Of every One-Hundred men in battle, ten shouldn’t even be there. Eighty are nothing but targets




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Of every One-Hundred men in battle, ten shouldn’t even be there.
Eighty are nothing but targets.
Nine are real fighters…We are lucky to have them…They make the battle.
Ah, but the One…One of them is a Warrior…and he will bring the others back.

- Hericletus 500 B.C.



You WILL fight the way you train! Train with intensity. Fight to WIN!

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Instructor Professional Vita ………………………………….……………………………. 5
Course Itinerary …………………………………….……...…………………..…………..… 11
Syllabus ………………………………………………………………...…………..……….……. 13
Introduction …………………………………………………..………………………......……. 19
Instructor Introduction and Course Description …………………..….….…… 21

Range Safety Rules and Emergency Medical Action Plan ……………...… 21




        Issue ZM4 Rifles ……………………………………………………………….…...…………. 22




        Rapid Deployment Methodology and Concepts …………………………...….. 22

Combat Mindset and Principles of Personal Defense ………………………… 23



            Sight Gears ………………………………………………………...…….……...…………….. 28



Fundamentals of Shooting the Rifle ………………………………….…...……….. 29




        Presentation Positions and Ready Condition Modes ………………………... 34




            Tactical Sling Use ………………………………………………...…..………….…………… 38



        Loading, Unloading and Reloading the AR-15 / M-4 Rifle ……………….. 38




Ammunition Management ……………………………………………..……...…………. 42




        Threat Assessment and Area Scanning ……………………….………...…..…… 45




        Immediate Action Drills ……………………………………...…………...………………. 46



        Transition to Secondary Weapon System …………………………..……...…… 48




            Failure Drills …………………………………………………………..………...……...……... 48



        Threat Engagement during Movement …………………………………..………… 49




        Class Conclusion ……………………………………………………...…………...…………. 49

Appendix 1: Advanced Tactical Rifle Shooting Drills ………………………… 53


Appendix 2: Illinois State Law and Use of Force …………………….……….. 55
Appendix 3: Combat Rifle Qualification Course ……………………………….. 57
References …………………………………………………………………………………………. 59

PROFESSIONAL VITA
John Krupa III

President



Master Firearms Instructor
John is a police officer with the Orland Hills Police Department and has over 20 years of experience in law enforcement. He has previously served as a beat officer, rapid response officer, field training officer and firearms instructor with the Chicago Police Department.
He is a recipient of the Award of Valor, Silver Star for Bravery, Distinguished Service Award and numerous department commendations and awards for his actions in the line of duty, including the 1998 and 2005 Police Officer of the Year Award.
John is a certified firearms instructor from the Chicago Police Department and certified Master Firearms Instructor with the University of Illinois – Police Training Institute. He has over 4000 hours of certified training as a firearms instructor, operator and armorer.
John is a graduate firearms instructor from the Secret Service Academy, FBI, DEA and Federal Law Enforcement Training Center and has the distinguished recognition of being the only law enforcement trainer in the country to attend all four of these prestigiously recognized instructor training programs.
John is founder and president of Spartan Tactical Training Group and also serves as Director of Training Operations for the DS Arms Law Enforcement Training Division.
He has served as a firearms training consultant with the International Association of Chiefs of Police and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms & Explosives - firearms interdiction training program, and has also served as a contract firearms instructor for the Department of Homeland Security - Federal Flight Deck Officers (FFDO) program.
John has authored over a dozen articles on firearms training, officer safety, firearms and other various law enforcement products, and has appeared in various publications, newsletters and websites on these topics.
John has consulted and / or presented training programs with the following national and international law enforcement training associations and organizations:


  • International Association of Law Enforcement Firearms Instructors (IALEFI)

  • International Law Enforcement Educators and Trainers Association (ILEETA)

  • American Society for Law Enforcement Trainers (ASLET)

  • Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners (AFTE)

  • Nebraska Law Enforcement Training Center (NLETC)

  • Midwest Tactical Officer’s Association (MTOA)

  • Indiana SWAT Officer’s Association (ISOA)

  • Georgia Tactical Officer’s Association (GTOA)

  • Texas Tactical Police Officer’s Association (TTPOA)

  • Action Target – Advanced Law Enforcement Training Camp (LETC)

  • International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP)
    Firearms Interdiction Training Program

  • Department of Homeland Security – Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms & Explosives – Firearms Interdiction Training Program

  • Dept. of Homeland Security – Federal Flight Deck Officers Program

  • North American Weapons & Tactics Training Center – The Site


PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS


  • International Association of Law Enforcement Firearms Instructors (IALEFI)

  • International Law Enforcement Educators and Trainers Association (ILEETA)

  • International Association for Counter-Terrorism & Security Professionals (IACSP)

  • North Suburban Police Pistol League (NSPPL) – Honorary Life Member

  • American Society for Law Enforcement Trainers (ASLET)

  • National Tactical Officers Association (NTOA)

  • Illinois Tactical Officers Association (ITOA)

  • Police Training Institute Alumni (PTI) – Life Member

  • Police Marksman Association (PMA)

  • National Rifle Association (NRA) – Life Member

INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATIONS


  • Federal Bureau of Investigations

Firearms Instructor School – Class # 06-01

Carbine Instructor School – Class # 07-02

Firearms Instructor Development Course


  • Secret Service Academy

  Firearms Instructor Training Course # 192

  • Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

  Firearms Instructor Training Program # 005

  Distinguished Weapons Expert



  • Drug Enforcement Administration

Tactical Raids Instructor School

Firearms Instructor School



  Master Firearms Instructor Course # 1734 (re-certified x 3)

Police Firearms Instructor Course # 1559

Police Carbine / Rifle Instructor Course # 1959

Police Shotgun Instructor Course # 2343



  • State of Illinois – ILETSB Certified

Police Firearms Instructor –
Revolver, Pistol, Carbine, Rifle, Shotgun, Subgun

  • Chicago Police Academy
    Firearms Instructor Course

Firearms Instructor Development Course

  • Springfield Police Academy – Police Firearms Instructor Course

  • North East Multi-Regional Training Group

  Rapid Deployment Instructor Course

  • Illinois Department of Professional Regulation
    Certified Firearms Instructor

  • National Rifle Association – Police Firearms Instructor Course

  • The Site – Law Enforcement Carbine / Rifle Instructor Course

  • The Site – Law Enforcement Shotgun Instructor Course

  • Gunsite – Law Enforcement Tactical Firearms Instructor Course

  Tactical Pistol, Tactical Shotgun and Tactical Carbine

  • Glock – Law Enforcement Firearms Instructor Course

  • Heckler & Koch – MP-5 Operator and Instructor Course

  • Singleton International
    M-16 / M-4, MP5 and UMP Instructor Course

  • Sigarms Academy – Range Master Course # 02RM02

  • Taser International – M26 / X26 Air Taser Instructor Course

  • Simunition / SNC Inc. – M26 and X26 Instructor Course



SPECIALIZED TRAINING CERTIFICATIONS


  • Federal Bureau of Investigations

Officer Survival School – Class # 05-01

Basic SWAT School



  • Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

  Survival Shooting Training Program # 002

  • United States Army – Military Police School

  Counter-Drug Special Reaction Team Course

  • State of Illinois – ILETSB Certified

Basic Emergency Services Team Certification

Law Enforcement Officer Certification

Police Strategy and Tactics Course

Police Tactical Firearms Course

Narcotics Specialist Course

Basic SWAT Certification



  • University of Illinois – Police Training Institute

Police Strategy and Tactics Course # 1566

  Police Tactical Firearms Course # 1568



  • Northern Illinois Police Alarm System - Basic SWAT Course

  • Spartan Tactical Training Group
    Emergency Medical Response for Firearms Instructors
    Emergency Self-aid for Trauma Injuries

  • Mid-South – Institute of Self Defense Shooting

  Close Quarter Battle Training Course

Intermediate Practical Pistol Course

Advanced Practical Pistol Course


  • Blackwater Training Center – Tactical Pistol II Course

  • Chapman Academy

Basic Practical Pistol Course

Law Enforcement Tactical Scenarios



  • Lethal Force Institute – L.F.I. 1 and L.F.I. 2

  • Ken Hackathorn – Mastering the Handgun Course

  • John Farnam – Advanced Defensive Handgun Course

  • Rob Leatham - Advanced Handgun Skills Development Class


ARMORER CERTIFICATIONS



  • Beretta – All 92, 96 and Cougar series pistol groups

  • Colt – All “O” frame pistol groups and all AR-15 / M-16 groups

  • DS Arms – All FAL SA58 rifle groups

  • Glock – Law Enforcement pistol line (re-certified x 2)

  • Heckler & Koch – All MP5 groups and all USP groups

  • Robinson Armament – XCR Rifle groups

  • Sigarms – Law Enforcement pistol line (re-certified x 3)

  • Smith & Wesson – All 3rd generation pistols, Sigma series pistols and M&P pistols

  • Springfield Armory – All XD series pistol groups


Competitive Shooting Awards and Titles


  • International Law Enforcement Educators & Trainers Association
    - 2nd Annual ILEETA Cup Match – Overall Match Winner - 2008

  • International Association of Law Enforcement Firearms Instructors
    - 10th Annual Memorial Match - Overall Match Winner – 2007
    - 13th Annual Memorial Match – Overall Match Winner - 2010

  • MTG – Annual IDPA Invitational Match
    - Overall Match Winner - 2004, 2005

- 2nd Place Overall – 2000, 2003

  • Police Training Institute – Annual Combat Challenge Match

- Overall Match Winner – “Top Gun” – 2004, 2005, 2006

- 2nd Place Overall – 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007



  • North Suburban Police Pistol League
    - Combat Pistol – Duty Weapon Class
    - Overall League Champion - 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007
    - 2nd Place Overall – 2003

  • North Suburban Police Pistol League – Off-Duty Weapon Class
    Overall League Champion - 2005, 2006, 2007
    - 2nd Place Overall – 2003, 2004

  • Secret Service Academy - Firearms Instructor Course # 192
    - Top Gun Award Recipient

  • FBI - Firearms Instructor School # 06-01 - Top Shooter Award

  • DEA - Firearms Instructor School - Overall Top Shooter

  • FLETC - Firearms Instructor School # 005
    - Keith Connelly Top Gun Award Recipient

  • FBI - Basic SWAT School - Overall Top Shooter Award

  • State of Illinois - Governors Twenty Award - 1999 and 2007

John can be reached by e-mail at: jkrupa@teamspartan.com
Mail all correspondence to:

STTG

P.O. Box 388969

Chicago, Illinois 60638
Updated – 01 June 2011

RAPID DEPLOYMENT PATROL RIFLE COURSE ITINERARY



DAY ONE – 0830 to 1700 (8 hours)
0830 – 0840 – Instructor Introduction and Course Description (Classroom)
0840 – 0850 – Administrative Waivers and Student Registration (Classroom)
0850 – 0900 – Firearms Safety Briefing and Emergency Medical Action Plan

0900 – 0915 – Rapid Deployment Methodology and Concepts (Classroom)
0915 – 0930 – Combat Mindset and Principals of Personal Defense (Classroom)
0930 – 0945 – Fundamentals of Shooting the Patrol Rifle (Classroom)
0945 – 1000 – Presentation Positions and Ready Condition Modes (Classroom)
1000 – 1015 – Tactical Sling Use (Classroom)
1015 – 1030 – Sight Gears (Classroom)
1030 – 1100 – One-shot Drills (Range)
1100 – 1115 – Moving Off the Line of Force, Threat Assessment and Area Scanning
1115 – 1200 – Controlled Pairs with Movement, Assessment and Scanning (Range)
1200 – 1230 – Lunch
1230 – 1315 – Accelerated Pairs, Hammer Drills and Head Shots (Range)
1315 – 1400 – Transition to Secondary Weapon (Range)
1400 – 1500 – Triple Threat – Multi-threat Engagement Drills (Range)
1500 – 1530 – Rapid Deployment – Team Threat Engagement Drill (Range)
1530 – 1600 – Combat Qualification Course (Range)
1600 – 1645 – Man vs. Man Shoot-off’s (Range)
1645 – 1700 – Class Review and Critique (Classroom)
1700 – Range Clean-up (Range)













SYLLABUS



Course Title: Rapid Deployment Patrol Rifle Course
Course Number: RDPR.0700.4
Length of Presentation: 8 hours
Methods of Presentation:

  1. Lecture

  2. Demonstration

  3. Dry Practice

  4. Live Fire


Classroom support equipment:

  1. Course manuals / student handout materials.

  2. Tables and chairs.

  3. Chalkboard or dry erase board.


Range Support Equipment:

  1. Rifle rated live-fire range – Minimum 50 yards long by 15 yards wide.

  2. 10 – Orange safety cones. (Minimum)

  3. 20 – Portable target stands / carriers. (Minimum)

  4. Target repair equipment.

    1. Paper threat targets and replacement centers.

    2. Cardboard backers.

    3. Target holder clips.

    4. Target pastors or masking tape.

    5. Spray glue.


Instructor Requirements: Course lesson plan, eye protection, ear protection, baseball type cap, duty belt with holster and magazine carriers, duty pistol with at least 2 magazines, AR-15 or M-4 type patrol rifle, tactical sling system, cleaning kit, elbow pads, knee pads, 100 rounds of rifle ammunition and 50 rounds of handgun ammunition (minimum).
Student Requirements: Note pad and pen, eye protection, ear protection, baseball type cap, duty belt with holster and magazine carriers, duty pistol with at least 2 magazines, patrol rifle with at least 2 magazines and tactical sling system.
Recommend: Rain gear, sunscreen, insect repellent, rifle magazine carriers and water.
Ammunition requirements: 500 round of rifle ammunition and 50 rounds handgun ammunition (minimum).
COURSE DESCRIPTION:
The techniques and methodology presented in this course will focus on developing skills in the use, operation and application of the patrol rifle during rapid deployment and active shooter incidents. These skills will be developed through hands on familiarization, dry practice and performance of live fire drills. The skills gained in this course will provide the student with the knowledge necessary to safely and efficiently operate the patrol rifle during rapid deployment situations.
TERMINAL PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE:
Upon completion of this course, the student will possess the necessary information and skills required to safely use, operate and deploy the patrol rifle during rapid deployment and active shooter incidents.
STUDENT PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:


  • Demonstrate firearms safety and safe gun-handling skills.

  • Demonstrate safe loading and unloading techniques.

  • Demonstrate ammunition management and weapon status awareness.

  • Demonstrate proper use of the tactical sling system.

  • Demonstrate loading and unloading of the patrol rifle.

  • Demonstrate the fundamentals of shooting the patrol rifle.

  • Demonstrate the natural action stance.

  • Demonstrate use of Sight Gears.

  • Demonstrate presentation from the combat ready position.

  • Demonstrate presentation from the low ready / hunt position.

  • Demonstrate presentation from the indoor ready position.

  • Demonstrate proper follow thru recoil technique.

  • Demonstrate second sight picture, trigger reset and slack out techniques.

  • Demonstrate threat assessment and area scanning.

  • Demonstrate moving off the line of force.

  • Demonstrate threat engagement methodology.

  • Demonstrate transition to secondary weapon system.

  • Demonstrate application of the one-shot drill.

  • Demonstrate application of a controlled pair.

  • Demonstrate application of an accelerated pair. (Hammer drill)

  • Demonstrate failure drill – hammer to the body with head shot.

  • Demonstrate engaging multiple threats while advancing.

  • Demonstrate engaging multiple threats while withdrawing.

  • Demonstrate engaging multiple threats during lateral movement.

  • Demonstrate engagement of multiple threats.

  • Demonstrate engaging threats during continuous movement. (Box drill)

  • Demonstrate all combined skills during Man vs. Man shoot-off’s.

  • Demonstrate all combined skills during the rapid deployment team threat engagement drill.

  • Pass combat rifle qualification course.


The purpose of fighting is to win.
There is no possible victory in defense.
The sword is more important than the shield and skill is more important than either one.
The final weapon is the brain…all else is supplemental.

You WILL fight the way you train! Train with intensity. Fight to WIN!



INTRODUCTION
Rapid Deployment Methodology
As workplace violence and active shooter incidents in schools become more frequent, law enforcement is faced with the task of developing rapid deployment techniques to deal with these situations.
The disturbing results we have witnessed from incidents at Columbine High School, Virginia Tech and the Militant Muslim Extremist attack on the Beslan middle school in Russia have brought a sobering reality to law enforcement of what lies ahead for us in the future.
The Department of Homeland Security has realized the need for training and preparation in anticipation of domestic attacks by active shooters and terrorists in the future, and has focused millions of dollars into arming and training state and local law enforcement agencies and officers.
The training programs that have been established focus on direct to threat concepts that coordinate first responders to identify active shooter situations, fix and locate the active shooter, move to contact with the active shooter and engage the active shooter until he is contained or neutralized.
Using decisive aggressive action, first responders are trained and conditioned to take offensive action against active shooters and potential terrorists to stop their deadly actions.
For the first time in the history of American law enforcement, first responders are conditioned to bypass injured citizens and proceed directly to engagement with the active shooter.
First responders are also being trained and conditioned for contact with active shooters and terrorists that have prepared for law enforcement response to their deadly actions.
Most recently, we have seen confiscated Al Qaeda training camp videotapes that show terrorist operatives conducting raids and terrorist attacks with ambushes and contingency plans established to engage responding law enforcement personnel.
Rapid deployment patrol rifle focuses on use of the patrol rifle as an offensive weapon during a rapid deployment incident. Officers deploying patrol rifles during these types of incidents will have the means and capabilities at their disposal to quickly and efficiently end active shooter and terrorist incidents and stop violent offender’s deadly actions.
In a rapid deployment environment, where an assailant or terrorist is actively shooting people, every second counts when officers respond to save lives. Law enforcement officers will not have the luxury of time or negotiations during an event of this nature. Aggressive, decisive action will be necessary to locate, engage and neutralize the threat.

COURSE OUTLINE


Instructor Introduction and Course Description
(Classroom: Lecture)



  • Instructor(s) introduction and background.

  • Course description.

  • Terminal Performance Objectives.

  • Student Performance Objectives.

  • Course outline review.


Range Safety Rules and Emergency Medical Action Plan

(Classroom: Lecture)





    1. Safety rules and policy presentation.

      1. Treat all firearms as though they are loaded.

      2. Always keep the muzzle of your weapon pointed in a SAFE direction.

      3. Never let the muzzle of your weapon cover or point at anything you are not willing to shoot or destroy.

      4. Keep your finger off the trigger until you are ready to fire.

    2. Release of liability waiver presentation.

    3. Location of first aid / trauma kit.

    4. Injured personnel immediate action plan

  1. Non-life threatening injury – designate hospital run vehicle with directions to local hospital.

  2. Life threatening / serious injury – request ambulance or medivac helicopter service. (If available) by phone.

  3. Identify any TEMS / EMT certified personnel in class.

  4. Identify location of landline or cell phone that will be used to call for medical assistance.


*A SAFE direction is considered a location where, should an unintentional or negligent discharge occur, personal injury will not occur and property damage will be minimal or none.

            Issue ZM4 Rifles

(Classroom: Lecture)



    1. Issue and assign weapons to students.

      1. Students will be issued DS Arms ZM4 5.56 rifles.

      2. Each student will maintain control of their assigned weapon for the duration of the class.

      3. Each student will record the issued weapon’s serial number.

    2. Monitor round count, type of ammunition used and any malfunctions or operational failures throughout the course. (Must be recorded)



            Rapid Deployment Methodology and Concepts

(Classroom: Lecture)



  • Responding to the active shooter.

      1. Fix on the area the offender is operating in.

      2. Rapidly move to the offender’s location.

          1. By-pass injured people and people needing medical attention.

      3. Locate the offender as quickly as possible.

      4. Engage the offender using decisive, aggressive action to stop the offender’s deadly actions.

      5. Contain or neutralize the offender.


            Combat Mindset and Principles of Personal Defense

(Classroom: Lecture)

Aggressive posturing and decisive action





  • Dominate the weapon.

  • Dominate the threat.

  • Dominate all visual areas.

Stress related factors of gunfights





  1. Adrenaline dump

        1. The body becomes supercharged with adrenaline and prepares for fight or flight.

  1. Tachypsychia

a) When time appears to move in slow
motion.

  1. Auditory exclusion

a) The body’s momentary disconnect of hearing.

  1. Vasoconstriction

a) Redirection of blood flow in the body that
momentarily deprives the eyes of oxygenated
blood resulting in the inability to focus on
objects close to the body.

  1. Tunnel vision

a) Redirection of blood flow in the body that
momentarily deprives the eyes of

oxygenated blood resulting in the temporary

loss of peripheral vision.

Rules of a gunfight

1) Have a gun!


        1. Better to have one and not need it vs. needing one and not having it.

      1. Make sure it’s loaded!

        1. Don’t carry a dead man’s gun.

        2. The loudest sound in the world is hearing a click when it should go bang.

      2. Bigger bullets are better.

      3. More bullets are better.

      4. Regardless of what gun you have, you must be mentally prepared to use it.

      5. The will to survive.

        1. Maintain the will to live.

        2. Fight despite your fear or injuries.

        3. Keep fighting until you prevail.

        4. NEVER GIVE UP!!!

        5. Of the 128 police officers killed in the line of duty in 2010, 56 of these officers were killed during violent confrontations. (www.ODMP.org)

Combat mindset and mental conditioning

A) You WILL fight the way you train.

B) Train with intensity.

C) Fight to WIN. (The winning mindset)

D) Set your mental trigger at – Defense of Life.



        1. Is there a threat to life?

        2. Is that threat imminent?

        3. Shoot to terminate life-threatening behavior.

E) Overcome the negotiate mentality.

1. Causes you to talk instead of taking action to stop a threat.

2. The only reason to talk during a deadly force confrontation
is to buy time to gain a tactical advantage.

F) Never underestimate your opponent’s skill level.

G) Never overestimate your skill level!

H) When someone is trying to kill you – GET MAD!!!


Color Codes of Awareness

White

  • Completely relaxed.

  • Daydreaming.

  • Completely unaware of surroundings.

  • Unsafe condition.

  • Victim.



Yellow

  • Ideal to operate here.

  • Not caught off guard.

  • Relaxed alert.

  • Mentally aware of what is going on around you.

  • Using tactical senses.



Orange

  • Able to identify problems as they occur.

  • Alerted to a specific problem.

  • Can only be in orange as long as a potential threat exists.



Red

  • Execution of tactical plan. (Will react as trained)

  • Ready to take action if “mental trigger” is set.

  • Mind is made up in advance.

  • State of mind is at “ready to fight”.



Black

  • Assault in progress!

  • Body will react as conditioned through prior training.

  • Apply decisive aggressive action until the desired effect is achieved, then back off.

Principals of Personal Defense



Alertness

  • Color Code of Awareness.



Coolness

  • Preparedness through visualization.

  • “I thought this might happen!”

  • Instead of; “I can’t believe this is happening!”



Speed

  • A poor tactical plan applied quickly will work if presented with speed.



Surprise

  • Allows for ability to overcome great odds.

  • Advantage if aggressive decisive action is applied against a superior number.

  • Can be used to overwhelm unprepared and over confident assailants.



Decisiveness

  • Be decisive in your application of use of force.

  • Let your adversaries know quickly that you mean business and that you are in control.



Aggressiveness

  • Take the fight to your adversaries with a vengeance!



Ruthlessness

  • Apply force to the point of control, then back off.

Profile of officers killed





  • Average age at time of death – 35 yoa.

  • Regularly goes to church.

  • Hard worker.

  • Service oriented.

  • Trusting.

  • Uses less force than other officers.

  • Does not wait for back up.

  • Overweight and out of shape.

  • Complacent attitude.

Killer’s profile





  • None thought of punishment as a deterrent.

  • Most incidents were drug and / or alcohol related.

  • 50% had predetermined to kill if confronted by a law enforcement officer - I’m not going back to jail.

  • 20% had prior criminal records.

  • 33% had been shot before.

  • 33% were armed at all times.

  • 35% regularly practiced with their weapon.

  • 50% had an accomplice.

Approach, response and affects





  • 95% of arrestees comply without incident.

  1. 5% of arrestees do not comply.

  2. 3% resist arrest or flee.

  3. 2% assault.



Sight Gears

(Classroom: Lecture and demonstration)

(Range: Demonstration and live-fire)



  • Indexing the patrol rifle.

  • Sight Gear #1 – Perfect sight alignment.

  • Sight Gear #2 – Flash sight picture.


SIGHT GEAR # 1 – Perfect Sight Alignment
Place the top of the front sight blade on the designated target area while looking through the opening in the rear sight aperture. Correct sight alignment and sight picture is obtained when you center the front sight blade in the rear sight aperture opening and the sights are on the designated target area.
The eye will naturally center the front sight post in the rear sight opening. This sight gear is used for application of the most precise shot possible. Accuracy takes precedence over speed and the element of stress and time is non-existent. Perfect sight alignment can be used at any distance when a disciplined, surgical shot is required.
NOTE: Be aware that if you have a tritium dot insert on the front sight blade, your daylight point of aim / point of impact will be different than your low light conditions point of aim / point of impact. Your shots will impact high when used during low light conditions.
SIGHT GEAR # 2 – The Flash Sight Picture
The front sight “floats” in the rear sight aperture as the sights are held on the desired target area. The shooter places the sights on the target area and the trigger is pressed as soon as the front sight is observed in the rear sight aperture.
No time is spent seeking perfect sight alignment. Accuracy and speed are now balanced to get quick, accurate combat hits. The flash sight picture can be used from 1 yard out to and beyond 50 yards with consistent combat accuracy. Once the shooter ventures beyond

50 yards, he should strongly consider switching to GEAR # 1 and seek accurate shot placement using perfect sight alignment.




Fundamentals of Shooting the Rifle


(Classroom: Lecture and demonstration)

(Range: Demonstration, dry-practice and live-fire)





  • The natural action stance

  • Grip

  • Mounting

  • Presenting into line of sight

  • Sight alignment

  • Sight picture

  • Trigger control

  • Breathe control and respiratory pause.

  • Follow thru recoil, second sight picture and trigger reset.

  • Line of sight vs. line of bore.

THE NATURAL ACTION STANCE


Start with the feet and work your way up.

  1. Stand facing the target.

  2. Three positions of the feet.

    1. Feet are shoulder width apart.

    2. Shooting side foot is slightly back.

a) Slight blade in body position.

    1. Toes are pointed towards the threat.

a) Body weight is transferred forward onto the balls of the feet.

b) Shoulders are forward of your hips.



  1. Slight bend in knees.

  2. Hips and shoulders square to the threat.

  3. Head upright with the chin tucked down slightly and looking straight ahead.

  4. Body weight forward.

GRIP
A firm grip should be established on the pistol grip with the shooting hand. Grip the pistol grip as high as possible, with the web of the shooting hand touching the lower receiver. This will aid in control of the rifle as well as allow for proper trigger finger positioning. Trigger finger placement on the trigger should be between the tip and first joint.

MOUNTING


  • The weapon should be placed in the “shoulder pocket” where the inside of the shoulder and collar bone meet. The weapon is held firmly into the “shoulder pocket” with the elbow pointing down.

  • Position the toe of the butt stock high in the shoulder pocket, keeping the head upright with the correct eye relief. (The toe of the butt stock usually rests on the collarbone.)

  • Shooting side elbow tucked under the firearm and not stuck out parallel to the ground.

  • Place the support hand on the firearm to support the forward weight keeping the support hand fingers wrapped around the handguards with the support hand index finger pointing forward, toward the target area.

  • Depress the muzzle down slightly into the low ready position.

  • Lean forward when firing to compensate for the recoil impulse.

PRESENTING THE WEAPON INTO LINE OF SIGHT


Line of sight is a straight line from the eye to the target. Line of sight aligns the eye, rear sight, front sight and target in a straight line parallel to the barrel of the weapon.
Once the shooter makes a decision to fire, he presents the weapon into line of sight. The shooter changes his focus from the target to the sights, uses his support hand index finger to index the weapon onto the target and obtains sight alignment and sight picture.

SIGHT ALIGNMENT


Sight alignment is obtained by centering the tip of the front sight post in the rear sight aperture opening. The human eye will naturally center the front sight post in the rear sight aperture opening when the eye focuses on the front sight while keeping the rear sight and target out of focus. Place the top of the front sight blade on the designated area you would like the projectile to strike.

SIGHT PICTURE


The shooter will use a “CENTER MASS HOLD” to obtain a correct sight picture. The shooter seeks out the center of the targets mass and then places the tip of the front sight post on that location.

TRIGGER CONTROL


The secret of trigger control is – manipulation of the trigger without disturbing sight alignment! Keep the trigger finger in constant contact with the trigger during manipulation and reset. Avoid loosing contact with the trigger as this will lead to slapping the trigger when firing follow-up shots.
BREATHE CONTROL
Breath control is critical in the aiming process, especially during distance shooting. The rise and fall of our chest while breathing will cause the rifle to move vertically, effecting aim. To complete the process of aiming, breath control must be practiced.
RESPIRATORY PAUSE
A respiratory cycle (inhaling and exhaling) lasts about 3 to 5 seconds. There is a natural pause of 2 to 3 seconds between relaxed respiratory cycles. This is the natural respiratory pause.
Shooters can extend this natural pause up to 10 seconds to fire shots. The pause should last as long as the shooter feels comfortable. Physical condition and lung capacity will affect length of pause.
Holding your breath longer then is comfortable will result in oxygen deprivation, causing visual focus to deteriorate. This will affect your ability to focus on the sights.
FIRING THE WEAPON
The shooter executes the firing sequence by pressing the trigger and momentarily holds the trigger to the rear, while maintaining proper sight alignment. The weapon recoils and momentarily moves out of the line of sight and into the shooters view.
FOLLOW THROUGH RECOIL
The shooter concentrates on following through recoil by pushing the weapon back into the line of sight as smoothly and efficiently as possible. The shooter is still looking at his sights and has not changed focus back to the target.

SECOND SIGHT PICTURE


As the weapon is brought back down into line of sight, the shooter immediately begins to look for the sights on the target and prepares to deliver another round. Even if the shooter makes the decision to cease fire, he will be on target, looking at his sights, ready to deliver another round. Thus, the shooter should always have one more second sight picture than the number of rounds fired.
TRIGGER RESET
As soon as the shooter acquires a second sight picture, the trigger is smoothly and steadily released until it resets. The trigger finger should never leave the trigger upon reset and whenever possible trigger slack should be taken out in preparation for the next shot.
Upon firing, the entire shooting sequence is as follows:
FOLLOW THRU RECOIL – SECOND SIGHT PICTURE – TRIGGER RESET

SLACK OUT

The weapon should be back in line of sight, with the shooter looking at the sights, slack out of the trigger and ready to deliver another round.


LINE OF SIGHT vs. LINE OF BORE
It is important to understand that the line of sight is approximately 2 1/2 inches higher then the line of bore for the AR-15 / M-4 rifle. When the projectile leaves the barrel, it is 2 1/2 inches below the line of sight.
The projectile follows its trajectory path and intersects the line of sight as it climbs during flight. As the projectile loses velocity and gravity pulls it towards the ground, the projectile intersects line of sight once again as it follows it’s trajectory path into the dirt.
When shooting around or over obstacles, the shooter must take into account that the line of sight is 2 1/2 inches higher then the muzzle of the rifle. Just because you see your sights on target does not necessarily mean that the muzzle of your rifle has cleared the object you are shooting around or over!
Be sure that your line of sight and line of bore are both above and clear of any obstacles before you take the shot!

Presentation of the rifle must be done in a vigorous and aggressive manner. The shooter must minimize the amount of time he spends manipulating the rifle and maximize the time spent finding the sights on target and firing the rifle. This is known as:


Time On Target

Presentation Positions and Ready Condition Modes


(Classroom: Lecture and demonstration)

(Range: Demonstration and live-fire)





  • High ready / combat ready.

  • Low ready / hunt position.

  • Indoor ready.

  • Storage mode.

  • Transport mode.

  • Carry mode.

HIGH READY / COMBAT READY


Combat ready is a relaxed position that the shooter can maintain with the rifle while moving, scanning and reloading. It is a less intense ready position and not as physically demanding as the low ready position.
It allows the rifle to be held in a standby position that the shooter can easily mount the weapon from here in the event the rifle needs to be deployed quickly. It is also an excellent position to use when loading and unloading the rifle.



  • The rifle stock is held along side the shooters strong side, slightly above the shooting side hip with the muzzle pointed up at a 45-degree angle.

  • Strong hand on the comb of the stock or pistol grip (finger off the trigger) with the support hand on the hand guards.

  • The muzzle of the rifle is out in front of the shooters face, just below eye level. The shooter should be able to peripherally see the front sight assembly.

  • The shooter will move the muzzle of the rifle in the direction he is scanning.

  • EYE – MUZZLE – TARGET

LOW READY / HUNT


When the shooter is not firing the weapon, he maintains a ready position in anticipation to present the weapon to deliver rounds. The position the shooter moves to is called the low ready / hunt position. The weapon is mounted into the shooting position and simply dropped down below eye level and out of line of sight.
The weapon is held slightly above 45 degrees and just low enough so that the shooter has the ability to move his head left or right without having any contact with his chin on the stock. This position also allows the shooter to perform tactical reloading of the rifle while scanning the area for additional threats.
The trigger finger is OFF the trigger and the safety is ON. The shooter is standing by ready to present the weapon into a shooting position if necessary. This position is also known as the “hunt position” as this is how the weapon will be held when performing building searches and actively “hunting” an adversary or deploying the weapon in a tactical application.


  • The rifle is mounted on the shooting side shoulder and dropped just below eye level with the strong hand on the comb of the stock or pistol grip (finger off the trigger) and the support hand on the hand guards.

  • The rifle is held muzzle down at a 45-degree angle, ready to be snapped into shooting position, if necessary.

  • The rifle can be loaded, reloaded or unloaded from this position.

  • The rifle can be moved to combat ready or slung from this position.

INDOOR READY


The indoor ready position is used by the shooter when working with a weapon in close quarter conditions. This position allows the shooter to maintain a low profile with the weapon while working in rooms, hallways, stairways and doorways so as not to “telegraph” the shooters position with the muzzle of the weapon. This position also allows the shooter to maintain an excellent weapon retention position when anticipating close contact with an adversary.
The butt of the weapon stays in contact with the shooting side shoulder with the weapon placed across the chest muzzle down. The muzzle is positioned alongside the support side leg and to the outside of the support side foot.
The trigger finger is OFF the trigger and the safety is ON. When the shooter is ready to engage an adversary, he simply rotates the weapon up into line of sight, mounts the rifle into the shoulder and engages the threat.

STORAGE MODE

To place the weapon in storage mode:





  • Point the weapon in a safe direction and place the weapon on SAFE.

  • Remove the magazine in the rifle and place it in a pocket or carrier.

  • Cycle the action to eject the live round from the chamber.

  • Lock the bolt to the rear.

  • Perform a visual and physical inspection to verify that the rifle is unloaded and clear.

  • Release the bolt and allow it to go forward on an empty chamber.

  • Press check to verify the chamber is in fact clear and that the rifle is unloaded.

  • Take the weapon off safe and while keeping the rifle pointed in a safe direction, press the trigger and let the hammer fall on an empty chamber.

  • Close and lock the ejection port door.

  • The rifle is now ready for storage.

TRANSPORT MODE





  • Point the weapon in a safe direction.

  • Lock the bolt to the rear.

  • Perform a visual and physical inspection to verify that the rifle is unloaded and clear.

  • Release the bolt and allow it to go forward on an empty chamber.

  • Press check to verify the chamber is empty and cycle the action.

  • Place the safety in the ON position.

  • Insert and lock a fully loaded magazine into the magazine well.

  • Press check to verify that NO round is in the chamber.

  • Close and lock the ejection port door.

  • The rifle is now ready for vehicle transport.

CARRY MODE





  • Point the weapon in a safe direction.

  • Press check to verify chamber status and cycle the action.

  • Place the safety in the ON position.

  • Insert and lock a fully loaded magazine into the magazine well.

  • Cycle the action to chamber a round.

  • Press check to verify that a round has been chambered.

  • The rifle is now ready for carry.


Tactical Sling Use

(Classroom: Lecture, demonstration and dry practice)

(Range: Demonstration and live-fire)

TACTICAL SLING USE


The tactical sling can be attached as a two or one point sling system and is designed for the tactical operator and tactical operations.
Tactical sling systems allow the shooter to quickly move the rifle off to his side or back when he needs his hands free or just lets the weapon hang in front, for immediate access.
The tactical sling keeps the rifle attached to the operator and allows the operator to maintain weapon retention of his rifle while climbing, handcuffing an assailant or transitioning to his secondary weapon system.

        Loading, Unloading and Reloading the AR-15 / M-4 Rifle


(Classroom: Lecture, demonstration and dry-practice)

(Range: Demonstration and live-fire)




  • Loading the AR-15 / M-4 magazine.

  • Loading the AR-15 / M-4.

  • Unloading the AR-15 / M-4.

  • Reloading the AR-15 / M-4.

LOADING THE AR-15 / M-4 MAGAZINE


Hold the rounds in your shooting hand with the primer end of the round facing away from you. The magazine is held in the support hand with the back of the magazine facing away from you. Place the round on top of the magazine follower or other rounds already in the magazine and push down and back with both thumbs.
NOTE: The AR-15 / M-4 magazine is designed to hold 20 or 30 rounds depending on which magazine you are using. Neither magazine will seat nor lock into the magazine well if it is loaded to capacity and the bolt is forward.
It is recommended, when loading the AR-15 / M-4 magazine, to load 2 rounds less then the number it can hold. (Load 20 round magazines to 18 and 30 round magazines to 28) This will ensure that the magazine will seat and lock during loading / reloading when the bolt is locked to the rear or when the bolt is in battery.
LOADING THE AR-15 / M-4 RIFLE


  • Point the weapon in a safe direction.

  • Ensure the safety / selector lever is in the SAFE position and your finger is OFF the trigger.

  • Pull the charging handle back and lock the bolt to the rear.

  • With the support hand, firmly grasp the magazine low and check to ensure it is loaded correctly.

  • Aggressively insert the magazine into the magazine well. Give it a strong pull down to ensure it is seated firmly and will not detach itself from the M-4.

  • Keeping the muzzle pointed in a safe direction and your finger OFF the trigger, slap the bolt release with the palm of your support hand and allow the bolt to move into battery.

  • Press check to verify a round is chambered.

  • Depress the forward assist to ensure the bolt is locked into battery.

  • The M-4 is now loaded.

UNLOADING THE AR-15 / M-4 RIFLE




  • Point the weapon in a safe direction.

  • Ensure the safety / selector lever is in the SAFE position and your finger is OFF the trigger.

  • Firmly grasp the magazine with the support hand and remove it from the M-4. (Place it in your magazine pouch or pocket.)

  • Keeping the M-4 parallel to the ground, rotate the ejection port to the right facing it towards the ground.

  • Move the support hand to the front of the magazine well and while grasping the lower receiver, depress the bolt catch with the support thumb.

  • Slowly and deliberately, pull the charging handle back with the strong hand. Doing this will pull the bolt back to the rear and eject the live round from the chamber onto the ground at your feet.

  • Cycle the action an extra 2 – 3 times to ensure the chamber is empty and lock the bolt to the rear.

  • Rotate the weapon so you can visually inspect the inside area of the chamber and ejection port and verify that it is clear and empty.

  • Physically inspect the inside of the magazine well, ejection port and chamber area by inserting the index finger of the support hand into those areas to verify that they are in fact clear. (This is also the best technique to clear an obstruction in the chamber.) The M-4 is now unloaded.

WARNING: Be aware that when the weapons are worked on the range for long periods of time, the chamber face and barrel extension can become extremely hot and may need to cool prior to touching during physical inspections. Avoid direct contact with the chamber face and barrel extension when hot!
RELOADING THE AR-15 / M-4 – DOUBLE MAGAZINES (clamped)


  • Keep the M-4 pulled back firmly into the shoulder with the shooting side hand and the barrel kept parallel to the ground.

  • Keep the M-4 and your vision directed towards the threat area. Move your finger OFF the trigger.

  • Reach low for the magazine clamp with your support hand and press the magazine release with your shooting side index finger.

  • Remove the used magazine. Align the new magazine with the magazine well and aggressively insert it into the magazine well. Give the new magazine a firm pull down to ensure that it is seated correctly.

  • Keeping the muzzle pointed down range and your finger OFF the trigger, slap the bolt release with the palm of your support hand and allow the bolt to move into battery.

  • This reload can be performed with the bolt forward or locked back.



NOTE: Applying the safety / selector lever to SAFE before reloading in not required, and is the option of the shooter. It is not recommended during a combat situation.
Ideally, the right-handed shooter places the left magazine of the pair of clamped magazines in the M-4 and vise-versa for the left handed shooter. This way, the M-4 will lie across the body easier and after the reload you will position the used magazine into your field of view.

RELOADING THE M-4 – USING SINGLE MAGAZINES (unclamped)




  • Keep the M-4 pulled back firmly into the shoulder with the shooting side hand and the barrel kept parallel to the ground.

  • Keep the M-4 and your vision directed towards the threat area. Move your finger OFF the trigger.

  • With your support hand, firmly grasp the NEW magazine. Make sure you grab it low.



    1. To save a magazine that still has ammunition in it during reloading: Take a firm grip high on the magazine in the magazine well with the thumb and forefinger of the support hand.

    2. Remove the magazine while pressing the magazine release with your shooting side index finger.

    3. Aggressively insert the NEW magazine into the magazine well. Give the new magazine a firm pull down to ensure it is seated correctly.

(This reload can be performed with the bolt forward or
locked back)

    1. Place the used magazine with rounds remaining back into the magazine pouch when safe to do so.

    2. To discard a magazine during reloading: After acquiring a NEW magazine, press the magazine release with your shooting side index finger and let the empty magazine in the magazine well fall to the ground.

(This reload can be performed with the bolt forward or
locked back)

    1. Aggressively insert the NEW magazine into the magazine well. Give the new magazine a firm pull down to ensure it is seated correctly.



  • Keeping the muzzle pointed down range and your finger OFF the trigger, slap the bolt release with the palm of your support hand and allow the bolt to move into battery.



NOTE: Applying the safety / selector lever to SAFE before reloading is not required, and is the option of the shooter. It is not recommended during a combat situation.

        Ammunition Management

        (Range: Lecture, demonstration and live-fire)


  • The three rules of ammunition management.

  • The speed reload.

  • The tactical reload (Tactical magazine exchange)

  • The emergency reload.

AMMUNITION MANAGEMENT


Ammunition management plays a critical role in gunfights. In most shooting programs and qualification courses, shooters are conditioned to reload on command at a specified time during the course of fire and are instructed to fire a pre-determined number of rounds. The shooter is usually informed when to reload and when the weapon will go into bolt lock back.
Many shooting programs and qualification courses are developed around a 50 round box of ammunition. This is simply done for efficiency seeing that one box of ammunition holds 50 rounds. This system is a convenient way to keep count of how many rounds, boxes and cases of ammunition are issued and expended during training.
Utilizing these methods during training, conditions the shooter to rely on the range master or firearms instructor to tell him when to shoot, how many rounds to shoot and when to reload. Aptitude in basic gun-handling skills and operation of the weapon is hindered and, in some instances, lost entirely.
Subsequently, the average police officer only trains when he is instructed to do so and the only time spent manipulating and operating the weapon is during required training.
Gun-handling skills are perishable, and without constant training and development of these skills, the shooter will always be lacking the skills necessary to survive or win a gunfight.
During this course, the shooter will determine how many rounds will be fired at a threat during threat engagement. The shooter is not conditioned to fire a pre-determined number of rounds. The shooter is required to maintain ammunition management throughout the course and is not instructed when to reload or what type of reload to perform.
The shooter will also be conditioned to avoid depleting his supply of ammunition on his person while training. The shooter will start each training sequence with a sufficient supply of ammunition on his person and with his weapon loaded.

The shooter will maintain ammunition management throughout each training sequence and step off the firing line with a loaded and slung weapon, unless specifically instructed to unload.


These requirements will condition the shooter to be cognizant of the status of his patrol rifle at all times while always maintaining a loaded, functional weapon.
Ammunition Management Rule # 1: “YOU’RE GOING TO MISS!”
Whether we want to accept this rule or not, it’s reality. Statistics indicate that the average police officer is only hitting about 18% of the time. That’s 2 rounds hitting their mark out of every 10 rounds fired. Misses not only constitute missing the target completely, but also hitting the target in an area other than that which was aimed at.
Example: The shooter aims at the chest area of a threat and hits the threat in the arm. That would constitute a miss! Granted, the threat was hit, but in a non-incapacitating area.

The threat would still be a threat unless he ceased his life threatening actions or was incapacitated by additional rounds. Maintaining a constant supply of ammunition in the pistol will allow the shooter to deliver multiple rounds until the threat ceases or is incapacitated.


Ammunition Management Rule # 2: “BULLETS DON’T WORK!”
Nobody has the one-shot-stop magical bullet. Case studies have indicated that violent offenders have been known to take multiple hits from various types of handgun and rifle ammunition during gunfights while still continuing their violent actions. Rounds over-penetrate, lack penetration, fail to expand, fail to penetrate and are deflected by bones. Because of these conditions, shooters may be required to fire multiple shots into a threat to stop violent and life threatening behavior.
Ammunition Management Rule # 3: “MULTIPLE OFFENDERS”
Felons and violent offenders often do not work alone. Anyone involved in a gunfight not prepared to deal with multiple offenders is in for a big surprise. The shooter must realize that if he is involved in a gunfight, he must maintain a constant source of ammunition in his pistol and keep the pistol up and running in anticipation of multiple offenders.

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