Of a proposal for the importation of feed grain maize




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6.18 Carpophilus spp. Stephens : sap beetles



Species: Carpophilus spp. Stephens 1829 [Coleoptera : Nitidulidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common name(s): sap beetles, dried fruit beetles
Distribution: North America, Australia
Entry potential: n/a, genus present in Australia
Economic Importance: Minor pest of stored grain
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine
References: Voucher Specimens in Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra
Rees, D.P. (1994) Insects of Stored Grain - a Pocket Reference. Stored Grain Research Laboratory, CSIRO Entomology : Canberra
Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia

6.19 Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin-Méneville) : square-necked flour beetle



Species: Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin-Méneville, 1829) [Coleoptera : Silvanidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Silvanus quadricollis Guérin-Méneville, 1829; Cathartus cassiae Reiche, 1854; Silvanus gemellatus Jaquelin du Val, 1857; Cathartus gemellatus (Jaqueline de Val, 1857); Cathartus annectens Sharp, 1899.
Common names(s): square-necked flour beetle.
Hosts: Wide range of stored commodities including maize (in field and in storage), cocoa beans, copra, groundnuts, edible tubers, rice, barley, wheat, flour, tobacco and cigars, oil-palm fruits, dried fruit and nuts.
Part of plant affected: Seeds and other dry plant material.
Distribution: Widespread in tropics, common in Mexico and southern states of USA.
Biology:
Life history:- A small active beetle which is attracted to ripening crops, it can continue to multiply in storage especially in damaged grain stored slightly damp. Adults are 2.1-3.5 mm in length, light brown in colour, parallel sided and elongate in shape. Optimum conditions for development are about 27°C and 80% R.H.. In maize, infestation begins in the field and continues to develop in storage. The adult beetles will readily fly and have been collected at heights of 70–170m above ground.
Entry potential:- High on maize sourced from areas where insect is common, small size and similarity to established species such as Ahasverus advena means species could easily be overlooked.
Establishment potential:- High, lives in similar environmental conditions to those found in Australia and has a wide host range. Likely to be able to thrive in summer cropping areas (eg northern NSW, south-eastern Qld) producing maize and sorghum.
Spread potential:- High, species very active and is a strong flier.
Economic importance: When it occurs in a crop this species can be numerically the most numerous storage insect present, considerable populations have been found infesting grain in storage, especially if grain is slightly damp. This species is likely to become an environmental pest owing to its ability to infest a wide range of ripening seeds.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (High).
References:

Anon (1979) Stored Grain Insects. Agriculture Handbook No. 500, USDA, Washington DC : USA, 57pp.


Dobie, P., Haines, C.P., Hodges, R.J., Prevett, P.F. (Eds) (1984) Insects and Arachnids of Tropical Stored Products, Their Biology and Identification (A Training Manual). Tropical Development and Research Institute, Berks : United Kingdom, 273 pp.
Halstead, D.G.H. (1993) Keys for the identification of beetles associated with stored products II. Laemophloediae, Passandridae and Silvanidae. Journal of Stored Product Research 29: 99-197.


6.20 Caulophilus oryzae (Gyllenhal) : broadnosed grain weevil



Species: Caulophilus oryzae (Gyllenhal, 1838) [Coleoptera : Curculionidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Rhyncolus oryzae Gyllenhal, 1898; Rhyncolus launi Gyllenhal, 1838; Caulophilus sculptunatus; Caulophilus pinguis; Caulophilus latinagus; Caulophilus latinasus Say, 1831
Common names(s): broadnosed grain weevil.
Hosts: maize, ginger, yams, avocado (seeds).
Part of plant affected: seeds.
Distribution: USA, (southern - Georgia, south Carolina, Florida), central America, West Indies.
Biology:
Life history:- A pest which attacks ripening crops before harvest. Can continue infesting grain in store if grain moisture content remains high. Adults are small and dark brown and can be recognised by their short rostrum and 9-segmented antennae. The species is unable to breed in dry, hard, uninjured grain but does attack soft or damaged grain or grain that is damaged by other insect. Adults are strong fliers and fly to the ripening maize crop and infest the grain before harvest. Adults live for an average of 5 months and females lay between 200-300 small white eggs usually in broken grains. In optimum conditions the life cycle can be completed in one month.
Entry potential:- Low in clean dry grain in good condition, minimal if grain is sourced from areas where insect is not found, risk increases with moisture content and quantity of admixture and damaged grains.
Establishment potential:- High, Australia has similar environmental conditions to this species’ home range where crops susceptible to this pest are grown. It is most likely to be able to establish in warm humid summer cropping areas eg. northern NSW and Qld.
Spread potential:- Medium, the species can fly.
Economic importance: Can be an important pest of ripening crops in south-eastern USA and can continue in storage if grain is kept damp.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (Medium).
References:

Anon (1979) Stored Grain Insects. Agriculture handbook No. 500, USDA, Washington DC : USA, 57pp.


Dobie, P., Haines, C.P., Hodges, R.J., Prevett, P.F. and Rees D.P. (Eds) (1991) Insects and Arachnids of Tropical Stored Products, Their Biology and Identification (A Training Manual). Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent : United Kingdom, 246 pp.
Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia


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