Of a proposal for the importation of feed grain maize




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6.110 Trogoderma inclusum LeConte : large cabinet beetle



Species: Trogoderma inclusum LeConte, 1854 [Coleoptera : Dermestidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Trogoderma versicolor sensu auct. Brit not (Creutzer, 1799); sometimes confused with Trogoderma versicolor (Creutzer).
Common names(s): large cabinet beetle, mottled dermestid.
Hosts: Wide range of stored products, including raw grains and processed foods, under bark, dead insects, bird and insect nests
Part of plant affected: seeds and other dried plant and animal material.
Distribution: Canada, USA, Europe, Mediterranean region, former USSR, India.
Biology:
Life history:- T. inclusum can live in natural habitats such as bird and insect nests and these can act as a source of infestation. Adults are to 2-4 mm in length, with shining black cuticle and a moderate clothing of fine hairs on the dorsal surface. Larvae are hairy and light brown in colour. The adults are short lived and the females lay about 100 eggs. Development can take place between 20-40°C. Under favourable conditions the entire life cycle may take as little as 50 days at 30°C and 70% R.H. T. inclusum is very tolerant of low relative humidities. If conditions are unfavourable larvae can enter diapause during which they can survive more than a year without food.
Entry potential:- High, larvae in particular often conceal themselves in cracks and crevices and can be difficult to detect. Risk of entry highest in mixed feeds, processed commodities or in grain in poor condition with significant admixture of other material.
Establishment potential:- High, can breed on a variety of stored foodstuffs and also capable of establishing in the natural environment.
Spread potential:- High, easily spread by movement of infested material in trade. Adults can fly.
Economic importance: In Canada this species is the most frequently encountered species of Trogoderma infesting stored produce. Larval skins are highly allergenic. Presence of any Trogoderma species can lead to trade difficulties in its own right or due to its close similarity to the khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium. It is a quarantine pest in Australia under existing legislation. Similar in appearance to some native non-pest Trogoderma species.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (High).
References:

Anon (1979) Stored Grain Insects. Agriculture handbook No. 500, USDA, Washington DC : USA, 57pp.


Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.
Hinton, H. (1945) A Monograph of the Beetles Associated with Stored Products. Vol. 1. British Museum : London, 443 pp.
Kingsolver J.M. (1991) Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera) in: Gorham, J. R. Ed (1991) Insects and mite pests in food, an illustrated key, USDA Agriculture handbook no. 655. Washington DC : USA


6.111 Trogoderma ornatum (Say) : ornate cabinet beetle



Species: Trogoderma ornatum (Say, 1825) [Coleoptera : Dermestidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Megatoma ornata Say, 1825; Trogoderma tarsale Melsheimer, 1844; Trogoderma pallipes Ziegler, 1845; Trogoderma pusilla Leconte, 1854; Eucnocerus anthrenoides Sharp, 1902.
Common names(s): ornate cabinet beetle.
Hosts: Wide range of stored products, including raw grains and processed foods, under bark, dead insects, bird and insect nests.
Part of plant affected: seeds and other dried plant and animal material.
Distribution: North and central America, Hawaii.
Biology:
Life history:- T. ornatum can live in natural habitats such as dead animals, bird and insect nests and these can act as a source of infestation. Adults are 1.6-4 mm in length with shining black cuticle which has large red-brown markings on the pronotum and elytra. The dorsal surface is densely clothed with dark brown, golden and white setae which are arranged in patterns. Adults are short lived. Larvae are hairy and light brown in colour.
Entry potential:- High, larvae in particular often conceal themselves in cracks and crevices and can be difficult to detect. Risk of entry highest in mixed feeds, processed commodities or in grain in poor condition with significant admixture of other material.
Establishment potential:- High, can breed on a variety of stored foodstuffs and also capable of establishing in the natural environment.
Spread potential:- High, easily spread by movement of infested material in trade. Adults can fly.
Economic importance: T. ornatum is an occasional inhabitant of stored produce. Larval skins are highly allergenic. It is most able to thrive under conditions of poor hygiene. It is unlikely to be a major pest of clean dry grain in good condition. While adult beetles can be distinguished from Trogoderma granarium, larvae are very similar in appearance to some native non-pest Trogoderma species.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (Medium).
References:

Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.


Hinton, H. (1945) A Monograph of the Beetles Associated with Stored Products. Vol. 1. British Museum : London, 443 pp.
Kingsolver J.M. (1991) Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera) in: Gorham, J. R. Ed (1991) Insects and mite pests in food, an illustrated key, USDA Agriculture handbook no. 655. Washington DC : USA.


6.112 Trogoderma variabile Ballion : warehouse beetle



Species: Trogoderma variabile Ballion, 1878 [Coleoptera : Dermestidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Trogoderma parabile Beal, 1954
Common names(s): warehouse beetle.
Hosts: Wide range of stored products, including raw grains and processed foods, under bark, dead insects, bird and insect nests.
Part of plant affected: seeds and other dried plant and animal material.
Distribution: Northern Hemisphere (holarctic), Australia (wheat belt areas, under official control in WA).
Biology:
Life history:- T. variabile can live in natural habitats such as bird and insect nests and these can act as a source of infestation. Adults are 2-4 mm in length, with weakly patterned brown cuticle and a moderate clothing of fine hairs on the dorsal surface. Larvae are hairy and light brown in colour. The adults are short lived and the females lay about 100+ eggs. Development can take place between 17-37°C. Under favourable conditions the entire life cycle may take as little as 30 days at 30°C. T. varibile is very tolerant of low relative humidities. If conditions are unfavourable larvae can enter diapause during which they can survive more than a year without food.
Entry potential:- High, larvae in particular often conceal themselves in cracks and crevices and can be difficult to detect. Risk of entry highest in mixed feeds, processed commodities or in grain in poor condition with significant admixture of other material.
Establishment potential:- High, can breed on a variety of stored foodstuffs and also capable of establishing in the natural environment.
Spread potential:- High, easily spread by movement of infested material in trade. Adults can fly.
Economic importance: A minor to important pest of a wide range of stored produce. A very persistent pest of storage structures once infested. It appears capable of breeding on clean well managed commodities and in eastern Australia is becoming a pest of bulk stored canola. Presence of any Trogoderma species can lead to trade difficulties in its own right or due to its close similarity to the khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (High).
References:

Anon (1979) Stored Grain Insects. Agriculture Handbook No. 500, USDA, Washington DC : USA, 57pp.


Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.
Hinton, H. (1945) A Monograph of the Beetles Associated with Stored Products. Vol. 1. British Museum : London, 443 pp.
Kingsolver J.M. (1991) Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera) in: Gorham, J. R. Ed (1991) Insects and mite pests in food, an illustrated key, USDA Agriculture Handbook no. 655. Washington DC : USA.
Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia


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