Order carnivora




Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
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The Mammals of Texas
ORDER CARNIVORA

Family Canidae (canids)

Coyote, Canis latrans; Gray Wolf, Canis lupus; Red Wolf, Canis rufus; Swift or Kit Fox, Vulpes velox; Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes; Common Gray Fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus


Family Ursidae (bears)

Black Bear, Ursus americanus; Grizzly or Brown Bear, Ursus arctos


Family Procyonidae (procyonids)

Ringtail, Bassariscus astutus; Northern Raccoon, Procyon lotor; White-nosed Coati, Nasua narica


Family Mustelidae (mustelids)

Long-tailed Weasel, Mustela frenata; Black-footed Ferret, Mustela nigripes; Mink, Mustela vison; American Badger, Taxidea taxus; Western Spotted Skunk, Spilogale gracilis; Eastern Spotted Skunk, Spilogale putorius; Hooded Skunk, Mephitis macroura; Striped Skunk, Mephitis mephitis; North American Hog-nosed Skunk, Conepatus leuconotus; Northern River Otter, Lontra canadensis


Family Phocidae

Monachus tropicalis
Family Felidae (cats)

Mountain Lion, Puma concolor; Ocelot, Leopardis pardalis; Margay, Leopardis wiedii; Jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi; Jaguar, Panthera onca; Bobcat, Lynx rufus




KEY TO THE CARNIVORES OF TEXAS


  1. Catlike; total number of teeth 30 or less; claws retractile: 2

Not catlike; total number of teeth 34 to 42; claws usually not retractile: 7




  1. Tail 10 to 15 cm, shorter than hind foot; total number of teeth 28; upperparts reddish or grayish brown streaked with black: Lynx rufus (bobcat).

Tail 30 to 100 cm, much longer than hind foot; total number of teeth, 30: 3




  1. Upperparts concolor in adults, not spotted: 4

Upperparts spotted with black rosettes with light centers at all ages: 5




  1. Total length of adults up to 3 m; tail about 1 m; weight usually > 45 kg; color tawny: Puma concolor (mountain lion).

Total length of adults up to 1 m; tail about 45 cm; weight up to 7 kg; upperparts reddish or grayish: Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarundi).




  1. Total length of adults 2 m or more; weight more than 45 kg: Panthera onca (jaguar).

Total length usually less than 1.2 m; weight usually less than 18 kg: 6




  1. Length of hind feet more than 120 mm; length of head and body alone about 75 cm; weight 7 to 16 kg: Leopardis pardalis (ocelot).

Length of hind foot less than 120 mm; length of head and body about 50 to 55 cm; weight 2 to 3 kg: Leopardis wiedii (margay).




  1. Doglike; total number of teeth, 42: 8

Not doglike; total number of teeth less than 42 (except in bears): 13




  1. Hind foot usually less than 170 mm; weight less than 9 kg (foxes): 9

Hind foot usually more than 170 mm; weight more than 9 kg (coyotes, wolves): 11




  1. Tip of tail white; upperparts yellowish or reddish; feet and lower part of legs black; hind foot near 160 mm: Vulpes vulpes (red fox).

Tip of tail black; hind foot usually less than 150 mm: 10




  1. General color of body grizzled grayish; legs reddish brown; tail with black stripe on upperside and black tip; hind foot usually more than 140 mm: Urocyon cinereoargenteus (common gray fox).

General color of body grayish-tan; hind foot usually less than 140 mm: Vulpes velox (swift or kit fox).




  1. Hind foot less than 200 mm; nose pad less than 25 mm in width; weight usually less than 18 kg: Canis latrans (coyote).

Hind foot more than 200 mm; nose pad more than 25 mm in width; weight usually more than 18 kg: 12




  1. Hind foot more than 250 mm; general color grayish: Canis lupus (gray wolf).

Hind foot less than 250 mm; general color tawny or reddish mixed with black: Canis rufus (red wolf).




  1. Tail considerably shorter than hind foot; total number of teeth, 42; weight of adults usually more than 100 kg; color black or brown (bears): 14

Not as above: 15




  1. Claws of front feet 7 to 12 cm long; face distinctly "dished in"; ruff or mane present between shoulders; last upper molar nearly twice as large as the one in front of it: Ursus arctos (grizzly or brown bear).

Claws on front feet seldom as long as 75 mm; face slightly arched or nearly straight in profile; no ruff or mane; last upper molar about 1.5 times as large as the one in front of it: Ursus americanus (black bear).




  1. Total number of teeth, 40; tail usually with indications of alternating dark and light rings: 16

Total number of teeth, 32 to 36; tail lacking dark and light rings: 18




  1. Tail as long as, or longer than head and body with 14 to 16 alternating black and white rings and a black tip; hind foot less than 80 mm; weight 1 to 2 kg: Bassariscus astutus (ringtail).

Tail shorter than head & body and with 6 to 7 alternating dark and light rings or rings inconspicuous; hind foot of adults 85 mm or more: 17




  1. Snout extending conspicuously beyond mouth and highly flexible; tail about five times as long as hind foot; alternating rings obscured in adults: Nasua narica (White-nosed Coati).

Snout not extending conspicuously beyond mouth; tail two to three times as long as hind foot, rings conspicuous at all ages: Procyon lotor (Northern raccoon).




  1. Upperparts black with longitudinal white stripe or stripes (skunks): 19

Upperparts not black and white striped: 24




  1. Total number of teeth, 32; back with single, broad white stripe from head to tail; nose pad large and flexible Conepatus leuconotus (North American hog-nosed skunk).

Total number of teeth, 34; back normally with two or more white stripes; nose pad normal: 21




  1. Total length of adults > 700 mm; hind foot, 75 mm or more: Conepatus leuconotus (eastern hog-nosed skunk).

Total length of adults usually < 600 mm; length of hind foot usually <70 mm: Conepatus mesoleucus (common hog-nosed skunk).




  1. Six distinct broken or continuous white stripes on anterior part of body; white spot in center of forehead; hind foot seldom > 50 mm: 22

Not as above: 23




  1. Black and white stripes on back nearly equal in width; white spot on forehead large, covering more than half of the area between the eyes; white stripes beginning between the ears or just behind them: Spilogale gracilis (western spotted skunk).

Black stripes on back wider than the white ones; white spot on forehead small, seldom more than 15 mm in diameter; white stripes on back begin about 25 mm behind the ears: Spilogale putorius (eastern spotted skunk).




  1. Dorsal white stripe bifurcate; sides black: Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk).

Dorsal stripe white or black but never bifurcate; sides usually with narrow white stripe beginning at ear: Mephitis macroura (hooded skunk).




  1. Total number of teeth, 36; feet webbed; tail long, heavy, tapering; ears short; color chocolate brown; total length 1 m or more: Lontra canadensis (river otter).

Total number of teeth, 34; feet not webbed; total length less than 1 m: 25




  1. Tail about as long as hind foot; claws on front feet about 25 mm in length and much longer than those on hind foot; body thick-set, heavy; fur lax and long: Taxidea taxus (American badger).

Tail noticeably longer than hind foot; body long and slender; fur relatively short: 26




  1. Color chocolate brown to black; midline of belly white: Mustela vison (mink).

Color yellowish brown; head usually with black and white markings; tip of tail black and contrasting markedly with rest of tail: 27




  1. Feet brown or tan; hind foot 50 mm or less; weight 500 g or less: Mustela frenata (long-tailed weasel).


Feet black; hind foot more than 50 mm; weight 500 to 1,500 g: Mustela nigripes (black-footed ferret).


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