Orchid Research Newsletter N

Systematics and distribution

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Systematics and distribution

Ahrens, C. W. and James, E. A. 2014. Characterization of 13 microsatellite markers for Diuris basaltica (Orchidaceae) and related species. Applications in Plant Sciences 2(1): 1300069.
Amardeilh, J.-P. 2014. Les orchidées de Navarra (Espagne). L’Orchidophile (202): 195-210.
Archila, F., Chiron, G., Szlachetko, D., Bertolini, V., and Perez-Garcia, E. A. 2014. Laelia mottae (Orchidaceae): a new species of the complex of Laelia anceps Lindl. Botanical Sciences 92: 343-350.
Barooah, C., Iftikher, A., and Baruah, R. S. 2014. Ecology and diversity of orchids in Assam. Indian Journal of Forestry 37: 193-206.
Bateman, R. M., Rudall, P. J., Bidartondo, M. I., Cozzolino, S., Tranchida-Lombardo, V., Carine, M. A., and Moura, M. 2014. Speciation via floral heterochrony and presumed mycorrhizal host switching of endemic butterfly orchids on the Azorean archipelago. American Journal of Botany 101: 979-1001.
Bennery, L. and Hirschy, O. 2014. Nouvelles observations et discussions du complexe de l’Ophrys fuciflora (F.W. Schmidt) Mönch dans la Drôme et en région PACA. L’Orchidophile (202): 247-256.
Bravo-Monasterio, P., Baeza-Horta, G., Penailillo, P., Alarcon, D., and Contreras, D. 2014. A new species of genus Bipinnula (Orchidaceae) for Chile. Gayana Botanica 71: 131-139.
Bronstein, J. L., Armbruster, W. S., and Thompson, J. N. 2014. Understanding evolution and the complexity of species interactions using orchids as a model system. New Phytologist 202: 373-375.
Brullo, S. and Zimmitti, A. 2014. Epipactis hyblaea (Orchidaceae; Epipendroideae; Neottieae) a new species from Sicily. Phytotaxa 186: 42-50.
Buzatto, C. R., Singer, R. B., and Bordignon, S. A. L. 2014. Taxonomic notes on Lyroglossa and Pteroglossa (Orchidaceae: Spiranthinae): two new generic records for the flora of Rio Grande do Sul. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 86: 821-828.
Cardoso, J. C. 2014. A survey of species of Orchidaceae family from Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil: ornamental potential and cultivation. Horticultura Brasileira 32: 7-13.
Chen, Y-Y., Bao, Z-X., Qu, Y., Li, W., and Li, Z-Z. 2014. Genetic diversity and population structure of the medicinal orchid Gastrodia elata revealed by microsatellite analysis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 54: 182-189.
Chen, Y., Yang, X., Yang, Q., Li, D., Long, W., and Luo, W. 2014. Factors affecting the distribution pattern of wild plants with extremely small populations in Hainan Island, China. PLOS ONE 9(5): e97751.
Chowdappa, P., Chethana, C. S., Pant, R. P., and Bridge, P. D. 2014. Multilocus gene phylogeny reveals occurrence of Colletotrichum cymbidiicola and C. cliviae on orchids in North East India. Journal of Plant Pathology 96: 327-334.
Chowlu, K., Nanda, Y., and Rao, A. N. 2014. Oberonia acaulis Griff. var. latipetala (Orchidaceae) - a new variety from Manipur, India. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 21: 93-95.
Cole, S. R. 2014. History and status of the ghost orchid (Epipogium aphyllum, Orchidaceae) in England. New Journal of Botany 4: 13-24.
Cribb, P. 2014. A synopsis of Vanilla in Borneo. Malesian Orchid Journal 13: 101-112.
Cribb, P., Clayton, D., and Kurzweil, H. 2014. The genus Calanthe R.Br. in Borneo. Malesian Orchid Journal 14: 39-86.
Delforge, P. and Delforge-Onckelink, C. 2014. Contribution à la connaissance des orchidées de l’île de Kythnos (Cyclades occidentales, Grèce). Naturalistes belges 95 (Orchid. 27): 125-216.
Delforge, P. 2014. Ophrys ×lamprechtsiana nothosp. nat. nova. Naturalistes belges 95 (Orchid. 27): 87-92.
Delforge, P. 2014. Remarque sur la nomenclature du Serapias des Açores. Naturalistes belges 95 (Orchid. 27): 67-78.
deVogel, E., Winkel, E., and Van Vugt, R. 2014. Dendrobium goodallianum, a new species of section Grastidium from Papua New Guinea. Malesian Orchid Journal 14: 87-90.
Djordjević, V., Jovanović, S., and Stevanović, V. 2014. Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Orchidaceae), a new species in the flora of Serbia. Archives of Biological Science, Belgrade 66: 1227-1232.
Djordjević, V., Tsiftsis, S., Lakušić, D., Stevanović, V. 2014. Niche analysis of orchids of serpentine and non-serpentine areas: implications for conservation. Plant Biosystems. DOI: 10.1080/11263504.2014.990534.
Droissart, V., Cribb, P. J., Simo-Droissart, M., and Stevart, T. 2014. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 2. A second species of the rare genus Distylodon (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) collected in Cameroon. Phytokeys 36: 27-34.
Dueck, L. A., Aygoren, D., and Cameron, K. M. 2014. A molecular framework for understanding the phylogeny of Spiranthes (Orchidaceae), a cosmopolitan genus with a North American center of diversity. American Journal of Botany 101: 1551-1571.
Fajardo, C. G., Vieira, F. A., Molina, W. F. 2014. Interspecific genetic analysis of orchids in Brazil using molecular markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution 300: 1825-1832.
Fateryga, A. V., Kreutz, K. (C. A. J. ), Fateryga, V. V., and Efimov, P. G. 2014. Epipactis krymmontana (Orchidaceae), a new species endemic to the Crimean Mountains and notes on the related taxa in the Crimea and bordering Russian Caucasus. Phytotaxa 172: 22-30.
Fateryga, A.V. and Kreutz, C.A.J. 2014. Checklist of the orchids of the Crimea (Orchidaceae). Journal Europäischer Orchideen 46: 407-436.
Hennecke, M. and Munzinger, S. 2014. Die neue systematische Gliederung der Gattung Ophrys: Untergattung Ophrys. Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen 31: 62-73.
Hennecke, M. and Munzinger, S. 2014. Subgenus Ophrys sectio Bombyliflorae. Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen 31: 127-133.
Hennecke, M. and Munzinger, S. 2014. Subgenus Ophrys sectio Ophrys. Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen 31: 74-86.
Hennecke, M. and Munzinger, S. 2014. Subgenus Ophrys sectio Pseudophrys. Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen 31: 99-126.
Hennecke, M. and Munzinger, S. 2014. Subgenus Ophrys sectio Speculi. Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen 31: 87-98.
Hennecke, M. and Munzinger, S. 2014. Subgenus Ophrys sectio Tenthrediniferae. Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen 31: 134-147.
Henry, Y. 2014. Radiation évolutive chez les Angiospermes – Evolutionary radiation in angiosperms (with particular attention to Orchidaceae). Journal Europäischer Orchideen 46: 305-380.
Hermans, J. and Cribb, P. 2014. New species and new names in Malagasy orchids (Orchidaceae). Kew Bulletin 69(2): 9517.
Hertel, S. and Presser, H. 2014. Zur Kenntnis einiger Epipactis-Arten in Italien. Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen 31: 148-188.
Hrivnak, R., Hrivnak, M., Slezak, M., Vlcko, J., Baltiarova, J., and Svitok, M. 2014. Distribution and eco-coenotic patterns of the forest orchid Epipactis pontica in Slovakia. Annals of Forest Research 57: 55-69.
Hsu, R. C. C., Wolf, J. H. D., and Tamis, W. L. M. 2014. Regional and elevational patterns in vascular epiphyte richness on an East Asian island. Biotropica 46: 549-555.
Hu, A-Q., Gale, S. W., Kumar, P., Fischer, G., and Pang, K. S. 2014. Taxonomic notes on Didymoplexiella siamensis and Gastrodia peichatieniana, two fully mycoheterotrophic orchids new to the flora of Hong Kong. Annales Botanici Fennici 51: 177-184.
Hu, A-Q., Hsu, T-C., and Liu, Y. 2014. Gastrodia damingshanensis (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae): a new myco-heterotrophic orchid from China. Phytotaxa 175: 256-262.
Huang, J-L., Li, S-Y., and Hu, H. 2014. ISSR and SRAP markers reveal genetic diversity and population structure of an endangered slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum micranthum (Orchidaceae). Plant Diversity and Resources 36: 209-218.
Jakubska-Busse, A. and Gola, E. M. 2014. Validation of leaf undulation traits in the taxonomy of Epipactis muelleri Godfery, 1921 (Orchidaceae, Neottieae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 300: 1707-1717.
Kolanowska, M. 2014. A new species of Malaxis (Orchidaceae) from Chiriqui, Panama. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 141: 91-94.
Kolanowska, M. 2014. A new species of Microchilus (Goodyerinae, Orchidaceae) from Colombia. Plant Biosystems 148: 581-583.
Kolanowska, M. 2014. Notes on the Psilochilus modestus complex (Orchidaceae), with descriptions of three new species. Annales Botanici Fennici 51: 80-85.
Kolanowska, M. 2014. The orchid flora of the Colombian Department of Valle del Cauca. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 85: 445-462.
Kolanowska, M. and Konowalik, K. 2014. Niche conservatism and future changes in the potential area coverage of Arundina graminifolia, an invasive orchid species from Southeast Asia. Biotropica 46: 157-165.
Kolanowska, M. and Szlachetko, D. L. 2014. Eriopsis amazonica (Eriopsidinae), a new orchid species from Colombia. Annales Botanici Fennici 51: 25-28.
Kolanowska, M., Szlachetko, D. L., and Kras, M. 2014. Synopsis of the genus Psilochilus (Orchidaceae) in Colombia. Systematic Botany 39: 750-758.
Kolanowska, M., Szlachetko, D. L., and Trejo, R. M. 2014. Notes on the genus Hofmeisterella (Orchidaceae), with the description of a new species from Colombia. Annales Botanici Fennici 51: 207-211.
Krahl, A. H., Cogo, A. J. D., and Valsko, J. J. 2014. Orchidaceae em um fragmento de Floresta Semidecídua de encosta na região sul do Estado do Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 247-268.
Kreutz, C.A.J. 2014. Neue Erkenntisse zum Ophrys holosericea- und Ophrys oestrifera-Komplex im Südosten der Türkei. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 46: 437-461.
Lama, R. Y., Bhujel, R. B., and Samuel, R. 2014. Acampe rigida (Buch.-Ham. ex J.E. Smith) P.F. Hunt (Orchidaceae): a new record for Darjeeling Himalaya of West Bengal, India. Indian Forester 140: 730-732.
Leong, P. K. F. 2014. Flora of Peninsular Malaysia – Cypripedioideae. Malesian Orchid Journal 13: 113-127.
Li, Y-P., Luo, F-X., and Xue, T-L. 2014. Studies on cross-compatibility of interspecific cross in Cymbidium. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 34: 1339-1344.
Liu, X., Huang, Y., Li, F., Xu, C., and Chen, K. 2014. Genetic diversity of 129 spring orchid (Cymbidium goeringii) cultivars and its relationship to horticultural types as assessed by EST-SSR markers. Scientia Horticulturae 174: 178-184.
Luo, J., Hou, B-W., Niu, Z-T., Liu, W., Xue, Q-Y., and Ding, X-Y. 2014. Comparative chloroplast genomes of photosynthetic orchids: insights into evolution of the Orchidaceae and development of molecular markers for phylogenetic applications. PLOS ONE 9(6): e99016.
Miller, J. T. and Clements, M. A. 2014. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Drakaeinae: Diurideae (Orchidaceae) based on DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region. Australian Systematic Botany 27: 3-22.
Moreira, M. M., Barberena, F. F. V. A., and Lopes, R. C. 2014. Orchidaceae of the Grumari restinga: floristic and similarity among restingas in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 28: 321-326.
Munzinger, S. and Hennecke, M. 2014. Differentialdiagnostische Erwägungen zur Anwendung von Artkonzepten für die Gattung Ophrys. Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen 31: 6-35.
Murugan, C., Alappatt, J. P., Prabhu, S., and Arisdason, W. 2014. Habenaria nicobarica (Orchidaceae), a new species from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 21: 77-81.
Nunes, E. L. P., Smidt, E. C., Stuetzel, T., and Coan, A. I. 2014. What do floral anatomy and micromorphology tell us about Neotropical Bulbophyllum section Didactyle (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae)? Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 438-452.
O’Byrne, P. and Ong, P. T. 2014. Five new species of Bulbophyllum from Peninsular Malaysia. Malesian Orchid Journal 13: 15-36.
Ormerod, P. 2014. Crossoglossa Dressler and Dodson (Orchidaceae: Malaxideae) – an addendum. Harvard Papers in Botany 19: 97-115.
Ormerod, P. 2014. Papuasian Orchid Species 4. Malesian Orchid Journal 13: 15-36.
Ormerod, P. 2014. A reappraisal of Dendrobium pedicellatum J.J.Sm. sensu lato (Orchidaceae: Dendrobiinae). Malesian Orchid Journal 14: 27-34.
Pansarin, E. R., Aguiar, J. M. R. B. V., and Pansarin, L. M. 2014. Floral biology and histochemical analysis of Vanilla edwallii Hoehne (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae): an orchid pollinated by Epicharis (Apidae: Centridini). Plant Species Biology 29: 242-252.
Paulus, H.F. and Hirth, M. 2014. Zur Bestäubungsbiologie der Gattung Ophrys auf den Ionischen Inseln mit speziellen Bemerkungen zum Status von Ophrys punctulata-O. leucadica sowie Beschreibungen von zwei neuen Arten aus der O. lutea- und O. oestrifera-Gruppe. Journal Europäischer Orchideen 46: 233-304.
Pedersen, H. Æ. and Schuiteman, A. 2014. On the distribution, distinctive features and taxonomic recognition of rheophytic Arundina (Orchidaxeae). Malesian Orchid Journal 13: 69-82.
Pessanha, A. S., Menini Neto, L., Forzza, R. C., and Nascimento, M. T. 2014. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil. Revista de Biologia Tropical 62: 829-841.
Pessoa, E. and Alves, M. 2014. Orchidaceae em afloramentos rochosos do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. [Orchidaceae from rocky outcrops of Pernambuco, Brazil]. Rodriguésia 65: 717-734.
Peyachoknagul, S., Mongkolsiriwatana, C., Wannapinpong, S., Huehne, Pattana S., and Srikulnath, K. 2014. Identification of native Dendrobium species in Thailand by PCR-RFLP of rDNA-ITS and chloroplast DNA. ScienceAsia 40: 113-120.
Peyachoknagul, S., Nettuwakul, C., Phuekvilai, P., Wannapinpong, S., and Srikulnath, K. 2014. Development of microsatellite markers of vandaceous orchids for species and variety identification. Genetics and Molecular Research 13: 5441-5445.
Pikner, T. 2014. Evolution, classification and distribution of allotetraploid Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae) in previously glaciated areas of Europe. Naturalistes belges 95 (Orchid. 27): 93-114.
Radins, J. A., Salazar, G. A., Cabrera, L. I., Jimenez-Machorro, R., and Batista, J. A. N. 2014. A new paludicolous species of Malaxis (Orchidaceae) from Argentina and Uruguay. Phytotaxa 175: 121-132.
Rajendra, Y., Lama, D., Bhujel, R. B., and Samuel, R. 2014. Diversity and distribution of Dendrobium species of Orchidaceae in Darjeeling district of Eastern Himalaya of India. Indian Forester 140: 413-418.
Raskoti, B. B. and Ale, R. 2013. Four new additions to the orchid flora of Nepal. Journal of Japanese Botany 88: 378-382.
Salazar, G. A., Hernandez-Cardona, A., and Jimenez-Machorro, R. 2013. A new species of Deiregyne (Orchidaceae: Spiranthinae) from Hidalgo, Mexico. Botanical Sciences 91: 129-133.
Salazar, G. A., van den Berg, C., and Popovkin, A. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships of Discyphus scopulariae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae) inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences: evidence supporting recognition of a new subtribe, Discyphinae. Phytotaxa 173: 127-139.
Saporiti, G., Pacifico, G. and Mazzoni, A. 2014. Stato della conoscenza sulle Orchidaceae in provincia della Spezia (Liguria di Levante). GIROS Notizie 56: 1-9; 57: 22-31.
Schuiteman, A. 2014. Paraphalaenopsis, an endangered orchid genus from Borneo. Malesian Orchid Journal 13: 83-99.
Simo-Droissart, M., Sonke, B., Droissart, V., Geerinck, D., Micheneau, C., Lowry, P. P., II, Plunkett, G. M., Hardy, O. J., and Stevart, T. 2014. Taxonomic revision of the continental African species of Angraecum section Pectinaria (Orchidaceae). Systematic Botany 39: 725-739.
Siripipatthana, P., Phaonakrop, N., Roytrakul, S., Senawong, G., Bunyatratchata, W., Mudalige-Jayawickrama, R. G., and Sattayasai, N. 2014. Genetic differences between Dendrobium chrysotoxum native to northeastern and northern regions of Thailand based on Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins and internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 1561-1572.
Stalter, R. and Lamont, E. E. 2014. Vascular flora of Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, New York. Northeastern Naturalist 21: 285-302.
Stevart, T., Biteau, J. P., Cawoy, V., and Droisart, V. 2014. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 3. A new species of Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae) from the Monts de Cristal, Gabon. Phytotaxa 177: 26-34.
Stone, J. 2014. The genus Phaius in Borneo. Malesian Orchid Journal 14: 5-25.
Szlachetko, D. L., Kolanowska, M., and Oledrzynska, N. 2014. Three new species of Oliveriana from Colombia. Annales Botanici Fennici 51: 69-74.
Tandé, A. 2014. Dix jours en Croatie. L’Orchidophile (202): 219-226.
Tsai, C-C., Wu, P-Y., Kuo, C-C., Huang, M-C., Yu, S-K., Hsu, T-W., Chiang, T-Y., and Chiang, Y-C. 2014. Analysis of microsatellites in the vulnerable orchid Gastrodia flavilabella: the development of microsatellite markers, and cross-species amplification in Gastrodia. Botanical Studies 55: 72.
Vale, A., Perez-Obregon, R. A., Faife-Cabrera, M., Alvarez, J. C., and Rojas, D. 2014. A new orchid species from the keys of central Cuba and a checklist of Cuban Encyclia (Orchidaceae, Laeliinae). Systematic Botany 39: 1076-1082.
Vermeulen, J. J. and deVogel, E. 2014. A new species of Bulbophyllum from Papua New Guinea. Malesian Orchid Journal 14: 97-99.
Vermeulen, J. J. and Sieder, A. 2014. Bulbophyllum viridescens Ridl. and B. elaphoglossum Schltr.: similar but not the same. Malesian Orchid Journal 14: 91-96.
Vieira, T. L., de Barros, P., and Roque, N. 2014. Orchidaceae no Municipio de Jacobina, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 469-482.
Wood, J. J. and Chan, C. L. 2014. Dendrobium tanjiewhoei – a new species of section Calcifera from Sabah. Malesian Orchid Journal 13: 5-8.
Wood, J. J. and Metusala, D. 2014. Dendrobium platycaulon Rolfe (section Platycaulon) – a new record for Borneo. Malesian Orchid Journal 13: 9-13.
Wucherpfennig W. 2014. Ein Kommentar zur Typisierung von Ophrys lutea var. subfusca Rchb.f. Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen 31: 219-228.
Xu, Q., Zhang, G-Q.  Liu, Z-J., and Luo, Y-B. 2014. Two new species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae) from China: evidence from morphology and DNA. Phytotaxa 174: 129-143.
Yang, J-B., Tang, M., Li, H-T., Zhang, Z-R., and Li, D-Z. 2013. Complete chloroplast genome of the genus Cymbidium: lights into the species identification, phylogenetic implications and population genetic analyses. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13: 84.
Yang, Q., Song, X-O., Hu, X-W., and Zhu, G-P. 2013. Niche characteristics of Phalaenopsis pulcherrima (Orchidaceae) with two ecotypes in Bawangling Nature Reserve, Hainan Island. Guangxi Zhiwu/Guihaia 33: 786-790.

Book Review

Cribb, P., Crocker, G., Ejiri, E., Miranda, F. E. L. de, and van den Berg. 2014. Renziana. Vol. 4. Cattleya. Softcover, 100 pp., 177 colour photographs, 2 maps. Schweizerische Orchideenstiftung am Herbarium Jany Renz, Basel, Switzerland. ISSN: 2235-0799. Reinhardt Media Service (www.orchid.unibas.ch; email: media@reinhardt.ch; tel. +41 (0)61 264 64 50). Price: SFr 15/ € 15. Also available as an eBook on Amazon and Google Books.
Joining previous issues of Renziana covering Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis, and Vanda, the current issue focuses on everything Cattleya – morphology, classification as the result of DNA sequence data, distribution, biogeography, ecology, conservation, pollination, breeding, and cultivation. The primary author for this issue is the widely acknowledged expert on Laeliinae and especially Cattleya, Cássio van den Berg. He recounts the taxonomic history of the genus and explains the rationale for lumping Sophronitis and Brazilian Laelia species into Cattleya as series of C. subgenus Cattleya section Crispae. He reminds us that Robert L. Dressler argued for the same reclassification 25 years ago strictly on the basis of interfertility.
For me the most interesting information in this issue is van den Berg’s thorough treatment of the distribution, biogeography and ecology of the species as a key to successful cultivation of the species. For instance, although C. aclandiae, C. nobilior, and C. walkeriana occupy dry habitats in the savannas and ‘Caatinga’ of inland Brazil, C. amethystoglossa grows in even more arid habitats in full sun on the palm species Syagrus coronata. How many plants of C. amethystoglossa and others have we killed by purposeful (but well-meaning) overwatering and/or excessive shading? Photos of several species in situ illustrate this section.
Phillip Cribb joined van den Berg in writing up a short history of the genus and also a section on morphology with an excellent watercolour of C. labiata. For the most part the description is accurate, but I think we should be using the term ‘capsule’ by now instead of ‘seed pod’. Legumes have pods, but orchids have capsules. ‘Pod’ has always been in common parlance in orchid media, but the term is morphologically, developmentally, and taxonomically incorrect with respect to orchids. Adding insult to injury, the caption for the capsule of C. dowiana × Hardyana on page 9 is referred to as the “Seed pot [my emphasis],” an obvious but unfortunate typographical error by the editors.
The issue is richly illustrated by excellent photos that would have reproduced better on a coated paper stock (a la Orchid Digest), but then the publication costs would have been higher. Everyone can afford this reasonably priced but highly informative exposition on one of the world’s favourite orchid genera. Everyone will keep it as a authoritative reference.

Alec Pridgeon

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