Of a proposal for the importation of feed grain maize




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6.47 Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say) : picnic beetle



Species: Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say, 1835) [Coleoptera : Nitidulidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common names(s): picnic beetle, fourspotted sap beetle.
Hosts: ripening grain, fruit and vegetables.
Part of plant affected: seeds and ripening plant material
Distribution: North America, (Canada , USA), Europe, (Czechoslovakia, Britain, Croatia, Italy, Yugoslavia, Central Europe, Germany, Netherlands), former USSR.
Biology:
Life history:- This species attacks ripening crops. It is unlikely to survive and breed in dry clean grain. Development time from egg to adult takes between 40 to 60 days depending on the food source. Can survive for long periods (up to 62 days) without food if moisture is available. Peak populations occur in late summer and throughout autumn. Adults overwinter under the bark of trees. Can be a facultative predator on other insects present.
Entry potential:- Low in clean dry grain in good condition, risk increases with moisture content and quantity of admixture and damaged grains.
Establishment potential:- High, wide variety of suitable hosts present in Australia.
Spread potential:- High, adults are very active and fly well.
Economic importance: In North America can be a serious pest of ripening fruit and vegetable crops and a nuisance at picnic areas. It appears capable of spreading a number of fungal plant diseases. It is a pest of ripening grain but appears incapable of surviving in dry grain in good condition.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine (High), damp grain in poor condition may be a way this potentially important pest of fruit, vegetables and ripening grain may enter the country.
References:

Blackmer, J.L. & Phelan, P.L. (1995). Ecological analysis of Nitidulidae: seasonal occurrence, host choice and habitat preference. Journal of Applied Entomology 119: 321-329.


Bousquet, Y. (1990) Beetles Associated with Stored Grain Products in Canada : An Identification Guide. Agriculture Canada : Ottawa, 220 pp.
Foott, W.H. & Timmins, P.R. (1979) The rearing and biology of Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in the laboratory. Canadian Entomologist 111: 1337-1344.


6.48 Gnatocerus cornutus (Fabricius) : broadhorned flour beetle



Species: Gnatocerus cornutus (Fabricius, 1798) [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Trogosita cornuta Fabricius, 1798
Common name(s): broadhorned flour beetle, horned flour beetle
Distribution: North America, Australia
Entry potential: n/a, present in Australia
Economic Importance: minor pest of stored grain
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine
References:

Greening, H.G. (1985) Insect pests of stored grain. AGFACTS P1.AE.1, NSW Department of Agriculture, Agdex 100/615


Voucher Specimens in Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra
Pest Infestation Control Laboratory Library Index, Slough: UK, now known as Central Science Laboratory, York, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food: UK. Copy held in Stored Grain Research Laboratories, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia


6.49 Graminella nigrifrons (Forbes) : grass leafhopper



Species: Graminella nigrifrons (Forbes, 1885) [Hemiptera: Cicadellidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common name(s): grass leafhopper.
Distribution: USA.
Vector Status: vector of maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus and maize chlorotic dwarf waikavirus.
Entry potential - n/a, not in pathway. On growing cereals and grasses where they suck sap, not associated with grain.
Establishment potential - High, many potential hosts.
Spread potential - High.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine.
References:

Hill, D.S. (1994). Agricultural Entomology. Timber Press, Portland : Oregon, p.166.




6.50 Graminella sonora (Ball): grass leafhopper



Species: Graminella sonora (Ball) [Hemiptera: Cicadellidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common name(s): grass leafhopper.
Distribution: USA.
Vector Status: vector of maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus and maize chlorotic dwarf waikavirus.
Entry potential - very low, not in pathway. On growing cereals and grasses where they suck sap, not associated with grain.
Establishment potential - High, many potential hosts
Spread potential - High.
Quarantine Status: Quarantine.
References:

Hill, D.S. (1994). Agricultural Entomology. Timber Press, Portland : Oregon, p.166.




6.51 Henoticus spp.



Species: Henoticus spp. [Coleoptera : Cryptophagidae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy:
Common name(s):
Distribution: North America, Australia
Entry potential: n/a, genus probably present in Australia
Economic Importance: mould feeder, not a pest of clean dry grain
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine
References:

Aitken, A. D (1975) Insect Travellers, Volume I: Coleoptera, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office




6.52 Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Stainton) : brown house moth



Species: Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Stainton, 1849) [Lepidoptera : Oecophoridae]
Synonyms or changes in combination or taxonomy: Oecophora pseudospretella Stainton, 1849; Litoides punctipinguinella Bruand, 1856; Gelechia improbella Walker, 1869
Common name(s): brown house moth
Distribution: North America, Australia
Entry potential: n/a, present in Australia
Economic Importance: occasional inhabitant of crop residues
Quarantine Status: Non-Quarantine
References:

Nielsen, E.D., Edwards, E.D., Rangsi, T.V. (Eds)(1996). Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Melbourne : CSIRO Publishing, Australia 529pp.




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