Of a proposal for the importation of feed grain maize




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6.103 Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) : red flour beetle



Species: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst,1797) [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Colydium castaneum Herbst, 1797; Tenebrio castaneus Schonhegr, 1806; Phaleria castanea Gyllenhal, 1810; Uloma ferruginea Dejann, 1821; Tribolium castaneum MacLeay, 1825; Margus castaneus Dejean, 1833; Stene ferruginea Westwood, 1839; Tribolium ferrugineum Wollaston, 1854
Common name(s): red flour beetle, rust red flour beetle
Distribution: North America, Australia
Entry potential: n/a, present in Australia
Economic Importance: important pest of cereal grain and their products
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine
References:

Rees, D.P. (1994) Insects of Stored Grain - a Pocket Reference. Stored Grain Research Laboratory, CSIRO Entomology : Canberra.


Greening, H.G. (1985) Insect pests of stored grain. AGFACTS P1.AE.1, NSW Department of Agriculture, Agdex 100/615
Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia


6.104 Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duVal : confused flour beetle



Species: Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duVal, 1868 [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Tribolium ferrugineum Mulsant; T. (Stene) confusum Seidlitz, 1891
Common name(s): confused flour beetle
Distribution: North America, Australia
Entry potential: n/a, present in Australia
Economic Importance: important pest of cereal grain and their products
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine
References:

Greening, H.G. (1985) Insect pests of stored grain. AGFACTS P1.AE.1, NSW Department of Agriculture, Agdex 100/615


Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia


6.105 Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart : Large flour beetle



Species: Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart, 1933 [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common names(s): Large flour beetle.
Hosts: milled cereals, oilseeds, pulses, dried fruit, poultry feed.
Part of plant affected: seeds.
Distribution: Canada, USA, Asia, Europe, subtropical regions, cool areas in the tropics (Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Kenya). In Canada it is found ‘coast to coast’.
Biology:
Life history:- A secondary pest of cereal grains. This species tends to be associated with poor storage conditions, especially inadequate hygiene and high commodity moisture content. It does not multiply rapidly on whole undamaged grain. Can be found living under bark of trees. Adults are 5-6 mm long and black to very dark brown in colour. The optimum temperature for development is 25°C and eggs do not hatch above 30°C. Recorded breeding at very low humidities of 10% R.H. The species does not tolerate very cold conditions of 5°C or less. Larvae and adults are general feeders being also cannibalistic and predatory. Eggs are laid at random, are sticky, and become coated with flour and other particles. Larvae are active and move through the food. Pupae are naked and found amongst the food. The adults and larvae feed on cereals and their products. Infestation leads to persistent disagreeable odours in the commodity due to the secretion of benzoquinones from a pair of abdominal defence glands..
Entry potential:- Low in clean dry grain in good condition, risk increases with moisture content and quantity of admixture and damaged grains.
Establishment potential:- High, has a wide range of hosts and is able to colonise natural habitats.
Spread potential:- Low, spread is dependent on passive transport in grain as the species does not appear to fly.
Economic importance: This species is usually seen in mills and places where milled products are used. In Canada it is sometimes as important as Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (Medium).
References:

Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.


Dobie, P., Haines, C.P., Hodges, R.J., Prevett, P.F. and Rees D.P. (Eds) (1991) Insects and Arachnids of Tropical Stored Products, Their Biology and Identification (A Training Manual). Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent : United Kingdom, 246 pp.
Mound, L. (Ed.) (1989) Common Insect Pests of Stored Food Products - A Guide to Their Identification, 7th Edition. British Museum (Natural History) : London, 68 pp.
Sokoloff, A .(1974) The biology of Tribolium – with special emphasis on genetic aspects. Vol 2, Clarendon press, Oxford : UK, 610pp.


6.106 Tribolium madens (Charpentier) : black flour beetle



Species: Tribolium madens (Charpentier, 1825) [Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Tenebrio madens; Uloma madens Krynicki, 1832; Margus obscurus
Common names(s): black flour beetle.
Hosts: grain, flour, pollen.
Part of plant affected: seeds, stored products.
Distribution: Canada, USA, Europe. This species appears to have recently become established in North America, first being recorded in about 1981.
Biology:
Life history:- A secondary pest of cereal grains. Previously confused with T. audax. Eggs are laid at random, are sticky, and become coated with flour and other particles. Larvae are active and move through the food. Pupae are naked and found amongst the food. The adults and larvae feed on cereals and their products. Larvae and adults are general feeders being also cannibalistic and predatory. Heavy infestation can leave persistent disagreeable odours in the commodity due to the secretion of benzoquinones from abdominal glands of the adult.
Entry potential:- Low in clean dry grain in good condition even from areas where insect is present, risk increases with moisture content and quantity of admixture and damaged grains.
Establishment potential:- High, especially in mills, its recent establishment in North America demonstrates the ability of this insect to establish itself in new environments.
Spread potential:- Low, spread is dependent on passive transport in grain as the species does not appear to fly.
Economic importance: In North America it is thought that this species could become a significant pest of flour mills.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (Medium).
References:

Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.


Becker, E.C. (1982) The European Tribolium madens (Charpentier) in North America (Tenebrionidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 36: 166–169.
Sokoloff, A .(1974) The biology of Tribolium – with special emphasis on genetic aspects. Vol 2, Clarendon press, Oxford : UK, 610pp.
References: Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia


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