PEST RISK ANALYSIS
OF A PROPOSAL FOR
THE IMPORTATION OF
FEED GRAIN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS)
FROM THE USA
ARTHROPOD PEST RISK ANALYSIS
ARTHROPOD TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP
Chair: Dr Bob Ikin, AQIS, Canberra
Ms Alison Roach, AQIS, Canberra
Mr David Rees, Stored Grain Research Laboratory, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra
Dr Jonathan Banks, Stored Grain Research Laboratory, CSIRO Entomology, Canberra
PEST RISK ANALYSIS OF A PROPOSAL FOR THE IMPORTATION OF
FEED GRAIN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) FROM THE USA
ARTHROPOD PEST RISK ANALYSIS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 3
2. INTRODUCTION 3
3. METHODOLOGY 3
4. RISK IDENTIFICATION 5
5. PROPOSED PEST RISK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS 6
6. APPENDIX 1: BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ARTHROPOD PESTS ASSOCIATED WITH STORED MAIZE GRAIN AND ADMIXTURE GRAIN COMMODITIES AND ARTHROPOD PESTS KNOWN TO VECTOR MAIZE DISEASES IN NORTH AMERICA. 9
7. APPENDIX 2: TABLE 1: QUARANTINE STATUS OF PESTS ASSOCIATED WITH STORED MAIZE GRAIN AND ADMIXTURE GRAIN COMMODITIES AND ARTHROPOD PESTS KNOWN TO VECTOR MAIZE DISEASES IN NORTH AMERICA. 83
Mike Jefferies for assistance with research and Gina Pitsivoris for assistance with research and editing.
The following pest risk initiation and assessment process of the pest risk analysis (PRA) was conducted in accordance with the relevant International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) (i.e. Reference Standard, Principles of Plant Quarantine as Related to International Trade ISPM No. 1 FAO, 1995; Part 1-Import Regulations, Guidelines for Pest Risk Analysis ISPM No. 2 FAO, 1996; and other standards being developed by the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations).
The PRA covers insect, mite and mollusc pests being in the grain post harvest pathway (principally stored maize grain) in North America (Canada, USA, and Mexico). Insect, mite and mollusc pests of the plant, such as stems, leaves and roots, were not considered in the analysis due to the extremely different environments present between field and storage, and the fact that very few pests are capable of surviving in both environments. The species which do exist in both field and storage were included in the analysis. Also included in the analysis are 19 arthropod pests identified by the Disease Technical Working Group which are present in North America and are known to vector maize diseases. Due to the nature of trade in grain between Canada, USA, and Mexico, and the fact that common railcars and transport are used between all three countries, arthropod pests of stored maize grain from North America as a whole have been included in the analysis. In addition, the use of common railcars and storage facilities in North America increases the likelihood of admixture of other grain commodities. For this reason, common pests of possible admixture commodities have also been included in the analysis.
The risk analysis process took into account factors such as the biology, host range, distribution, entry potential, establishment potential, spread potential and economic damage potential of pests capable of feeding and breeding on stored grains in North America and Australia. Species and genera considered, their distribution in North America and Australia, and their quarantine status in Australia are listed in Appendix 2 (Table 1: Quarantine Status of Pests Associated with Stored Maize Grain and Admixture Grain Commodities in North America (Canada, USA and Mexico)).
The risk analysis identified 14 pests of concern to Australia that have a significant risk of being associated with maize grain from the USA and are capable of breeding in stored grain (List 1A). A further 2 pests were identified that are pests of ripening plants and vegetables that have a significant risk of being associated with damp stored maize grain (List 1B). Two additional pests were identified as having a significant risk if infestable pulses were present in admixture with maize grain from the USA (List 1C). The total of 18 pests satisfy the IPPC definition of a quarantine pest and have been classified as quarantine pests for Australia.
An additional pest, Trogoderma granarium Everts, the khapra beetle, was identified as being of concern to Australia (List 1D). T. granarium is not established in North America and is a legislated pest in the USA. However, it is possible for this species to be present in ships used for grain transport and interceptions have been recorded via this pathway. T. granarium is a serious pest of stored produce, is a legislated pest in Australia and has therefore been included in this analysis.
List 1: Quarantine pests for Australia with a significant risk of being associated with maize grain from the USA
a: Pests which are capable of breeding in stored grain
Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin-Méneville, 1829) [Coleoptera : Silvanidae]
Caulophilus oryzae (Gyllenhal, 1838) [Coleoptera : Curculionidae]
Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle, 1876) [Coleoptera : Laemophloeidae]
Cynaeus angustus (Le Conte, 1852) [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Pharaxanotha kirschi Reitter, 1875 [Coleoptera : Languriidae]
Prostephanus truncatus (Horn, 1878) [Coleoptera : Bostrichidae]
Tribolium audax Halstead, 1969 [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Tribolium brevicornis (LeConte, 1859) [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Tribolium destructor Uyttenboogaart, 1933 [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Tribolium madens (Charpentier, 1825) [Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae]
Trogoderma glabrum (Herbst, 1783) [Coleoptera : Dermestidae]
Trogoderma inclusum LeConte, 1854 [Coleoptera : Dermestidae]
Trogoderma ornatum (Say, 1825) [Coleoptera : Dermestidae]
Trogoderma variabile Ballion 1878 [Coleoptera : Dermestidae]
b: Pests associated with damp maize grain from the USA
Glischrochilus fasciatus (Olivier, 1790) [Coleoptera : Nitidulidae]
Glischrochilus quadrisignatus (Say, 1835) [Coleoptera : Nitidulidae]
c: Pests associated with infestable pulses
Callosobruchus chinensis (Linnaeus 1758) [Coleoptera : Bruchidae]
Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman 1833) [Coleoptera : Bruchidae]
d: Additional pests of quarantine concern for Australia
Trogoderma granarium Everts, 1898 [Coleoptera : Dermestidae]
Data sheets for these insects detailing their biological properties, extent of host range, potential impact and difficulty of detection are given in Appendix 1 (Biological Assessment of Arthropod Pests Associated with Stored Maize Grain and Admixture Grain Commodities and Arthropod Pests Known to Vector Maize Diseases in North America).