Online supplementary material for Sardell et al.: Sex-specific differential survival of extra-pair and within-pair offspring in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia Table S1



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Online supplementary material for Sardell et al.: Sex-specific differential survival of extra-pair and within-pair offspring in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia
Table S1. A literature review of published studies that used wild bird populations to directly compare the survival of extra-pair young (EPY) and within-pair young (WPY). Data presented include: sample size of broods and/or chicks (n), whether the difference in survival between EPY and WPY at various life-history stages was statistically significant and if so the direction of the difference (n/s indicates instances where the difference in survival was not significant), whether the analyses included a half-sibling survival comparison, and whether tests for extra-pair status by sex or extra-pair status by environment interactions were explicitly reported. When the survival difference among EPY and WPY from mixed paternity broods (i.e., those known to contain ≥1EPY and ≥1 WPY) was reported in addition to the difference among all sampled EPY and WPY, only the former results are presented. This review highlights the lack of studies that have tested either for differences in long-term survival (lifespan) between EPY and WPY half-siblings or for sex- and environment-specific differences in relative survival of EPY and WPY.


study

species

hatch

fledge

independence (or recapture pre-recruitment)

recruitment

lifespan

n

half-sibling

extra-pair status by sex interaction

extra-pair status by environment interaction

[1]

Reed bunting

Emberiza schoeniclus


n/s

n/s

-

-

-

393 chicks (hatch),

269 chicks (fledge)



yes

no

no

[2]

Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis

-

-

n/s*

n/s

n/s

160 chicks

no

no

yes (high/ low quality seasons compared, n/s)

[3]

Blue tit

Cyanistes caeruleus

-

EPY > WPY

-

n/s


-

101 broods/

1332 chicks



yes

no

yes (3 sites compared, EPY > WPY in 1 of 3 populations, other 2 n/s)

[4]

Blue tit

Cyanistes caeruleus


-

EPY > WPY

-

n/s

-

10 broods (fledge) ,

17 broods (recruitment)



yes

no

no

[5]

Tree swallow

Tachycineta bicolor

-

n/s

-

-

-

7 broods

yes

no

no

[6]

Black swan

Cygnus

atratus

-

-

n/s+


-

-

23 broods

yes

no

no

[7]

Collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis

-

-

-

n/s

-

101 chicks

no

no

no

[8]

Blue tit

Cyanistes caeruleus

-

-

-

n/s

-

15 broods

no

no

no

[8]

Great tit

Parus

major

-

-

-


n/s

-

11 broods

no

no

no

[9]

Great tit

Parus

major

-

-

-

n/s

-

510 chicks

no

no

no

[10]

Blue tit

Cyanistes caeruleus

-

EPY > WPY

-

-

-

49 broods/

452 chicks



yes

no

no

[11]

Tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor

-

n/s

-

-

-

40 broods/

217 chicks



no

no

no

[12]

House wren Troglodytes aedon




-

-

n/s

-

103 broods/

584 chicks



no

no

no

[13]

Coal tit

Periparus ater

-

-

-

n/s

-

101 broods


yes

no

yes (1st/2nd broods compared, n/s)

[14]

Coal tit

Periparus ater

-

-

-

n/s overall


-

287 broods/

2126 chicks



yes

no

yes (1st/2nd broods compared: n/s for first broods, EPY > WPY for second broods)

(3 cohorts compared, n/s)



[15]

Coal tit

Periparus ater

-

-

-

-

n/s

116 broods/

168 recruits



yes

yes (n/s)


yes (1st/2nd broods compared, n/s)

(3 cohorts compared, n/s)



[16]

Great tit

Parus major


-

-

-

n/s


-

261 chicks

no

no

no

[17]

Reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus


n/s

n/s

EPY

>

WPY



-

-

765 chicks (hatch),

18 broods (fledge),

23 broods (independence)


no (hatch),

yes (fledge & independence)



no

Yes for independence (6 cohorts compared: not tested statistically but all years showed consistent pattern EPY>WPY)

[18]

American crow

Corvus brachyrhynchos

-

-

n/s

n/s

n/s

162 chicks

no

no

no

[19]

Tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor

n/s

n/s

-

-

-

54 broods/

281 chicks (hatch),

43 broods (fledge)


no (hatch),

yes (fledge)



no

no

This study

Song sparrow

Melospiza melodia


-

-

n/s

n/s

n/s for chicks but for recruits EPY

245 broods/773 chicks (independence & recruitment),

154 broods/471 chicks (lifespan of chicks),

77 broods/99 recruits (lifespan of recruits)


yes

yes (significant interaction found for recruitment and lifespan of chicks)

yes (first/second brood comparison: both n/s)

* survival to ca. 6 months post-fledge

+ survival to 8 months


References

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(2) Brouwer, L., Barr, I., van de Pol, M., Burke, T., Komdeur, J., Richardson, D. S. 2010 MHC-dependent survival in a wild population: evidence for hidden genetic benefits gained through extra-pair fertilizations. Mol.Ecol. 19, 3444-3455. (doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04750.x ER).

(3) Charmantier, A., Blondel, J., Perret, P., Lambrechts, M. M. 2004 Do extra-pair paternities provide genetic benefits for female blue tits Parus caeruleus? J.Avian Biol. 35, 524-532.

(4) Kempenaers, B., Verheyren, G. R., Dhondt, A. A. 1997 Extrapair paternity in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus): female choice, male characteristics, and offspring quality. Behav.Ecol. 8, 481-492.

(5) Kempenaers, B., Congdon, B., Boag, P., Robertson, R. J. 1999 Extrapair paternity and egg hatchability in tree swallows: evidence for the genetic compatibility hypothesis? Behav.Ecol. 10, 304-311.

(6) Kraaijeveld, K., Carew, P. J., Billing, T., Adcock, G. J., Mulder, R. A. 2004 Extra-pair paternity does not result in differential sexual selection in the mutually ornamented black swan (Cygnus atratus). Mol.Ecol. 13, 1625-1633. (doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02172.x).

(7) Krist, M., Remes, V., Uvirova, L., Nadvornik, P., Bures, S. 2004 Egg size and offspring performance in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis): a within-clutch approach. Oecologia 140, 52-60.

(8) Krokene, C., Rigstad, K., Dale, M., Lifjeld, J. T. 1998 The function of extrapair paternity in blue tits and great tits: good genes or fertility insurance? Behav.Ecol. 9, 649-656.

(9) Lubjuhn, T., Strohbach, S., Brun, J., Gerken, T., Epplen, J. T. 1999 Extra-pair paternity in great tits (Parus major) - A long term study. Behaviour 136, 1157-1172.

(10) Magrath, M. J. L., Vedder, O., van der Velde, M., Komdeur, J. 2009 Maternal Effects Contribute to the Superior Performance of Extra-Pair Offspring. Curr.Biol. 19, 792-797. (doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.03.068).

(11) O'Brien, E. L. & Dawson, R. D. 2007 Context-dependent genetic benefits of extra-pair mate choice in a socially monogamous passerine. Behav.Ecol.Sociobiol. 61, 775-782. (doi:10.1007/s00265-006-0308-8).

(12) Poirier, N. E., Whittingham, L. A., Dunn, P. O. 2004 Males achieve greater reproductive success through multiple broods, than through extrapair mating in house wrens. Anim.Behav. 67, 1109-1116.

(13) Schmoll, T., Dietrich, V., Winkel, W., Epplen, J. T., Lubjuhn, T. 2003 Long-term fitness consequences of female extra-pair matings in a socially monogamous passerine. Proc.R.Soc.B-Biol.Sci. 270, 259-264.

(14) Schmoll, T., Dietrich, V., Winkel, W., Epplen, J. T., Schurr, F., Lubjuhn, T. 2005 Paternal genetic effects on offspring fitness are context dependent within the extrapair mating system of a socially monogamous passerine. Evolution 59, 645-657.

(15) Schmoll, T., Schurr, F. M., Winkel, W., Epplen, J. T., Lubjuhn, T. 2009 Lifespan, lifetime reproductive performance and paternity loss of within-pair and extra-pair offspring in the coal tit Periparus ater. Proc.R.Soc.B-Biol.Sci. 276, 337-345. (doi: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1116).

(16) Strohbach, S., Curio, E., Bathen, A., Epplen, J. T., Lubjuhn, T. 1998 Extrapair paternity in the great tit (Parus major): a test of the "good genes" hypothesis. Behav.Ecol. 9, 388-396.

(17) Suter, S. M., Keiser, M., Feignoux, R., Meyer, D. R. 2007 Reed bunting females increase fitness through extra-pair mating with genetically dissimilar males. Proc.R.Soc.B-Biol.Sci. 274, 2865-2871.

(18) Townsend, A. K., Clark, A. B., McGowan, K. J. 2010 Direct Benefits and Genetic Costs of Extrapair Paternity for Female American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Am.Nat. 175, E1-E9. (doi: 10.1086/648553).

(19) Whittingham, L. A. & Dunn, P. O. 2001 Survival of extrapair and within-pair young in tree swallows. Behav.Ecol. 12, 496-500.






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