. At the same time, however, he mapped his P. alaskanum both from Alaska Range (now included in P. mcconnellii), the south coast of Alaska (now included in P. macounii subsp. discolor) and the Beringian Sea islands (now partly included in P. macounii subsp. macounii).

Porsild & Cody (1980) mapped P. keelei from the Yukon Territory and surroundings, Banks Island and N Alaska, but not from most of Alaska and not from the Beringian Sea islands, which clearly implies (along with their text) that they separated it from both races of P. macounii.

Kiger & Murray (1997) separated between P. macounii subsp. macounii (Pribilof Islands, mainland SW Alaska and Seward Peninsula) and subsp. discolor (nearly all of Alaska incl. the Bering Sea islands, Yukon Territory and Banks Isl.). In the latter they included P. keelei and they reported this subspecies with two chromosome numbers, tetraploid (2n=28) and decaploid (2n=70).

There might be some small morphological differences between the N Alaskan and N Yukon material ('keelei') and the central Alaskan material ('discolor'), but they are   in my opinion   too small to justify separation. The problem is mainly ploidy as stated by Petrovsky (1999): "The most distinctive of all taxa of the P. pulvinatum aggregate is P. macounii subsp. discolor ... which is sometimes, by American authors, synonymized with P. keelei ... This opinion is not shared here; in our mind the decaploid analog (2n=70) of P. keelei (Porsild 1975) does exist in Chukotka, while P. macounii subsp. discolor is tetraploid (2n=28)."

It seems as there are tetraploids and decaploids present on both sides of the Bering Strait. On the American side they have been named as 'macounii discolor' (4x) and 'keelei' (10x) but are now united. On the Asian side they are named as 'macounii discolor' (4x) and 'paucistamineum' (10x). In addition there are known octoploids (2n=56) on the Asian side, as 'paucistamineum' and 'atrovirens'. There are comparatively few chromosome counts, especially on the American side, and we cannot therefore exclude the presence of intermediate levels (6x, 8x) also there, but the merge of only tetraploids and decaploids within one species (and subspecies) is strange as alloploidy is probable. (Elven)
52.1.21.1  Papaver macounii Greene subsp. macounii

S

2n= 28 (4x).



2nD ?

G ALA


Comments:

(1) A narrow Beringian Sea endemic only known from Pribilof Islands and two small mainland areas in Alaska, see Kiger & Murray (1999). (Elven)


52.1.21.2  Papaver macounii Greene subsp. discolor (Hultén) Rändel ex D.F. Murray (1995), Novon 5: 294.

B P. macounii Greene var. discolor Hultén (1945), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd, 2, 41, 1: 803.

S ?P. keelei A.E. Porsild (see below and comments).

T [Described from Alaska, Nome (S).]

2n= 28 (4x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, some arctic, from NW America and NE Asia; Zhukova & Petrovsky (1985 NE As).

G RFE ALA CAN

Comments:

(1) I propose that we keep the tetraploid(s) ('discolor') and the decaploid(s) ('keelei') apart until we have solved some of the ploidal problems. We now have 'macounii s. str.', 'discolor' and 'keelei' in cultivation in Oslo and might be able to also get some supporting chromosome counts before the checklist is finished. (Elven)
52.1.22  Papaver keelei A.E. Porsild (1945), Natl. Mus. Can. Bull. 101: 20, pl. 16, fig. 4-7.

S P. macounii auct., non Greene (1897).

2n= 70 (10x).

2nD Zhukova (1968 NE As, acc. to Löve & Löve 1975); Porsild (1975 NW Can).

G RFE? ALA CAN

Comments:

(1) That species is not clear. (Petrovsky)

(2) Kiger & Murray (1997) synonymize P. keelei with P. macounii subsp. discolor. (Elven)

(3) Petrovsky (1999) says about Chukotka: "... decaploid specimens of P. paucistamineum are slightly different of decaploid ones of P. keelei", which must mean that he recognises both entities in Chukotka but as very close. If hexa  and decaploid P. paucistamineum is merged with decaploid P. keelei, the latter name has priority. (Elven)

WARNING! Must be clarified vs. P. macounii discolor and P. paucistamineum before any acceptance.
52.1.23  Papaver paucistamineum Tolm. & Petrovsky (1973), Bot. Zhurn. 58: 1129.

S

T Russia: In montibus partis centralis Terrae Tschuktschorum, in ditione fluminis Quëkvun, 26.07.1966, leg. V.V. Petrovsky (LE) holotype.



2n= (1) 56 (8x). (2) 70 (10x).

2nD Zhukova (1968 NE As, as P. keelei); Zhukova & Petrovsky (1985, 1987 NE As), see comment. [Which references relate to which numbers?] (2) Zhukova et al. (1973 Sib).

G SIB RFE

Comments: See also P. keelei.

(1) [A comment from Petrovsky must be translated.]

(2) Mapped by Petrovsky (1999) with three main part areas: from Taimyr to east of Lena River, from Kolyma River to western East Chukotka, and in Wrangel Island. (Elven)



WARNING! Might be merged with P. keelei under the latter name.
52.1.24  Papaver atrovirens Petrovsky (1983), Bot. Zhurn. 68: 231.

S

T Russia: Insula Wrangelii, ad litus meridionale, ad sinum Somnitelnaja, 16.07.1971, leg. V.V. Petrovsky 71-33 (LE) holotype.



2n= 56 (8x).

2nD Zhukova & Petrovsky (1985 NE As).

G RFE

Comments:



(1) Papaver atrovirens recorded only on calcareous soils. (Petrovsky)

(2) Petrovsky (1999): "... in many cases octoploid plants of P. paucistamineum are very close to the octoploid P. atrovirens". As P. atrovirens also only occurs within the general area of P. paucistamineum   in Wrangel Island and in a mainland enclave in eastern West Chukotka   we should consider whether they are sufficiently distinct as to merit rank of species in the checklist context. Petrovsky's comment above might indicate an ecological difference but that is not enough for species. (Elven)



WARNING! Might be merged with P. paucistamineum under that name.
52.1.25  Papaver microcarpum DC. (1821), Syst. Nat. 2: 71.

S P. alpinum L. var. microcarpum (DC.) Ledeb. (1842), Fl. Ross. 1: 87; P. nudicaule L. subsp. microcarpum (DC.) Elk. (1839), Monogr. Papav. 17.

Comments:

(1) The three races, all originally published as species, are diploid and allopatric to parapatric. Petrovsky's proposal of a treatment as subspecies seems well founded. Subsp. czekanowskii reaches from Kharaulakh and the Verkhoyansk Mts to West Chukotka where it overlaps with the West-East Chukotkan subsp. microcarpum. Subsp. ochotense is South Chukotkan and further south and fully allopatric. (Elven)


52.1.25.1  Papaver microcarpum DC. subsp. microcarpum

S

2n= 14 (2x).



2nD Zhukova & Tikhonova (1973 NE As); Zhukova & Petrovsky (1985 NE As).

G RFE


Comments:
52.1.25.2  Papaver microcarpum DC. subsp. czekanowskyi (Tolm.) Tolm. (1975), Fl. Arct. URSS 7: 31.

B P. czekanowskyi Tolm. (1960), Bot. Mater. Herb. Bot. Inst. Ac. Sc. USSR 20: 172.

S

T Russia: Jakutia arctica, ad brachium delta Lenae fluminis Olenekskaja protoka dictum, ad pagum Czaj-Tumus, 19.07.1956, leg. A. Tolmatchev (LE) holotype.



2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Zhukova (1967 NE As); Zhukova & Petrovsky (1985 NE As).

G SIB RFE

Comments:


52.1.25.3  Papaver microcarpum DC. subsp. ochotense (Tolm.) Tolm. (1975), Arkt. Fl. USSR 7: 31.

B P. ochotense Tolm. (1931), J. Soc. Bot. Russ. [Zhurn. Russk. Bot. Obshch.] 16: 82.

S

2n= 14 (2x).



2nD Petrovsky (1999, secondary reference).

G RFE


Comments:
The Papaver nudicaule aggregate (anadyrense, croceum, nudicaule)

Comments:

(1) I can see no very good way to handle this aggregate where the native arctic representatives all are semi-isolated or isolated outposts from the larger Siberian main area. (Elven)

(2) The garden escape 'Siberian Poppy' must be added to the treatment somewhere. The garden plant usually goes by the name 'P. nudicaule L.' but it is diploid (2n=14, see Knaben 1959a, 1959b) and possibly an offspring of the C Asian P. croceum Ledeb. rather than P. nudicaule sensu Linnaeus. I am very reluctant to enter it under P. nudicaule as nearly all or all substantiated records of that species indicate polyploidy. It is an established alien at least in arctic N Iceland, arctic N Norway (here even naturalised in scree) and SW Greenland. It has been included below as a species, tentatively under the 'croceum' name. (Elven)


52.1.26  Papaver nudicaule L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 507.

S

T Dillenius (1732), Hortus elthamensis, t. 224, fig. 291, lectotype selected by Hanelt [check 1969, 1970a, 1970b].



Comments:
52.1.26.1  Papaver nudicaule L. subsp. nudicaule

S

2n= (1) 28 (4x). (2) 42 (6x). (3) 70 (10x). (4) 84 (12x).



2nD (1) Hanelt (1969); Rändel (1974). (2) Rändel (1974). (3-4) Petrovsky (1999, secondary references, see also subsp. riparium).

G SIB


Comments: See also subsp. riparium.

(1) According to Petrovsky (1999), the type race reaches the Arctic along the lower Lena River and is here deca  and dodecaploid. It is probable that the high-ploid plants Petrovsky mentions are outside the concept of subsp. nudicaule as defined by Hanelt and Rändel, even if Rändel indicates a part area of it in Yakutia. It is also possible that Petrovsky now intends his proposed subsp. riparium to replace subsp. nudicaule in an arctic context. (Elven)


52.1.26.2  Papaver nudicaule L. subsp. americanum Rändel ex D.F. Murray (1995), Novon 5: 294.

S

2n= 28 (4x).



2nD Kiger & Murray (1997, secondary reference).

G ?


Comments:

(1) Included in Petrovsky's draft. Does not seem to reach the Arctic   neither in Alaska nor Yukon Territory   and should therefore be excluded. (Elven)



WARNING! Will probably be excluded as non-arctic.
52.1.26.3  Papaver nudicaule L. subsp. insulare Petrovsky (1983), Bot. Zhurn. 68: 236.

S

T Russia: Insula Wrangelii, ad sinum Somnitelnaja, 10.08.1979, leg. V.V. Petrovsky 79-96 (LE) holotype.



2n= 42 (6x).

2nD Zhukova & Petrovsky (1985 NE As).

G RFE

Comments:



(1) Indicated by Petrovsky (1999, draft) as a local and geographically quite isolated race of Wrangel Island. (Elven)
52.1.26.4  Papaver nudicaule L. subsp. riparium Petrovsky ined.

S

2n= (1) 70 (10x). (2) 84 (12x).



2nD Zhukova & Petrovsky (1987 N Sib).

G SIB


Comments:

(1) According to Petrovsky (draft), a race close to P. nudicaule s. str. reaches the lower Lena River and the Arctic as defined. I am uncertain whether he considers one or two races along the Lena River. If only one, subsp. nudicaule will be excluded from the list. (Elven)


52.1.27  Papaver anadyrense Petrovsky (1983), Bot. Zhurn. 68: 229.

S P. ochotense Tolm. f. xanthopetalum Tolm. (1954), nomen nudum, Bot. Mater. (LE) 16: 95.

T Russia: Terra Tschuktschorum australis, districtus Anadyrensis, prope pagum Otrozhnyi, in valle fl. Mavrina, 14.08.1977, leg. P. Zhukova 77-379 (LE) holotype.

2n= 42 (6x).

2nD Zhukova & Petrovsky (1985 NE As).

G RFE


Comments:

(1) Papaver anadyrensis is recorded on ultrabasic rock territories. (Petrovsky)

(2) Described and proposed as a separate species by Petrovsky. In view of the variation in this complex we should consider whether rank as species, subspecies or even variety is most appropriate in the checklist context. If it is a specialist of ultrabasic soils it may be an edaphic ecotype, i.e. variety. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be reduced to a subspecies or variety of P. nudicaule.
52.1.28  Papaver croceum Ledeb. (1830), Fl. Altaic. 2: 271.

S P. nudicaule auct., non L. (1753).

2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Knaben (1959a, 1959b garden material); Hanelt (1969).

G ICE* NOR* GRL*

Comments: See the P. nudicaule aggregate.

(1) Tetraploids are also known within P. croceum s. l., see Rändel (1974). (Elven)
52.1.29  Papaver gorodkovii Tolm. & Petrovsky (1973), Bot. Zhurn. 58: 1128.

S

T Russia: Ad sinum Somnitelnaja ad litum meridionale insulae Wrangelii, 24.07.1971, leg. V.V. Petrovsky & N. Taraskina (LE) holotype.



2n= (1) 42 (6x). (2) 56 (8x).

2nD (1) Zhukova & Petrovsky (1972 NE As, Wrangel Isl.); Zhukova et al. (1973 N Sib), acc. to Löve & Löve (1975). (2) Zhukova ***???

G RFE ALA CAN

Comments:

(1) [Petrovsky's comment must be translated.]

(2) According to Petrovsky (1999), this is a species of uncertain affinity and disjunctly distributed in Wrangel Island, Chukotka Peninsula and mainland N Alaska. Kiger & Murray (1997) also maps it for St. Lawrence Island and plants confirming with the description of Kiger & Murray were found in Banks and Victoria Islands in 1999. Both the circumscription and geographical extent of this entity needs some elucidation. (Elven)


52.1.30  Papaver walpolei A.E. Porsild (1939), Rhodora 41: 239.

S

T [Described from Alaska, Seward Peninsula (CAN).]



2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Zhukova & Petrovsky (1985 NE As).

G RFE ALA

Comments:



(1) The 12-ploid chromosome number listed by Löve & Löve (1975), based on Zhukova & Petrovsky (1971), must be erroneous. (Elven)


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