Of a proposal for the importation of feed grain maize

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6.27 Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle) : flat grain beetle

Species: Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle, 1876) [Coleoptera : Laemophloeidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Laemophloeus turcicus Grouvelle, 1876; Laemophloeus truncatus Casey, 1884; Laemophloeus immundus Reitter, 1874; Laemophloeus (Cryptolestes) turcicus Grouvelle, 1876.
Common names(s): flat grain beetle, flour mill beetle.
Hosts: cereal grains, flour, dried vegetables, dried fruit.
Part of plant affected: seeds and other dried plant material
Distribution: Temperate regions including USA and Canada but excluding Australia and New Zealand.
Life history:- A pest primarily of damaged grains, residues and milled produce. In North America it is most often associated with mills but is also found infesting elevators and warehouses. Adults are small in size (2mm in length), and shining reddish brown to yellowish brown in colour. Adults are winged but rarely fly. They are flat in shape and able to hide in very small crevices, making their detection difficult. Eggs are laid in holes and fractures in grains or amongst debris. The first instar larvae enter grains through minute cracks or holes in the pericarp. Development is assisted by presence of fungi in diet. Development can be completed from 17-35°C and 40-90% R.H., with optimum conditions of 27°C and 90% R.H. The life cycle can be completed in as little as 33 days.
Entry potential:- Medium in clean dry grain in good condition, risk increases with moisture content and quantity of admixture and damaged grains. C. turcicus can reliably only be distinguished from Cryptolestes species already established in Australia by microscopic examination of genitalia.
Establishment potential:- High, a pest in areas with environmental conditions very similar to those present in Australia. It is likely to be most serious a pest in temperate rather than tropical areas.
Spread potential:- High, Cryptolestes species are commonly found associated with traded cereal grains and products made from them.
Economic importance: An important pest of flour and feed mills in temperate regions, most commonly found in flour residues associated with mill machinery. It is likely to remain undetected for a considerable period post establishment because of its close morphological similarity to Cryptolestes spp. already established in Australia.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (High).

Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.

Dobie, P., Haines, C.P., Hodges, R.J., Prevett, P.F. and Rees D.P. (Eds) (1991) Insects and Arachnids of Tropical Stored Products, Their Biology and Identification (A Training Manual). Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent : United Kingdom, 246 pp.
Halstead, D.G.H. (1993) Keys for the identification of beetles associated with stored products II. Laemophloediae, Passandridae and Silvanidae. Journal of Stored Product Research 29: 99-197

6.28 Cryptophagus spp. Paykull

Species: Cryptophagus spp. Paykull, 1800 [Coleoptera : Cryptophagidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Kryptophagus Herbst, 1792; Mnionomus Wollaston, 1864
Common name(s):
Distribution: USA, Canada, Australia
Entry potential: n/a, genus present in Australia
Economic Importance: mould feeder present in damp or newly harvested grain
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine

Aitken, A. D (1975) Insect Travellers, Volume I: Coleoptera, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office

Voucher Specimens in Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra
Pope, R.D. (1977) Part 3 : Coleoptera and Strepsiptera In: Kloet, G.S. & Hincks, W.D. (1977) A Check List of British Insects. Royal Entomological Society : London

6.29 Cynaeus angustus (Le Conte) : large black flour beetle

Species: Cynaeus angustus (Le Conte,1852) [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common names(s): large black flour beetle.
Hosts: In natural habitats it is found infesting decaying flower stems of Agave spp. It has can also infest stored cereal grains or products made from them.
Part of plant affected: Seeds and products thereof.
Distribution: Canada, Mexico, USA
Life history:- Little known as a pest of stored produce prior to 1940. This species was previously only known from natural habitats - namely decaying parts of plants of the family Agavacae in Mexico and south-western USA. This species appears to be a recently adapted storage pest that has not spread worldwide wide in trade. The adults are 5-6 mm in length and can live for 6-12 months. The life cycle can be completed in 4 weeks under favourable conditions but usually requires 6-10 weeks. This insect prefers grain that is high in moisture.
Entry potential:- Low in clean dry grain in good condition, risk increases with moisture content and quantity of admixture and damaged grains.
Establishment potential:- High, environments suitable for this insect exist in Australia.
Spread potential:- High, adults are tough long-lived insects and would easily be capable of surviving movement in traded grain.
Economic importance: This species has been reported as a significant pest of stored shelled corn in Minnesota. It has also been reported as common in farm-stored grain in the north central states of the USA. It is also a pest in mills, retail stores and domestic situations. It is present in Canada but not regarded as a serious pest having first been seen there in the 1940s. Members of the family Agavacae are grown in Australia and are in some places weeds. These plants potentially offer a suitable habitat for this species. Its ability to establish in similar habits in native plant species is impossible to predict.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (Medium).

Anon (1979) Stored Grain Insects. Agriculture Handbook No. 500, USDA, Washington DC : USA, 57pp.

Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.
White, N.D.G. and Sinha, R.N. (1987) Bioenergetics of Cyanus angustus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) feeding on stored corn. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 80: 184 - 190.
Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia

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