Species: Trigonogenius globulus Solier, 1849 [Coleoptera : Ptinidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common name(s): globular spider beetle
Distribution: Canada, USA, Australia
Entry potential: n/a, already present in Australia
Economic Importance: scavenger and inhabitant of residues and bird nests.
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine
Aitken, A. D (1975) Insect Travellers, Volume I: Coleoptera, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office
Voucher Specimens in Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra
6.108 Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst) : glaberous cabinet beetle
Species: Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst, 1783) [Coleoptera: Dermestidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Anthrenus glaber Herbst, 1783; Trogoderma boron Beal, 1954.
Common names(s): glaberous cabinet beetle.
Hosts: Wide range of stored products, including raw grains and processed foods, under bark, dead insects, bird and insect nests.
Part of plant affected: seeds and other dried plant and animal material.
Distribution: USA, Mexico, Canada, Europe, Caucasus, Kazakhstan, S. Siberia.
Life history:- T. glabrum often lives in natural habitats such as bird and insect nests and these can act as a source of infestation. This species is however capable of developing on grain alone. Adults are to 24 mm in length, with shining black cuticle and a moderate clothing of fine hairs on the dorsal surface. Larvae are hairy and light brown in colour. The adults are short lived and the females lay between 60-80 eggs. Under favourable conditions the entire life cycle may take as little as 28–32 days at 32°C and 70% R.H. T. glabrum is very tolerant of low relative humidities.
Entry potential:- High, larvae in particular often conceal themselves in cracks and crevices and can be difficult to detect. Risk of entry highest in mixed feeds, processed commodities or in grain in poor condition with significant admixture of other material.
Establishment potential:- High, can breed on a variety of stored foodstuffs and also capable of establishing in the natural environment.
Spread potential:- Low, would be mostly dependant on movement of infested material in trade.
Economic importance: In Canada it regarded as a minor pest. In the USA it is sometimes found infesting stored whole grains. It is best known as a pest of mixed animal feeds. Larval skins are highly allergenic. Presence of any Trogoderma species can lead to trade difficulties in its own right or due to its close similarity to the khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium. It is a quarantineable pest in Australia under existing legislation. Similar in appearance to native non-pest Trogoderma species.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (High).
Anon (1979) Stored Grain Insects. Agriculture Handbook No. 500, USDA, Washington DC : USA, 57pp.
Arbogast, R.T. (1991) Beetles: Coleoptera In: Gorham, J.R. (Ed.) (1991) Ecology and management of food-industry pests. FDA Technical Bulletin 4, AOAC, Arlington, Virginia : USA.
Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.
Hinton, H. (1945) A Monograph of the Beetles Associated with Stored Products. Vol. 1. British Museum : London, 443 pp.
Kingsolver J.M. (1991) Dermestid beetles (Dermestidae, Coleoptera) In: Gorham, J. R. Ed (1991) Insects and mite pests in food, an illustrated key, USDA Agriculture Handbook no. 655. Washington DC : USA.
6.109 Trogoderma granarium Everts : khapra beetle
Species: Trogoderma granarium Everts, 1898 [Coleoptera : Dermestidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Trogoderma khapra Arrow, 1917
Common names(s): khapra beetle.
Hosts: It will infest almost any dried material of plant origin, including raw grains, herbs, spices and processed foods. This species has a lower requirement for proteinacous food than other pest Trogoderma and will thrive on cereal grain. Because of its habit as a larvae of seeking refuges under adverse conditions it can be found in a wide range of situations where there is no obvious food source. This includes packing materials and almost any dry cargo.
Part of plant affected: seeds and other dried plant material.
Distribution: Established as pest in north and west Africa, eastern Mediterranean, SE Turkey, Middle East, SW Asia, northern areas of Indian subcontinent and Myanmar. Recently become established or introduced into parts of the Philippines, peninsular Malaysia, Irian Jaya, Taiwan, southern Russia, and central Asian republics. Intercepted and possibly also established in areas bordering these regions. In Japan, Korea and parts of western and northern Europe is has been recorded in the past as a specialised pest of hot dry grains, in particular in maltings. In these areas it has either been eradicated or has largely disappeared as an important pest due to changes in commodity management. Formerly established in SW USA and nearby parts of Mexico. These populations appear to have been officially eradicated. Recorded from Venezuela but status there is unclear. Formerly present in South Africa, where population appears to have died out, however status in other countries of southern Africa is currently unclear.
Intercepted in the above mentioned countries and others infesting traded materials or vessels transporting them. Vessels trading between countries where T. granarium is absent may nevertheless be carriers of active infestations of this pest in locations such as ship’s stores and grain cargo residues. Diapausing larvae may seek a multitude of locations.
Life history:- T. granarium is typically a pest of hot dry climates or of commodities stored elsewhere in hot dry conditions. Under such conditions it can become the dominant pest. While it breeds more rapidly under hot humid conditions it is rarely found under such conditions. T. granarium is thought not to compete well with faster breeding pests such as Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera : Bostrichidae). In conditions where these pests are a major problem T. granarium is either absent or a minor component of the pest complex.
Adults are 1.8 - 3 mm in length, with brown cuticle and a moderate clothing of fine hairs on the dorsal surface. Females are bigger than males. Larvae are hairy and light brown in colour. The adults are short lived and the females lay about 100+ eggs. Development can take place between 22-41°C. Under favourable conditions the entire life cycle may take as little as 5 weeks at 33-37°C, 45-75% r.h. T. granarium is very tolerant of low relative humidities.
If conditions are unfavourable, larvae can enter diapause during which they can survive several years without food. In such a state larvae are very hard to kill with pesticides and fumigants.
Entry potential:- High, larvae in particular often conceal themselves in cracks and crevices and can be difficult to detect. Can occur in almost any stored commodity. Can be very persistent as pest of storage structures, handling machinery and transport vessels. Larvae can wander into and be transported in diapause in almost any dry cargo.
Establishment potential:- High, can breed on a variety of stored foodstuffs. Climatic conditions in much of Australia appear suitable for this insect.
Spread potential:- High, T. granarium is largely dependent on being spread by movement of infested material or transport. Larvae can be wind blown or carried on clothing, tarps and sacking. Unlike other storage Trogoderma species, adults of T. granarium do not fly.
Economic importance: One of the most feared pests of stored products - an important pest of a wide range of stored produce, especially if stored under hot dry conditions. It is very persistent pest of structures and transport vessels. Establishment of this pest in Australia would likely lead to loss of market for Australian produce as this insect is a regulated quarantine pest in many countries.
Quarantine status: Quarantine (High).
Rees, D.P. and Banks, H.J. (1998) The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), a quarantine pest of stored products: review of biology, distribution, monitoring and control. A report prepared for the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS). CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia, 48pp.