Of a proposal for the importation of feed grain maize




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6.99 Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) : common clothes moth



Species: Tineola bisselliella (Hummel, 1823) [Lepidoptera : Tineidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Tinea bisselliella Hummel 1823; Tinea destructor Stephens 1825; Tinea crinella Sodoffsky, 1830; Tinea lanariella Clemens, 1859; Tinea furciferella Zagulajev, 1954
Common name(s): common clothes moth
Distribution: USA, Australia
Entry potential: n/a, present in Australia
Economic Importance: scavanger which feeds on wool, feathers, bird nests, incidental in grain
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine
References:

Nielsen, E.D., Edwards, E.D., Rangsi, T.V. (Eds)(1996). Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Melbourne : CSIRO Publishing, Australia 529pp.


Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia


6.100 Tortricidae spp. : budworms



Species: Tortricidae spp. [Lepidoptera]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common name(s): budworms.
Distribution: worldwide including Australia.
Vector Status: recorded as vector of Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis) Dye 1964.
Entry potential - n/a, not on pathway. Budworms are pests of growing plants where they get the name because they eat buds and/or growing tips. The tortricids are a family containing many species whose larvae bore in a variety of plant parts such as shoots, stems, fruit or which eat leaves. Not found on or in dry grains.
Establishment potential - High, similar species native to Australia.
Spread potential - High.
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine.
References:

Hill, D.S. (1994). Agricultural Entomology. Timber Press, Portland : Oregon, p409, pp: 440-445.




6.101 Tribolium audax Halstead : American black flour beetle



Species: Tribolium audax Halstead, 1969 [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common names(s): American black flour beetle.
Hosts: stored cereals and cereal products, granaries, flour and feed mills, retail stores, warehouses, rail cars also under bark, and in bees nests.
Part of plant affected: Seeds and products therefrom.
Distribution: Canada, USA. In USA said to occur in greatest numbers in Rocky Mountain states.
Biology:
Life history:- A widespread minor pest of stored cereals. This species is not often found in injurious numbers in stored grain. Eggs are laid at random in the commodity. Larvae are active and move through the food. Pupation occurs amongst the food. Both adults and larvae feed on cereals and their products, they are also cannibalistic and predatory. Heavy infestation can leave persistent disagreeable odours in the commodity due to the secretion of benzoquinones from abdominal glands of the adult. The species is very cold tolerant, recorded to survive up to 15 days at -15°C. In natural conditions the species lives under the bark of pine trees and has been found in the nests of a bee Megachile rotundata (Fabricius). This bee is being imported in Australia.
Entry potential:- Low in clean dry grain in good condition, risk increases with moisture content and quantity of admixture and damaged grains.
Establishment potential:- High, has a wide range of hosts and is able to colonise natural habitats.
Spread potential:- Low, spread is mainly dependent on transport in grain.
Economic importance: In Canada and the USA this species is generally less important a pest than Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (Medium).
References:

Anon (1979) Stored Grain Insects. Agriculture Handbook No. 500, USDA, Washington DC : USA, 57pp.


Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.
Sokoloff, A .(1974) The biology of Tribolium – with special emphasis on genetic aspects. Vol 2, Clarendon press, Oxford : UK, 610pp.
Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia


6.102 Tribolium brevicornis (LeConte) : flour beetle



Species: Tribolium brevicornis (LeConte, 1859) [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Aphanotus brevicornis LeConte, 1859
Common names(s): flour beetle
Hosts: grains, animal feeds, also found from nests of leaf cutting bees.
Part of plant affected: seeds and products therefrom.
Distribution: In North America, known from Western Canada and USA.
Biology:
Life history:- Likely natural habitat for this species is under bark of trees. Eggs are laid at random in the commodity. Larvae are active and move through the food. Pupation occurs amongst the food. Both adults and larvae feed on cereals and their products, they are also cannibalistic and predatory. Heavy infestation can leave persistent disagreeable odours in the commodity due to the secretion of benzoquinones from abdominal glands of the adult.
Entry potential:- Low in clean dry grain in good condition, risk increases with moisture content and quantity of admixture and damaged grains.
Establishment potential:- High, has a wide range of hosts and able to colonise natural habitats.
Spread potential:- Low, spread is dependent on passive transport in grain as the species does not appear to fly.
Economic importance: a minor pest of stored grain.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (Low - Medium).
References:

Spilmann, T.J. (1991) Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera) in: Gorham, J. R. Ed (1991) Insects and mite pests in food, an illustrated key, USDA Agriculture Handbook no. 655. Washington DC : USA.


Sokoloff, A .(1974) The biology of Tribolium – with special emphasis on genetic aspects. Vol 2, Clarendon press, Oxford : UK, 610pp.


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