Order: orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids)



Дата25.04.2016
Памер15.14 Kb.
#29274
ORDER: ORTHOPTERA

(grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids)

with special reference to those found in Utah

prepared by: C. R. Nelson 1998; consulting Edmunds 1986, Hanson 1982.

revised by: D. Jensen 15 Oct 2008


Diagnosing Features, adults:

hind legs modified for jumping (Fig. 1)

3-4 segmented tarsi

biting/chewing mouth parts

shield-like pronotum

winged or wingless

forewings leathery, thickened (tegmina)

hind wings broader and membranous

body elongate

cerci well-developed

ovipositor

tympana
Habitat:

A few Orthoptera are semi-aquatic, found near the edges of water, on emergent aquatic plants, and on or under wet substrates.

Trophic Habits:

Most Orthopterans are defoliators, some are predators and some are decomposers



Development:

paurometabolous



Preservation:

Most can be pinned near posterior margin of the pronotum, some preferred in ethanol



Notes:

Hind wings are folded under tagmina and held over the back of the body.


Figures:


Typical orthopteran

Figure 1.

SUBORDER: CALIFERA (short horned grasshoppers)


FAMILY: ACRIDIDAE (grasshoppers)
Morphology (adults):

antennae shorter than body

tympanum are on the sides of first abdominal segment

3-segmented tarsi



Ecology:

Some are found near water.


FAMILY: TETRIGIDAE (pygmy grasshoppers)
Morphology (adults):

antennae shorter than body

pronotum extends the length abdomen or further over wings

2-segmented tarsi



Ecology:

Some are found near edges of water.



Utah Genera:

Genus 1, Southern Utah

Genus 2


drawing

FAMILY: TRIDACTYLIDAE (pygmy mole grasshoppers)
Morphology (adults):

antennae shorter than body

pronotum not extended posteriorly

front tibia expanded for digging

2-segmented tarsi

Ecology:

Some are found near edges of water.



Utah Genera:

Genus 1, Southern Utah

SUBORDER: ENSIFERA (long-horned hoppers)

FAMILY: GRYLLIDAE (crickets)


Morphology (adults):

antennae longer than body

tympanum at base of fore tibia

3-segmented tarsi

right forewing of male generally over left

ovipositor needle-like



Ecology:

Some are found near water. Make musical songs.



FAMILY: Gryllotalpidae (mole crickets)
Morphology (adults):

body cylindrical

blade-like projections on fore tibia, adapted for digging

hind femur not reaching the tip of abdomen



Ecology:

Some tunnel near water in wet sand or muck. Make buzzing sounds. None reported from Utah.


FAMILY: TETTIGONIIDAE (katydids)
Morphology (adults):

antennae shorter than body

tympanum are on the sides of first abdominal segment

3-segmented tarsi



Ecology:

Some are found near water and on edges. Make rasping sounds.



Literature Cited:

Edmunds, G. F., Jr. 1986. An annotated generic check-list of aquatic and semi-aquatic insects of Utah. Univesity of Utah. Unpublished class handout.


Hanson, W. J. 1982. Identification notes for aquatic entomology. Utah State University. Unpublished class handout.
Nelson, C. R. 1998. ORDER: ORTHOPTERA (grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids), with special reference to those found in Texas. Unpublished class handout, University of Texas.
Version: 4 Orthoptera lab sheet 2008 2.doc





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